“THE DIARY OF A WRITER” BY F.M. DOSTOEVSKY IN THE FOCUS OF MODERN INTERPRETATIONS
Borisova V.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.1-128-137
Abstract:

In this article the peculiarities of perception and interpretation of "The Diary of a Writer" by F. Dostoevsky are considered from historical and functional points of view in the following aspects: literary, cultural and political. The new paradigms of its study on representative examples of the latest research are identified. In the focus of modern interpretations intermedial and metadiscursive nature of Dostoevsky’s magazine, writer’s syncretism of creative thinking, the limited actuality and justification of many of his prophecies in the context of our time are substantiated. As a result, we can observe the full rehabilitation of “The Diary of a Writer” as one of the greatest works of Dostoevsky, which is remaining the standard of journalism and artistry.

PHILOSOPHY IN THE FORMATION OF A PROFESSIONAL MUSICIAN
Kurlenya Konstantin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.1-81-101
Abstract:

The article studies topical problems of teaching philosophy at musical colleges. The author proves that the main goal for students of creative specialties to study philosophy is in offering a set of basic visions motivating to choose consciously the purpose of existence. The article consistently expands on issues of cognitive theory, ontology, sociology, axiology, aesthetics, and ethics, essential for the formation of a student’s personal and professional status. In modern conception of Russian higher education, the searches of new role and meaning of philosophy are far from being finished. The process of decreasing the subject’s teaching hours in college programmes is accompanied with students’ significant loss of interest in philosophical problematics. This drastically decreases both the learners’ general thinking culture and their inability to confront challenges of life concerning their personal identity and behaviour. The possibility to group the essential topics of European culture philosophical experience around the current aspects of a professional musician’s formation is one of the ways to increase the efficiency of teaching philosophy at a musical college.

"EAST PROJECT" OF K.N. LEONTIEV AND EURASIANISM
Likhomanov Igor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.1-138-151
Abstract:

In this article the author offers arguments in defense of the view that philosophical-historical views of K. Leontiev and his historical vocation of Russia cannot be included in the system of Eurasian views without significant restrictions. The similarity between the views of Leontiev and views of classical Eurasians 20-30-ies of the XX century is only superficial. A comparative analysis of Eurasian concepts with the views of Leontiev, taken in their systemic integrity, on the contrary, reveals the deep contradictions between them. While the Eurasians were concerned to make relevant state-political form peculiar and coherent Russian (Eurasian) culture, Leontiev claimed that Russia is a loose, amorphous and heterogeneous in cultural terms "body", the integrity of which is supported by external bonds of Russian statehood and the Church. "East project" in the process of working out which philosophical, historical and political views of Leontiev became systemic integrity, called for the creation in Russia of a new cultural and political center in Istanbul, around which in the distant future needs to encounter a fundamentally new world civilization (cultural and historical type). This civilization will unite in the synthesis of higher-order Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Islam, would include the Greek, Slavic, Romanian, Turkish, Persian, and other ethnic and cultural components. Russian culture and culture of other peoples of Russia will join this new civilization only along with many other ethno-cultural components. Thus, also the "East project" and the concept of the Eurasian cultural-historical specificity of Russia differ from each other in such essential traits as K. Leontiev considered as a direct predecessor of Eurasianism, in the author's opinion, hardly acceptable.

«A BOHEMIAN MAN» IN THE PERCEPTION OF MODERN NATIVE SPEAKERS
Dubrovskaya E.M.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-1.2-39-46
Abstract:

The article discusses the "lingua-cultural type" - a fairly new concept used in research conducted at the intersection of cognitive linguistics and cultural linguistics. The study of this phenomenon makes it possible to approach the understanding of the national language picture of the world and all its components. In the article the author presents the lingua-cultural description of "a bohemian man" concept, which has a number of characteristics and distinctive features, taking into consideration the Russian world view. In order to get the most complete understanding of the lingua-cultural type of "a bohemian man" in the perceptions of Russian speakers, the author conducted the following experiment: she studied the perceptual and value characteristics of “a bohemian man” image from the point of view of people of different ages, education levels and occupations.

