Event-Based Ontological Model of Economic Relations
Alexei Kovalev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-309-332

The paper examines the issue of the development of ontologies in the eco­nomic domain. The essential role of ontologies in the digitalization of the econ­omy is determined. The author considers the origin of ontologies in philos­ophy and the transition of ontologies from philosophy to computer science. The paper shows the growth of semantic content and the range of applications of ontologies as they develop. Ontologies in computer science have grown from the tasks of forming a thesaurus to the issues of forming semantic models ofsubject areas, which makes them close, in terms of generality and depth of ap­proach, to philosophical ontologies. Currently, there are a sufficient number of successful examples of the use of information ontologies, nevertheless, these achievements are disproportionately less than the potential inherent in ontolo­gies. In addition, there is a decrease in interest in ontologies and the number ofstudies. To determine the reasons for this, the concepts underlying the formation of ontologies are considered. The most promising set of concepts for the forma­tion of ontology in the economic subject field is proposed. It is determined that one of the reasons for the insufficient development of ontologies is the insuffi­cient elaboration of the concepts of ‘economic cell’ and ‘event’ as the basis for reflecting economic processes. The concept of ‘events’ is formulated, which cor­responds to the dynamic approach in the formation of ontologies. It is proposed to consider an event in the subject area of economic relations as a change in the values of observed attributes (OMECVA). According to the OMECVA concept, events are primary in cognition and in reflecting the subject area. The informa­tional reflection of objects is considered as a cluster of signs and their meanings in structure, space and time. Three types of events are distinguished: events in the subject area, events of cognition of changes in the subject area and events that change the model of cognition. As a starting point for the development ofa promising ontology of economic processes, it is proposed to use accounting as a widespread information system that forms the bulk of economic informa­tion. It is proposed to consider a triplet as an economic cell: an economic entity, a type of economic and legal relations, an economic object. Each of these ele­ments is an economic category and a feature in the context of which economic events are characterized.

Modeling the Functioning of the Production and Economic Chain
Sofia Lyubyashhenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-333-350

Restoration and design of efficiently functioning production and technologi­cal chains of complex structure, consisting of a set of firms with vertical and horizontal interconnections, is an important task of the modern economy in Russia. The implementation of the ‘new industrialization’ program is possible on the basis of large integrated structures capable of implementing innovations and modernization of production.  The dynamics of business processes caused by crisis trends leads to the need to find the most effective forms of interaction be­tween participants within hierarchical structures, allowing them to increase their competitiveness in the markets.  In this regard, the methodology of analyzing such production systems for making optimal management decisions needs fur­ther improvement. Classical micro and macroeconomic models are not fully ca­pable of describing real business processes in industry markets in conditions ofincreasing concentration. A comprehensive approach to the study of modern large firms and supply chains is needed. The synthesis of the theory of indus­trial organization and neoclassical economic theory is used as a methodological basis in the work.

A system with horizontal and vertical interaction of firms operating in the market is economically interested in achieving higher performance results and, above all, through more efficient use of resources. The relevance of this prob­lem requires modeling the parameters of companies’ activities under various be­havioral strategies.  In the article, an approach based on matrix modeling is pro­posed to describe the functioning of such systems, in which the main tool is a technological matrix developed taking into account the requirements for an in­put-output matrix. It is shown that the use of the methodology makes it pos­sible to adequately describe the interaction of firms, display material fl ows, de­termine important indicators of the system and fi rms (fi nal and gross products, volumes of resources, costs) and analyze at a qualitative level. An economic and mathematical model is proposed, which is used both to calculate the economic characteristics of the system and fi rms, and to design the structure of the tech­nological chain.

Modeling Sovereign Credit Risk with Environmental Efficiency in Mind
Tamara Popova,  Anastasiya Yastrebova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-351-369

This study contributes to the evaluation of the role of the eco-effi ciency fac­tor in explaining sovereign credit risk. The purpose of the study is to develop a model of sovereign credit risk taking into account the environmental efficiencyfactor. The sample includes the following countries: Argentina, Belgium, China, China, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Nigeria, Pakistan, Portugal, Spain. 58 % of the world’s countries are categorized as investment grade, indicating that more than half of the countries have high and very high solvency.

