Economy of the USSR during the initial period of the Great Patriotic War
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-267-290

The article analyzes the economic history of the USSR, covering an impor­tant period of the history of Stalin’s economic model – the initial period of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1942). The main feature of the Soviet economy during the war was that already in the first months the USSR lost control over the most developed industrial areas. This situation required fundamental reorganization ofthe structure of the economy, when its main production capabilities were used to produce military equipment at the expense of reducing the output of civilian products. The losses of the USSR economy from the occupation of part of the territory are considered and it is shown that the USSR in 1941–1942 fought Ger­many and its allies, having halved mobilization and economic potential. The arti­cle analyzes the process of transferring the economy to the war economy, which required an increase in the length of the working day and the abolition of vaca­tions, the introduction of the card system, and the relocation of plants to other territories. The structure of state administration bodies, changes in the organiza­tion of management and the position of its individual participants in it are stud­ied separately. Tables are given and analyzed, giving an idea of the volume and dynamics of production of means of production in this period, the production of non-ferrous metals, the production of consumer goods, military equipment. It is shown that due to the low quality of military production in the Red Army a huge proportion of non-combat losses, which was primarily due to unrealistic plans. The situation in agriculture is examined, where the decline in producti­vity was due to a number of reasons, including the predominant mobilization of the population from rural areas with a minimum of reservations, the almost complete cessation of supplies of mineral fertilizers and agricultural machin­ery and, consequently, a sharp decline in the mechanization of work. The situ­ation in the construction industry, in the work of railroad transport is studied. The calculation of the dynamics of national income for 1940–1942 years is given. Thus, in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War revealed the strengths of the Stalinist economic model and created in the 30-ies military-economic potential, high qualifications of the country’s leaders promoted in the last pre-war years. The greatest achievements of the Soviet economy in this period are associated with the record-breaking rapid transfer of the entire economy on military rails.

Regional Income and Consumer Expenditure Specifics of the Canadian Population
Igor Mitroshin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-291-308

In the confrontation between the global West and the global South, Russia found itself directly on the fault line. The confrontation leads to changes in the world economy, which, of course, have an impact on the standard of living ofthe population. It becomes relevant to study this influence, both in Russia and in countries that impose economic sanctions against it. This study provides a briefanalysis of household income and consumption expenditure in Canada for 2000­2022 across the provinces of the country. Based on the data obtained, a high de­gree of social support for Canadian citizens from the state was revealed, espe­cially in areas densely populated by indigenous peoples. The conditional division of the country according to the standard of living of the population into four geographical sectors is determined: northern, western, central and eastern. It has been established that throughout the entire period under review, the indicators of the standard of living of citizens in the northern provinces are the highest, and in the eastern provinces the lowest in Canada. At the same time, about two-thirds of the total population of Canada live in the eastern provinces, and the Northern provinces are very sparsely populated (less than 1% of the total popu­lation). It has been recorded that relatively high incomes and savings of the pop­ulation are not a determining factor in the country for choosing a place of resi­dence. Much depends on other indicators of the quality of life of people, as well as on the local mentality, traditions and culture.

Economic Сonsulting
Vladimir Klistorin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-251-266

The article discusses the reasons and motivations behind the demand for consulting services. Particular attention is paid to the motivation of managers ofenterprises, organizations and government agencies who resort to the services of external consultants when they have a large number of their own specialists and advisors. On the basis of the analysis of scientic literature and our own modest experience we draw conclusions that economic consulting is associated with a number of threats and risks both for the consulted organization and for the consultant himself. For enterprises of organizations and state structures the main threat is that, following standard models and schemes, one can miss spe­cic features of the external environment and internal organization of the ob­ject. In addition, recommendations may be implemented incompletely, formal­ly or partially, which may lead to undesirable results. For a consultant, the main threats are conicts of interest and allegations of corruption and insider trading of information. Innovative solutions are the most effective, but at the same time the most risk. Choosing the right consultant and ensuring their competence andindependence is a particular challenge. Therefore, the relationship between the consultant and the client is no less important than the tools and technology ofhis work in the process of making recommendations. Consulting of state struc­tures has a number of peculiarities, the main of which are the hierarchical nature of construction, latent doctrines of departments, motivation of managers and planning horizon of the manager. Economic counseling allows the researcher to get a unique experience that can be used in further work.

