A systematic approach makes it possible to discover new ways of investigating the question of family-marriage problems. Through systematic approach the family is considered not from the point of individual elements’ qualities, but from the point of system’s qualities, which appear as a result of elements’ interaction. Once appeared, these qualities obtain the influence on other elements. In this way, system’s elements’ interaction becomes the key determinant parameter for system’s qualities. The three family systems: traditional, nuclear and individual- are considered within the scope of the systematic approach. Each of the mentioned types is defined by the presence of an over-systematic system-forming principle and orientation on existing cultural models or by their absence. Traditional and nuclear family types have certain patterns of interactions, worked out during the evolution. The third marked out type of family organization is still going through its establishment and development stages. The systematic approach within family-marriage range of problems, on the one hand, is based on epistemology of modern time, and, on the other hand, follows traditional philosophic intuitions in this field. This view allows us to prevent evaluation in description of system’s elements, shifting the attention on the dynamic constituent. This broadens the opportunities of finding modern viable family organization models.
The article presents the problems of critical discursive studies in political communication. In particular, the authors demonstrate the methods and strategies of administration through constructing authoritative metanarrative. Media institutions of linguistic (cultural) domination, according to the authors, ensure the stability of the existing hierarchical order and express the fundamental "will to power" in practice of public relations. The nature of domination is manifested in the tightening of control and regulation of communicative actions of citizens almost at the level of generation text and speech. The power authorities (the linguistic ones) in the modern context are not satisfied with the control of discourse as a social practice; they are increasingly interested in the process of subjectification (individualization) of the perception experience. Power wants to control texts and speech products in the media space, and also it sees itself as a generator of the subject's inner experience. The transformation of people into subjects is in essence a special way of representing them in the modern public legal space. The authors believe, that turning to the verbal technique of parresia, allows you to see alternative ways of self-constitution and self-presentation that existed in the traditional consciousness. The socio-cognitive nature of symbolic politics is considered in the general context of the development of the sociology of knowledge as a promising area of social humanitaristics. The authors carried out an analysis of the forms and mechanisms of the discursive reproduction of the elite power taking into account rich research experience of the Western theory of political communication.
Since 2009 the “Novosibirsk Model of the United Nations” at the Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management has been held by the Department of the World Economy, International Relations and Law as an important methodological and practical element of education in International Relations, International Regional Studies and the World Economy. The experience of modeling the activities of the United Nations is important for students to understand how the decision-making process in modern international system works and why in international relations everything is not going as well as we would like, but not as bad as it could be. The round table discussed the role of the UN in the modern world, the history of the organization and the contradictions, put in the basement by its founders when it emerged; the causes of the current UN crisis and the prospects for its elimination; the role of the UN in the past and present armed conflicts; in ensuring international security and protecting human rights; the United Nations activities in the field of the world economy on the example of the UN Global Compact on Social Responsibility, as well as other issues related to international relations at the present stage. It is noted that in the ordinary mind the expectations of the UN are extremely high. The UN has formed the image of a powerful and influential organization, the world government,
The article presents a sociophilosophical analysis of the problem of identity formation in contemporary society with its systemic transitional character. The idea of complex identity formation in sociospatial form is put forward and substantiated. Identity types, presented as a hierarchical structure in some conceptions, are positioned as components of sociospatial identity. Due to highly dynamic social changes and processes the structure of sociospatial identity undergoes transformations, resulting in strengthening some components and loss of importance of the other ones. Factors, determining new identity types and transformations of the process of identification of the social actor are discussed. Major tendencies of its self-identification and their results are revealed. The most relevant of them are the following: identity fragmentation and, consequently, the breakdown of its hierarchy, transgressing the limits of national identity and formation of alternative identities (transnational, binational), strengthening of ethnic and cultural identities. Overall, the shift of identity formation from macro-social level and its dispersion to meso- and micro-social levels is established. The significance of the structure center loss is emphasized, indicating the state of chaos, which is analyzed from post-modernist viewpoint as a chance for plural identity formation in the contemporary society and, consequently, antinomic tendencies of the process. The most relevant aspects of the presented issues, requiring further empirical investigation, are identified in the conclusion.
ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATION AND SELF-ORGANIZATION AS STABILIZING FACTORS OF THE SIBERIAN SOCIETY IN THE XVII CENTURY: ETHNOSOCIAL ASPECTBerezikov N.A., Lyucidarskaya A.A., Erokhina Elena
The article is devoted to the role of self-organization as an independent fact of the ethno-social stabilization in Siberia in the XVII-th century. As a methodological basis of research the authors propose a synthesis of structural and phenomenological paradigms, which allows using such concepts as social order, management and self-organization of local Siberian ethnic communities to describe their interethnic nature. In the authors’ opinion each local community forms up in the interaction between the institutes of social organization and self-organization. Due to the fact that the central government was at a distance and Siberian population was small, the social distance between the central government and local authorities, and, in general, between the government and the local community was not that important. Many problems had to be solved on the spot and the center only legitimized the decisions and orders. The local community solved the problems in the provinces and the central authority just legitimated the decisions and orders which had been made at the local level. The situation encouraged the actors (the participants of the processes) to play their roles freely depending not only on their formal duties but also using their personal and group interests, taking into consideration practical needs and welfare of the local communities. The authors suggest a hypothesis of the importance of horizontal relations, personal status in the formation of a new social order, which was not less important than the vertical power structure.