Using the multiple regression method, the factors affecting the sovereign credit rating are identified: GDP per capita, annual change in infl ation, interna­tional reserves, private sector credit, total public debt, and environmental perfor­mance. The results show a strong positive relationship between credit rating and GDP per capita, private sector lending volume, indicating that countries with better GDP per capita have lower credit risk.

To prove the relationship between environmental and credit risk, two mul­tiple regression models were constructed: without and with the environmental factor. The results show that including the environmental factor in modeling a country’s credit rating is appropriate because it improves the quality of the mod­el. According to the two comparison criteria, the model including the environ­mental factor had better results; the coefficient of determination was larger and the approximation error was smaller.

Countries have different environmental situations and different degrees ofenvironmental policy management. There is a relationship between environmen­tal and credit risk of countries, but the environmental situation of a country is not the only determinant factor affecting credit risk. If a country has a high en­vironmental performance index value, it may have an average sovereign rating and vice versa.

The scientific usefulness of the study lies in the fact that the constructed model can be used by investors, creditors, rating objects to calculate their own values of sovereign credit ratings.

Resource Potential of the Republic of Karelia in the Context of the Development of Glamping as a New Type of Accommodation
Aleksandra Kartseva,  Ksenia Pasternak
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-235-253

The article is devoted to the actual and rapidly developing direction in ecological tourism - glamping in domestic and foreign practices. The authors have highlighted the key features of ecological tourism, namely, the implementation of recreational opportunities in the unique natural environment and its preservation. The paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of this type of tourist recreation in the unique natural environment. The theoretical foundations of glamping are noted, the history of the concept of ‘glamping’ is considered. Additionally, the paper pays attention to the types of glamping sites (a brief description of each type is formulated), the features of domestic glamping, the assessment of the present situation and future development. It is noted that the rich variety of natural locations in the Russian Federation makes it possible to create unique glamping sites. Attention is paid to the factors contributing to the development of glamping in Russia. The authors conclude that there are prospects for the development of this type of recreation in Russia, and highlight its high potential for domestic tourism.

The authors focus on the tourist potential of the Republic of Karelia, which accumulates on its territory a large number of important architectural, cultural and historical sites, the diversity of cultural heritage of local ethnic groups. The article investigates the main varieties of tourist activities in the Republic of Karelia: ethno-cultural, event, active, rural, countryside and ecological tourism. The authors stress the fact, that there is a high demand for glamping service among tourists, which ultimately contributes to the active recovery process of the tourism industry after Covid-19.

Sobering up: Stalin’s Industrialization in figures and facts. To H.I. Khanin’s last monograph
Vladimir Klistorin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-235-251

This article is devoted to a review of G.I. Khanin’s new book, which presents the author’s assessment of the course and results of the first five-year plan. The article is not a summary of this book, but an attempt to re-think the process of implementing the principles of planning and directive management of the economy and social sphere in Soviet Russia. G.I. Khanin’s book presents and substantiates alternative assessments of the economic development of the country and it shows that the annual plans were not implemented and control figures of the five-year plan as a whole were not achieved contrary to the claims of the states’ leadership. The book concludes that industrialization has a high cost. This review paper explains the high relevance of this book, since the ideas of transition to a mobilization economy and the recreation of a centralized planning system in one form or another to accelerate economic growth and, more broadly, to modernize the economy and society have become widespread in current scientific literature and journalism. Based on the content of the book under discussion, the author of this review paper examines the problem of the correlation between modernization and economic growth. He shows that during the years of the first five-year plan, against a background of significant economic growth and serious efforts to expand education and the network of scientific institutions, the processes of archaization of the society took place as well as new mechanisms of social stratification were formed. The discussed monograph draws an important conclusion that domestic statistics during the first five-year plan falsified not only monetary, but also natural indicators. The book shows that the so-called ten-year plans resulted in the disorganization of economic life, disproportions and, according to G.I. Khanin, the transition from economic fantasy to “bacchanal planning”. The author of the review paper also shows that the historical and economic study of the USSR is far from being completed, and he concludes that quantitative estimates and especially qualitative conclusions need to be adjusted as new information sources are discovered and involved in the scientific turnover, as well as the previously obtained data should be compared and reconsidered.