Event-Based Ontological Model of Economic Relations
Alexei Kovalev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-309-332

The paper examines the issue of the development of ontologies in the eco­nomic domain. The essential role of ontologies in the digitalization of the econ­omy is determined. The author considers the origin of ontologies in philos­ophy and the transition of ontologies from philosophy to computer science. The paper shows the growth of semantic content and the range of applications of ontologies as they develop. Ontologies in computer science have grown from the tasks of forming a thesaurus to the issues of forming semantic models ofsubject areas, which makes them close, in terms of generality and depth of ap­proach, to philosophical ontologies. Currently, there are a sufficient number of successful examples of the use of information ontologies, nevertheless, these achievements are disproportionately less than the potential inherent in ontolo­gies. In addition, there is a decrease in interest in ontologies and the number ofstudies. To determine the reasons for this, the concepts underlying the formation of ontologies are considered. The most promising set of concepts for the forma­tion of ontology in the economic subject field is proposed. It is determined that one of the reasons for the insufficient development of ontologies is the insuffi­cient elaboration of the concepts of ‘economic cell’ and ‘event’ as the basis for reflecting economic processes. The concept of ‘events’ is formulated, which cor­responds to the dynamic approach in the formation of ontologies. It is proposed to consider an event in the subject area of economic relations as a change in the values of observed attributes (OMECVA). According to the OMECVA concept, events are primary in cognition and in reflecting the subject area. The informa­tional reflection of objects is considered as a cluster of signs and their meanings in structure, space and time. Three types of events are distinguished: events in the subject area, events of cognition of changes in the subject area and events that change the model of cognition. As a starting point for the development ofa promising ontology of economic processes, it is proposed to use accounting as a widespread information system that forms the bulk of economic informa­tion. It is proposed to consider a triplet as an economic cell: an economic entity, a type of economic and legal relations, an economic object. Each of these ele­ments is an economic category and a feature in the context of which economic events are characterized.

Modeling the Functioning of the Production and Economic Chain
Sofia Lyubyashhenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-333-350

Restoration and design of efficiently functioning production and technologi­cal chains of complex structure, consisting of a set of firms with vertical and horizontal interconnections, is an important task of the modern economy in Russia. The implementation of the ‘new industrialization’ program is possible on the basis of large integrated structures capable of implementing innovations and modernization of production.  The dynamics of business processes caused by crisis trends leads to the need to find the most effective forms of interaction be­tween participants within hierarchical structures, allowing them to increase their competitiveness in the markets.  In this regard, the methodology of analyzing such production systems for making optimal management decisions needs fur­ther improvement. Classical micro and macroeconomic models are not fully ca­pable of describing real business processes in industry markets in conditions ofincreasing concentration. A comprehensive approach to the study of modern large firms and supply chains is needed. The synthesis of the theory of indus­trial organization and neoclassical economic theory is used as a methodological basis in the work.

A system with horizontal and vertical interaction of firms operating in the market is economically interested in achieving higher performance results and, above all, through more efficient use of resources. The relevance of this prob­lem requires modeling the parameters of companies’ activities under various be­havioral strategies.  In the article, an approach based on matrix modeling is pro­posed to describe the functioning of such systems, in which the main tool is a technological matrix developed taking into account the requirements for an in­put-output matrix. It is shown that the use of the methodology makes it pos­sible to adequately describe the interaction of firms, display material fl ows, de­termine important indicators of the system and fi rms (fi nal and gross products, volumes of resources, costs) and analyze at a qualitative level. An economic and mathematical model is proposed, which is used both to calculate the economic characteristics of the system and fi rms, and to design the structure of the tech­nological chain.

