The article analyzes G.D. Gachev’s reflection of philosophical thought genesis in its ethnic and cultural conditionality. The authors believe research experience of G.D. Gachev to be the implementation of methodological directions by Moscow logic study group to update the genesis of knowledge not on the basis of formal logic but content genetic logic. G.D. Gachev considers that the form and content of philosophical thought emerge in the bosom of national culture and preserve its characteristics.
In the article the author considers the tendencies of transformation of human life in the conditions of permanent sociocultural complexity. The social structure becomes more and more complicated, saturated with knowledge and information and a human being at the same time falls apart into functional subsystems – modules. Getting adjusted to the new conditions of sociocultural complexity a person risks to lose his/her ontological status. In the article, using the idea of modularity, the author describes the image of sociocultural complexity and the place of a person in the emerging conditions. The author comes to the conclusion, that a modern person, adapting to sociocultural complexity, turns into a «framework» construction comprised of «modules», deprived of any independent ontological status.
The author considers melancholy and its companions "anguish and fear", which play an important role in the formation of personality. He also examines melancholy as a state of mind, not a diagnosis, which affects the human perception of the world, when a number of opportunities for self-actualization are open before a person. Each historical period has its own emotional ways of expressing feelings in the state of melancholy either by one person or a society as a whole. Also the article analyzes the historical problems of the appearance of melancholy, its symptoms, feelings, which at one time was considered to be a depression, in another time - hopeless despair, anguish, grief, sorrow of mind, in today's world it is considered to be "the twenty-first century plague."
The article is devoted to the study of the phenomenon "aestheticization of politics". The authors present political aesthetics within the boundaries of "symbolic politics" concept. "Symbolic politics", as a special kind of political communication, fits into the modern context of political life "virtualisation". The aesthetic mode of politics perception is viewed by the authors as socio-cognitive practices that are relevant to modern standards and principles of rationality. The paper studies the discourse of an "information war" in the context of correlative coherence of aesthetic and pragmatic elements of symbolic politics.
The article focuses on the modernism/postmodernism terms definition. The author conceptualizes the two terms in the three theoretical frames. Firstly the dichotomy of modernism/postmodernism is described in the context of artistic practice and aesthetic programs. Secondly the two notions are analyses as the stages of cultural evolution. Thirdly the dyad is comprehended as the two ways of world understanding. The core issue in the differentiation between modernism and postmodernism, in the author’s opinion, is the category of integrity. The article is addressed to philosophers, specialists in cultural studies and aesthetics, cultural scientists and educators.
The article focuses on research of the language of architectural forms. The author considers the language of architecture as the artificial language living under the same laws of syntax and semantics as a natural language. The researcher’s attention is paid to simultaneity of the language of architecture perception as its characteristic feature, in contrast to linearity of natural language, which is perceived sequentially. The author considers the interdependency of the language dynamics of architectural forms and the historical period of their existence as well as social and political structure of the society. It is highlighted, that the language of architecture serves as a tool of a person’s orientation in space and as one of the forms of practical activities organization. Architecture is the art which combines not only decorative and esthetic functions, but primarily the pragmatic one.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOVIET SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN THE FIELD OF COMPUTER HARDWARE AND PROGRAMMING (late1940s – mid 1950s)Shilov V.V., Pivovarov N.Yu., Krayneva Irina
This paper deals with the post-war period (late 1940s – mid 1950s) in the development of Soviet digital electronic computational tools and formation of the USSR science and technology policy in this field. The authors studied how well the Soviet scientists and managers were aware of the new aspects of this policy, detected its primary application area – the Soviet Atomic project and considered the conditions of its formation. Evidently, information about the new computational tools came to the Soviet Union from abroad. One of the sources of such information was academic and science and technical journals. Possibly, intelligence agencies played a certain role in obtaining this information. It was then that some contradictions between approaches to computer hardware appeared. On the one hand, leaders of the Atomic project realized its benefits and planned to produce and apply it, though in a limited scope. On the other hand, advocates of the development of computer hardware affiliated with the USSR Academy of Sciences and Ministry for Machine Building and Instrument Making were in favor of a more comprehensive approach, which implied the creation of new types of computers, increasing their capacity and extending prospective applications beyond the military-industrial complex. Participation of the two establishments in the development of computer hardware was highly competitive, with each body pursuing its own goals and lacking resources. The fact that the developments by S.A. Lebedev got ultimately higher priority testifies to the deep insight of the USSR Academy of Sciences into scientific and engineering problems. Ideological pressure, characteristic of the late period of Stalin’s rule with respect to some areas of science, did not have any serious implications for the development of computer hardware. The general situation with electronic computational tools confirms the fact that Soviet engineering in the period of late Stalinism was of the catch-up nature.
The author analyses the student movement in 1960s in the Novosibirsk State University (NGU), the longest open legal student movement of the Soviet period. The previous publications on this subject do not present the movement in its entirety, and they also do not reflect the nature of the phenomenon properly. The civil movement in Akademgorodok (Academic Town) and, in particular, at the NGU was a by-product of the famous Siberian experiment. Nowadays, this by-product is quite topical in search for the best strategy of social change. The article reconstructs and analyses the preconditions and factors of the student movement, as well as the spectrum and directions of its political activities: self-organization and self-management, club activities, participation in the Rector’s elections, protection of student political and academic freedoms, preservation of the autonomy of the university, etc. The conclusions about the nature of the movement are made based on numerous memoirs and available documents.
The article discusses the attitudes of different nations and national cultures to the memory of the Fallen on the battlefield. The author emphasizes the historical, cultural and religious peculiarities of the formation of traditions and customs of honoring and preserving the memory of them. It is concluded that the attitude to the memory of the Fallen demonstrates the level of development of national culture.
The article is devoted to the moral and ethical search and God-seeking of a prominent socialist-revolutionary Boris Savinkov. He earned a reputation not only as one of the leaders of the PSR “Fighting organization”, who participated in the organization of the most resonant attacks – on Interior Minister V.K. Pleve and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, but also as a writer whose works "The Pale Horse" and "That Which Was Not (Three Brothers)" had a great public resonance. The contradictory nature of his personality, attitudes and actions, clearly manifested in the fact that he simultaneously combined leadership of “Fighting organization” and public reflection on moral inadmissibility of the murder, and in the fact that his anti-Bolshevik activities he combined with writing "The Black Horse", still attracts the attention of researchers and journalists. The circumstances of his death also attract the attention. The author explores them using the documents of "Savinkov case," initially stored in the secret archives of the Politburo of the CPSU (b), which allow us to speak with confidence about his suicide.