The Relationship between Education and Financial Behavior
Tamara Popova,  Aleksander Lomonosov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-252-274

The article considers the issue of the relationship between higher education and financial behavior of citizens of the Russian Federation. The points of view formed in the scientific literature on the factors determining the rationality of financial behavior. In addition, the role of education and training as a tool for the formation of responsible financial behavior of the population are presented. The observed manifestation of financial behavior was the demand for financial services provided by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, as well as data on the availability of higher education, which were reflected in the All-Russian Population Census of 2020. As a result of the study, five groups of indicators were formed: accounts of individuals; placement of funds by individuals; loans /loans of individuals; payment services; insurance. The calculations were carried out in the context of the Federal Districts of the Russian Federation and allowed us to identify the following connections: strong direct (fixed for all groups of indicators), average direct (all except insurance), feedback (placement of funds by individuals; loans/loans of individuals) and weak communication (accounts of individuals; placement of funds by individuals; loans/loans of individuals). The presence of higher education shows a noticeable connection with the consumption by households and individuals of such services as: remote service and non-cash payments, exchange investments, deposits in banks, insurance protection. The level of involvement in interaction with the banking system, loans and overdue debts in non-bank financial organizations are at a comparable level in all federal districts. The higher the level of education, the lower the interest in such services as: placement of funds in micro-credit organizations and credit consumer cooperatives, loans that are small in volume and time taken in credit consumer cooperatives without the use of remote technologies. The assumption that higher education helps residents of Russia to make long-term decisions, avoid mistakes and follow models of responsible financial behavior has been empirically confirmed.

Problems of Innovative Activity Development of the Novosibirsk Region
Dmitry Vorotnikov,  Anton Kogan
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-277-295

The relevance of the study of problems in the field of innovation activity in the Novosibirsk region is due to the low susceptibility of the region to the introduction of new technologies, the complexity of choosing a strategy for the development of innovative companies, the lack of an effective method of finding business models for innovative products and the complex relationship of industrial partners with innovators.

All these problems are a consequence of the cultural characteristics of the Russian Federation, and without proper study of them we cannot present a complete picture of the development of the innovative sphere of the region.

The article discusses the concepts of “innovative susceptibility of the region” and “startups”. It is proposed to supplement the generally accepted characteristics of a startup by adding an institutional affiliation to them, dividing startups into three categories: park, academic and non-academic. Each of these categories has its own characteristics that must be taken into account when creating a development strategy and entering the market. It should be noted that the institutional affiliation of a startup, taking into account the cultural characteristics of the Russian Federation, has been studied superficially by modern economists.

The problem of distortion of statistical data when calculating the innovation activity of the regions of the Russian Federation on the example of the Omsk, Tomsk and Novosibirsk regions is indicated.

The Role of Socio-Economic Factors in the Formation of the Russian Statehood in the IX-XVI Centuries
Sofia Lyubyashhenko,  Alexander Zimens
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-296-311

The article is devoted to the analysis of the influence of various economic aspects of the development of Russian statehood in the IX – XVI centuries. The authors consider the most important sectors of the Russian economy in the pre-Roman period, such as agriculture, crafts and trade. They also show the role of trade in the formation of regional markets and their integration into a single national market. The article discloses the significance of trade routes and partners, the structure of exports and imports, the functions of the state in regulating foreign economic relations. A separate part of the article is a chronological analysis of the dynamics of trade development. The following stages are distinguished: 1) IX - XI: the emergence and flourishing of Old Russian trade, 2) the middle of the XII - XIII centuries: a recession in trade against the backdrop of feudal fragmentation, the beginning of the flourishing of foreign trade in Novgorod, 3) XIII - XIV centuries: the destruction of trade relations in the southern and northeastern principalities, the flourishing of Novgorod trade, merchants, 4) the end of the XIV and the first half of the XVI century: the rise of Moscow merchants, positive dynamics in the development of trade, the development of new trade routes, access to new ports, the development of foreign trade with European countries, 5) the second half of the XVI - early XVII centuries: the crisis of trade and economic relations, the decline of agriculture, the decline in imports and exports.