Modeling Sovereign Credit Risk with Environmental Efficiency in Mind
Tamara Popova,  Anastasiya Yastrebova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-351-369

This study contributes to the evaluation of the role of the eco-effi ciency fac­tor in explaining sovereign credit risk. The purpose of the study is to develop a model of sovereign credit risk taking into account the environmental efficiencyfactor. The sample includes the following countries: Argentina, Belgium, China, China, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Nigeria, Pakistan, Portugal, Spain. 58 % of the world’s countries are categorized as investment grade, indicating that more than half of the countries have high and very high solvency.

Using the multiple regression method, the factors affecting the sovereign credit rating are identified: GDP per capita, annual change in infl ation, interna­tional reserves, private sector credit, total public debt, and environmental perfor­mance. The results show a strong positive relationship between credit rating and GDP per capita, private sector lending volume, indicating that countries with better GDP per capita have lower credit risk.

To prove the relationship between environmental and credit risk, two mul­tiple regression models were constructed: without and with the environmental factor. The results show that including the environmental factor in modeling a country’s credit rating is appropriate because it improves the quality of the mod­el. According to the two comparison criteria, the model including the environ­mental factor had better results; the coefficient of determination was larger and the approximation error was smaller.

Countries have different environmental situations and different degrees ofenvironmental policy management. There is a relationship between environmen­tal and credit risk of countries, but the environmental situation of a country is not the only determinant factor affecting credit risk. If a country has a high en­vironmental performance index value, it may have an average sovereign rating and vice versa.

The scientific usefulness of the study lies in the fact that the constructed model can be used by investors, creditors, rating objects to calculate their own values of sovereign credit ratings.

Resource Potential of the Republic of Karelia in the Context of the Development of Glamping as a New Type of Accommodation
Aleksandra Kartseva,  Ksenia Pasternak
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-235-253

The article is devoted to the actual and rapidly developing direction in ecological tourism - glamping in domestic and foreign practices. The authors have highlighted the key features of ecological tourism, namely, the implementation of recreational opportunities in the unique natural environment and its preservation. The paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of this type of tourist recreation in the unique natural environment. The theoretical foundations of glamping are noted, the history of the concept of ‘glamping’ is considered. Additionally, the paper pays attention to the types of glamping sites (a brief description of each type is formulated), the features of domestic glamping, the assessment of the present situation and future development. It is noted that the rich variety of natural locations in the Russian Federation makes it possible to create unique glamping sites. Attention is paid to the factors contributing to the development of glamping in Russia. The authors conclude that there are prospects for the development of this type of recreation in Russia, and highlight its high potential for domestic tourism.

The authors focus on the tourist potential of the Republic of Karelia, which accumulates on its territory a large number of important architectural, cultural and historical sites, the diversity of cultural heritage of local ethnic groups. The article investigates the main varieties of tourist activities in the Republic of Karelia: ethno-cultural, event, active, rural, countryside and ecological tourism. The authors stress the fact, that there is a high demand for glamping service among tourists, which ultimately contributes to the active recovery process of the tourism industry after Covid-19.

Sobering up: Stalin’s Industrialization in figures and facts. To H.I. Khanin’s last monograph
Vladimir Klistorin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-235-251