ONCE AGAIN ABOUT THE SPECIFICS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY AND EUROPEAN CULTURE
Pikov Gennady
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-1.1-39-52
Abstract:

The author considers problematical character of the relations of Christianity with different cultures as one of the bright features of European civilization. Attempts to understand it were made throughout the whole history of Christianity. It is necessary to examine continuous penetration of the most diverse cultures from other continents into Europe which faced the existential conflict with this religion. At the same time the author analyzes the problematic relations of Christianity with the European mental and cultural compositions. They naturally contradicted Christianity which had been created outside the continent. This conflict can be easily observed during the period of early Christianity when Christianity was more represented by a set of ideas, than by a sum of artifacts. Besides, Christianity was formed not due to the evolution of certain initial paradigm knowledge but as a result of synthesis of the elements of almost all known at that time cultures. The author considers the history of interaction between Christianity and the European cultural streams, and he also reviews some forms and methods of that opposition. Church played a special role in that opposition and Christianization can be presented as the movement of the Church to a greater extent, than a religion. At the same time Christianization is the information conquering of new space. Also the role of this religion in the preservation of the European information unity should be highlighted as well as its role in the struggle against cultural interventions from the outside.

MENTAL FOUNDATIONS OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE FROM THE ASPECT OF GLOBALIZATION
Mikidenko Natalia,  Churkina N.A.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-1.1-70-76
Abstract:

The article discusses the features of intercultural communication process from the aspect of globalization of the modern society. Globalization creates special conditions for the interaction of different cultures. The authors highlight the idea that cultural foundations of the globalizing socie-ties are being transformed and it can even lead to certain changes in the state of mental structures of people. According to their opinion, multiple simulacra (illusory images that replace the reality and substitute traditional values) have a significant impact on the spiritual transformation of mental structures in the globalized society. In these circumstances, the global community faces the task of finding new forms of intercultural communication. The authors emphasize the fact that the most important foundation of intercultural communication is mentality (a special way of thinking and emotional reactions, allowing a person to form a complete image of the world). Then, the article analyzes two forms of intercultural communication – a monologue and a dialogue. It is noted that a monologue is based on the dominance of one of the communicating parties and leads to its cultural domination, which has a negative impact on the second participant of interaction. The most effec-tive form for the establishing cross-cultural understanding is an intercultural dialogue, which will enable the participants to maintain their mental specificities and adequately understand the partner.

ABOUT BUSINESS IN A “NEW” WAY: RECENTLY-COINED WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH BUSINESS DISCOURSE AT THE TURN OF THE 21ST CENTURY
Galchuk L.M.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-1.1-85-97
Abstract:

The article reviews the specifics of modern business communication on the basis of English words and expressions conceptualized around the notion of business and recorded in Word Spy online dictionary of neologisms within the last three decades. The newly coined words are analyzed through extra- and intralinguistic motivators of their emergence in the language inventory, the formal and semantic composition, pragmatic properties actualized in English business discourse. As the majority of neologisms possess the metaphorical potential, their intensive use in modern business communication tends to create the uncertainty effect and through it enhance the ideological impact on the audience. Thus, with the traditional norms of business communication being violated, English professional discourse recently experiences the loss of its conventionality in favour of increased efficiency of every single communicative act.