The article provides a rationale for the fact that trade played an important role in the spatial development of the state, as it contributed to the formation of cities, the resettlement of people and the integration of various segments of the population. Trade routes (‘from Varangians to Greeks’, Volga, Danube) penetrated the territory of the East European Plain, inhabited by tribal unions of the Slavs. Trade and defensive posts were formed along the banks of the rivers, which developed into large centers of trade, crafts, agriculture, military power, which formed the basis of the power of local princes and leaders. As a result, cities acquired not only trade and economic, but also administrative and strategic importance. The economic dependence of the tribes on cities, which were markets for agricultural products, handicrafts, precious metals, as well as the need to ensure security, became prerequisites for the formation and development of Russian statehood.

The article shows the origin of the system of law in Rus’, the regulation of trade and economic relations, as well as the importance of various forms of management and cooperation (merchant guilds), which contributed to the unification of the Russian state. One guild could unite merchants from different cities, which facilitated and accelerated the process of annexing territories. Thus, unity was ensured not only by military force, but also by economic integration.

Since the peasantry was the main element in the system of division of labor, the production of goods for foreign trade and material goods for domestic consumption, it can be considered a key factor influencing the development of trade and the main resource for the development of the economy. The historical transformation of the peasantry is closely correlated with the dynamics of the development of trade, so we can talk about the relationship of these elements.

Important Contribution to the Coverage of National Income Statistics and the Economic History of Pre-Revolutionary Russia and the USSR
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-247-260

The author of this paper analyses the book by A. Markevich and M. Harrison, “Great War, Civil War, and Recovery: Russia’s National Income, 1913 to 1928”. He highlights the fact that the authors’ (A. Markevich and M. Harrison) calculations introduced in this article significantly expand and clarify the economic situation in Russia and the USSR in 1913-1928 from an economics point of view. For the first time, M. Harrison and A. Markevich evaluate the dynamics of national income and production of individual economic sectors, including the service industry, and compare the economies of Russia and the USSR with other countries in the same period.

The calculations show a more successful development of the economy of Russia than other warring countries during the First World War. In addition, the article analyzes the decline in Russia’s share in the world economy in 1928 compared to 1913. Thereby, the authors make a reasonable conclusion about the decrease in the efficiency of the USSR economy in 1928 compared to the pre-revolutionary period. Estimates of the national income, the personal consumption fund, and the population allowed evaluating the entire economic development of pre-revolutionary Russia, the USSR, and post-Soviet Russia. Finally, the authors reveal the consequences of the economic crises of the 20th century in Russia.

Drawing on personal and other researchers’ calculations, the authors criticize the opinion about the national income growth in 1928 in comparison with 1913 as exaggerated. Its significant drop during the civil war was caused by war communism as well as by the rupture of economic ties.

Modern Banking Products: Analysis of Development Trends in Russia and Abroad
Valeria Vagaytseva,  Alexandra Shmyreva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-261-276

The development of new digital technologies and their active application has an impact on the relationship of credit institutions with customers in the field of availability of products and methods of services provided. Currently, the activity of banks in creating and releasing products for customers is reaching a new level thanks to the development of technologies and innovations in this area.

The research and analysis of the current directions of development in the field of development and formation of modern banking products is carried out. The object of the study is the variety of products of commercial banks, the subject of the study is the global trends of their development. Purpose of the work: analysis of trends in the development of modern and innovative banking products in Russia and abroad. Based on the purpose of the work, the main types of banking innovation processes in the world were identified, such as a banking product in new market segments, innovations such as the development of activities in new areas of the financial market, modified financial intermediation services aimed at effective asset and liability management, new methods of cash management and the use of new information technologies, new products in traditional segments of loan capital.

The line of common banking products considered in the article, as well as the study of products of a new digital and remote format, allowed us to conclude that it is necessary to develop and disseminate the existing classification of banking products. Due to the increasing number of bank product developments, their classification becomes an integral stage in their formation and subsequent release. A number of classification features and distinctions were investigated, which helped to systematize the existing groups of banking products and identify areas for their development. The perspective of the banking sector is the transformation of the bank’s products. There is automation in many banking processes and, as a result, there are modernized products and services of the bank, which have not been considered in the theoretical aspect earlier in scientific and practical works and publications.