In the article the author suggests a new approach to the problem of anomie, which manifests itself in the form of deviant behavior. In his opinion inconsistence is a prerequisite for social anomie. The main social viability criterion of an individual is the official recognition of the value and necessity of his/her activities and functions which the person performs within social institutions. The main criterion of the social inability of an individual is non-recognition of activities and functions resulting from the imbalance between the consumed and produced products of his/her activities (labor) with the disbalance in favor of the consumed. It does not matter whether the individual produces more goods required from him/her or less. The very presence of the disbalance in the amount of the products of labor generates anomie. As the result of this imbalance the individual is first gradually alienated from the labor process by the society and then from people as the subjects of social life because of that disproportion in the produced and consumed goods, which doesn’t meet socially accepted norms. The alienation of the individual causes inadequate forms of adaptive reactions in the form of deviant behavior, with the aim of social adaptation, which guarantees safety. The author singles out an individual as the subject of anomie, who is a source of deviant behavior and social institutions in which the individual is not able to socialize. Planning his further work the author outlines the plan of his investigations: to define the socio-historical stages of social institutions development, as well as to determine the involvement of individuals in the activities of those institutions.
The article considers the problem of social adaptation of personality. The author investigates social thinking from the resource approach perspective as an individual social capital of a person. The introduction presents different opinions on the theme of investigations, highlights the main problems concerning human capital in modern science and defines the methodological foundation of the research. The main part of the article is devoted to the consideration of the adaptive function of social thinking as a vital ability of a person to improve the quality of his /her life. The author presents an overview of different interpretations of the issue given by outstanding scholars S.L. Rubinsteyn, K. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, E. Fromm. They view social thinking as a functional mechanism of consciousness. Thinking can be adaptive or ineffective. This is due to the individual interpretation of certain situations. These authors have noted a greater role of consciousness and social thinking in the identification and resolution of conflicts of personality and society. The rest of the article analyses the adaptive model of social thinking, which the author calls "socio-productive thinking," the main human resource, social capital of a person. The position of the author is based on humanistic values. The author’s contribution into the development of the problem consists in investigation of the less developed aspects of the problem of human capital and interpretation of the adaptive model of social thinking as a resource of a person.
Within the concept of post-industrial society the accumulation of human capital is considered to be a major factor of accelerated economic development. Since the advent of the theory of "human capital" has been more than half a century. On the subject of many papers published. However, researchers still do not have a single point of view on the economic content of the concept of "human capital". Appeal to the essence of the category of "capital" leads to the conclusion about the illegality of the use of the term in the strict scientific terminology "human capital". The article reviews the definitions, that researchers offer to disclose the content of the concept. Analysis of the content presented definitions leads to the conclusion that in this case, refers to the human potential and the degree of its development. Within the framework of the theory of "human capital" great attention is paid to the measurement of its cost. However, the value of human potential is difficult to keep exclusively to the valuation, since the possibilities of direct measuring method does not exist in principle. In connection with this conclusion about the need for further research to develop methods to a greater extent based on qualitative rather than quantitative analysis of human potential.
Hillary Rodham Clinton, оne of the candidates in the presidential elections of 2016, received her first lessons in political philosophy and practice from the founder of a new direction in social engineering – social organizing – Saul Alinsky (1909-1972). Despite Clinon’s defeat in the recent presidential elections and the real threat of destruction of Obama’s political legacy, the philosophy of permanent revolution started by Alinsky and his package of social technologies are very much alive in American political culture. The article analyzes the lessons learned by Hilary from Alinsky during and after college that helped to form her political personality. Among these lessons were social technologies which help circumvent existing laws, democratic institutions and procedures as well as instruction in the principles and rules guiding radical activists. The article also analyzes the reasons why social technologies which helped Obama win the presidency and be reelected did not work for Clinton. The goal of the article is to look into the Clinton’s early focus on Alynsky and communications with him crucial to her political development, and to explain how Alinsky’s techniques combined with modern electronic technologies were used in her presidential campaign.
The development of society is presented as a type of its complicacy. The complicacy is shown to have two major quality parameters – the direction and nature – unified by the concept of cognature. The direction of development is determined by the hierarchy of the problems society chooses and gradates, and the nature of development is given by the methods of problem solving typical for the society. The problems, in turn, are created by the needs of a subject (an actor) and the typical methods of problem solving by its dispositions. This theory is shown to be related to classical theories of Karl Marx, Max Weber and synergetic paradigms as well. The relevance of the theory is stipulated by the growing complexity of the global situation and the multiplicity of factors influencing it. The basic problematic level of the social cognitive science is identified. It consists of relations between cognitive constructs and social phenomena. The main task of clarifying how the interaction of made decisions created by cognature of a society assembles the social reality is worded. Practical application of social cognitive science is the methodology elaboration of appraisals of the decisions to be made, the projects to be implemented at all levels, starting with the individual level up to the global one taking into account the complicacy change. The fundamental principal underlying such appraisals is not diminishing the complicacy; every decision should be both adequate to reality and not diminish its complicacy because there are reasons to suppose that simplifying reality decisions work only till the definite point, after which entropy starts growing and it ends in catastrophe.