This article is devoted to a review of G.I. Khanin’s new book, which presents the author’s assessment of the course and results of the first five-year plan. The article is not a summary of this book, but an attempt to re-think the process of implementing the principles of planning and directive management of the economy and social sphere in Soviet Russia. G.I. Khanin’s book presents and substantiates alternative assessments of the economic development of the country and it shows that the annual plans were not implemented and control figures of the five-year plan as a whole were not achieved contrary to the claims of the states’ leadership. The book concludes that industrialization has a high cost. This review paper explains the high relevance of this book, since the ideas of transition to a mobilization economy and the recreation of a centralized planning system in one form or another to accelerate economic growth and, more broadly, to modernize the economy and society have become widespread in current scientific literature and journalism. Based on the content of the book under discussion, the author of this review paper examines the problem of the correlation between modernization and economic growth. He shows that during the years of the first five-year plan, against a background of significant economic growth and serious efforts to expand education and the network of scientific institutions, the processes of archaization of the society took place as well as new mechanisms of social stratification were formed. The discussed monograph draws an important conclusion that domestic statistics during the first five-year plan falsified not only monetary, but also natural indicators. The book shows that the so-called ten-year plans resulted in the disorganization of economic life, disproportions and, according to G.I. Khanin, the transition from economic fantasy to “bacchanal planning”. The author of the review paper also shows that the historical and economic study of the USSR is far from being completed, and he concludes that quantitative estimates and especially qualitative conclusions need to be adjusted as new information sources are discovered and involved in the scientific turnover, as well as the previously obtained data should be compared and reconsidered.

The Relationship between Education and Financial Behavior
Tamara Popova,  Aleksander Lomonosov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-252-274

The article considers the issue of the relationship between higher education and financial behavior of citizens of the Russian Federation. The points of view formed in the scientific literature on the factors determining the rationality of financial behavior. In addition, the role of education and training as a tool for the formation of responsible financial behavior of the population are presented. The observed manifestation of financial behavior was the demand for financial services provided by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, as well as data on the availability of higher education, which were reflected in the All-Russian Population Census of 2020. As a result of the study, five groups of indicators were formed: accounts of individuals; placement of funds by individuals; loans /loans of individuals; payment services; insurance. The calculations were carried out in the context of the Federal Districts of the Russian Federation and allowed us to identify the following connections: strong direct (fixed for all groups of indicators), average direct (all except insurance), feedback (placement of funds by individuals; loans/loans of individuals) and weak communication (accounts of individuals; placement of funds by individuals; loans/loans of individuals). The presence of higher education shows a noticeable connection with the consumption by households and individuals of such services as: remote service and non-cash payments, exchange investments, deposits in banks, insurance protection. The level of involvement in interaction with the banking system, loans and overdue debts in non-bank financial organizations are at a comparable level in all federal districts. The higher the level of education, the lower the interest in such services as: placement of funds in micro-credit organizations and credit consumer cooperatives, loans that are small in volume and time taken in credit consumer cooperatives without the use of remote technologies. The assumption that higher education helps residents of Russia to make long-term decisions, avoid mistakes and follow models of responsible financial behavior has been empirically confirmed.

Important Contribution to the Coverage of National Income Statistics and the Economic History of Pre-Revolutionary Russia and the USSR
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-247-260

The author of this paper analyses the book by A. Markevich and M. Harrison, “Great War, Civil War, and Recovery: Russia’s National Income, 1913 to 1928”. He highlights the fact that the authors’ (A. Markevich and M. Harrison) calculations introduced in this article significantly expand and clarify the economic situation in Russia and the USSR in 1913-1928 from an economics point of view. For the first time, M. Harrison and A. Markevich evaluate the dynamics of national income and production of individual economic sectors, including the service industry, and compare the economies of Russia and the USSR with other countries in the same period.

The calculations show a more successful development of the economy of Russia than other warring countries during the First World War. In addition, the article analyzes the decline in Russia’s share in the world economy in 1928 compared to 1913. Thereby, the authors make a reasonable conclusion about the decrease in the efficiency of the USSR economy in 1928 compared to the pre-revolutionary period. Estimates of the national income, the personal consumption fund, and the population allowed evaluating the entire economic development of pre-revolutionary Russia, the USSR, and post-Soviet Russia. Finally, the authors reveal the consequences of the economic crises of the 20th century in Russia.

Drawing on personal and other researchers’ calculations, the authors criticize the opinion about the national income growth in 1928 in comparison with 1913 as exaggerated. Its significant drop during the civil war was caused by war communism as well as by the rupture of economic ties.