ETHICAL ASPECT OF THE TRANSFORMING FUNCTION OF MUSIC
Karpychev Mikhail
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-1.1-109-123
Abstract:

The article continues the earlier begun research in “Ideas and Ideals” (№-s 19, 21, 23). Now we examine the ethical aspect of the music function. ‘Music contributes to the moral perfection of people’- this well-known statement we meet in a great number of scientific and literary sources from Ancient Greece (music ethos, the “kalokagathia” doctrine – unity of Beauty and Kindness) till our days. The article's task is to argue our hypothesis about the moral aspect of music, describing the mechanisms of this impact. The main idea of the hypothesis is that it is the professionalism of a composer (as a talented person) that creates moral perfection of people and personal moral values of the composer have nothing to do with this process. The masterly organized music form triggers the mechanism of moral perfection. Just “well-made” music (not any accidental sounds' connection) evokes positive emotions, which have wholesome influence on listener's moral. The beauty of music forms has influence on auditorium; music harmony (in narrow and wide senses) contributes to the development of a harmonic person. The article contains some literary examples with the author’s music analysis, which prove the hypothesis (“Mozart and Salieri”, “War and Peace”). The highest form of this music transforming function is moral purgation (catharsis) as a result of emotional “explosion” during music listening. Music catharsis confirms “The Moral Law Within Me” (Kant).

THE IMAGE OF THE GERMANS IN FRENCH CARICATURE DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Le Naour J.Y.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2015-4.1-9-17
Abstract:

From the first days of the war there appeared a large number of cartoons mocking the German army and the German people in the French press and on postcards. These cartoons - often woefully primitive and vulgar- allow to understand the reasons which forced the French to fight against the Germans, they show how the French perceived the war, especially in the beginning of the conflict, when the cartoons appeared in large numbers, and when they expressed the most cruel motives. Firstly, caricatures ridiculed the Germans. Secondly, they emphasized the danger caused by their invasion, accompanied by atrocities. Thirdly, the cartoons depicted the abomination, and the inhumanity of the enemy, both these qualities made the Germans an intermediary between a man and a pig. Caricature is, certainly, a popular aspect of propaganda, which turned out to be quite consistent with people’s preferences. This kind of genre is not only the evidence of the atrocities of the war, but also reveals the cruelty of creative thinking and is a constituent part of that total war.

SOCIALIST-REVOLUTIONARIES ABOUT THE ESSENCE AND CHARACTER OF THE BOLSHEVIST REGIME IN THE YEARS OF CIVIL WAR
Morozov Konstantin
Abstract:

The author analyzes how Socialist-Revolutionaries estimated the character of the Bolshevik regime. He considers this in the context of the opposition between Socialist-Revolutionaries (PSR) and Bolsheviks as representatives of two branches of the Russian socialism – Narodnichestvo and Marxism. This opposition had a long history and roots. It must be taken into account that their doctrines had different nature and were derived from different concepts. At the same time it is a fundamental issue that Bolsheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries argued in the frames of one socialist paradigm, but PSR offered another model of socialist society and other ways and means of its construction and they estimated the Bolshevik regime from this point of view. The evaluations of the Bolshevik regime differed among the PSR members according to the group attachment of this or that PSR member. Centrists and Left-Centrists argued that adventurous and ill-considered actions of Bolsheviks pursuing among others selfish interests would lead to the discredit of the conception of socialism in the eyes of the masses and impede the movement to it in future. “The Right-Wing PSR members” including the group of Avksent’ev and Fondaminsky saw the near future of Russia in recovery of destroyed economy mainly on the capitalist basis and by “the formation of a healthy productive bourgeoisie” but necessarily with simultaneous development of democracy, self-government, cooperation, trade-unions and with PSR cooperation with other democratic parties for common or coordinated actions. V.M. Chernov characterized the Soviet regime as a form of state capitalism. All those Socialist-Revolutionaries stated from the very beginning: the impossibility of building socialism in the country with unready economic, social, cultural and psychological prerequisites; the regime relies not on the mass initiative but on the coercion and intimidation; the development of state terror to enormous quantitative and qualitative degrees which had no analogues in the previous history and destroyed the society structure; the degeneration of the Bolshevik party itself (E.M. Ratner pointed out this fact, which happened in 1922, at the PSR Trial, speaking about moral experimentation of Bolsheviks) – all this was confirmed during the next decades