J. G. Hamann’s Conversion as the Key to His Work
Alexey Streltsov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.1-56-72

The article deals with the mechanism of the religious conversion of the 18th century Königsberg writer J.G. Hamann as well as the infl uence of this event on his subsequent literary activity characterized by an insightful critique of the Enlightenment project. In his autobiography not geared toward the public, this conversion has features of a typical Pietist conversion with its peculiar language as well as normative accents on feelings along with the lowered role of reason. His debut work “Socratic Memorabilia”, however, which was addressed to I. Kant and I.K. Berens, served as vindication of his new “Weltanschauung”, and enables one to interpret his conversion as a transition to a new conceptual scheme with its own distinct interpretation of texts, ideas, and events. Theological-philosophical foundations of Hamann’s conversion have greater signifi cance than its psychological aspects. Within this framework, the former life is then viewed from a different perspective. However, it is the text and the author behind the text (rather than internal feeling of the heart) that is primary to Hamann. This text presupposes subsequent authorship of Hamann himself. Thus, the London conversion experience of Hamann may not be reduced to ecstasy, elimination of cognitive and rational capacities, but rather viewed as “metanoia”, a change of thinking, way of life, and worldview. From this perspective it is more appropriate to view the ensuing philosophical career of Hamann as activity in a different framework rather than conceptualization of personal experience of conversion. While his efforts were directed at a variety of subjects (theology and philosophy of history, aesthetics, philosophy of language, correlation of faith and reason, critique of political basis of the Enlightenment), the very thrust of his thinking was governed by a conceptual scheme, which in turn also implied a different lifestyle (attitude to professional activity, family, and marriage), incongruent with the conventional notions of the time.

The World of Human Happiness and Its Philosophical Origins
Irina Stanislavova,  Galina Solovyova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.1-73-87

The subject of this research is various ideas about happiness in the history of philosophy. Happiness is a concept of a special kind, the importance of which in motivating human activity is extremely great. The subject arouses a constantly renewed interest among philosophers, psychologists, educators, sociologists and other specialists throughout the foreseeable intellectual history of mankind from Antiquity to the present day. All people strive for happiness, understanding it as a guarantee of a prosperous existence, but they put the most diverse meaning into this concept. Happiness has always been the most important motive of human actions, therefore it is necessary to clarify the actual content of this phenomenon in the conditions of the modern spiritual situation of the time of the confrontation of cultures and civilizations. The purpose of the work is an attempt to analyze from the historical and philosophical positions the intellectual and emotional-spiritual state of a person in which he feels happy. Each historical epoch put forward its own ideals, so intellectuals offered new formulas of happiness. The philosophical origins of the concept of happiness investigated in the article allow us to consider and substantiate its substantive aspect from various positions (theological, social, psychological). The methodological basis is the general scientifi c methods of cognition (historical, system-structural and dialectical, due to the complexity and internal inconsistency of the subject) in combination with the philosophical and anthropological approach. The main method of research is the historical-deductive method, a method of comparative analysis of philosophical approaches to solving the problem of happiness in various historical epochs. In conclusion, the authors assert that happiness is a deeply experienced complex integral physical, mental, intellectual, social and spiritual state that depends on the person himself. A person’s happiness is himself, his life created by him, in which all the acquired values of culture fi nd their true place and meaning. The results of the study can be used in the process of educating young people and teaching philosophy and humanities in various educational institutions.

Does the Past have a Future and the Future have a Past?
Svetlana Neretina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.1-11-31

The article manifests three projects of society development: Marx’s - materialistic, Gefter’s - anthropological and Latour’s - geo-logical. The choice of manifestos is explained by the coincidence of their characteristics of the Modern era, where history is presented as the era of Copernican humanity, implementing its plans through revolution. The first project is considered not from the usual dialectical-materialist position, but from the point of view of the performativity of the sign, which has the ability to instantly switch what is said into action (into exchange, war, trade, relations with each other). Relying on the performativity of the sign is a scientific experiment with the aim of understanding the power of the thing in its entirety. Gefter’s main concepts in relation to Russia are the “country of countries” entering the “World of Worlds” (a form of dwelling of mankind) as one of the poles. Gefter presents history as a world of multidirectional, i.e. alternative developments. Latour presented the whole world through actor-network theory, including the activities of humans and invisible hybrid beings (viruses) affecting human life. The network is revealed through mapping and reveals the ways in which spatio-temporal coordinates expand, contract or break, revealing shifting trajectories of development.

Philosophy of Event of “The Last God” by M. Heidegger in the Context of “Post-Ausschwitz” Theology
Danila Malakhov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.1-32-55

Theological components of the historical memory of the Holocaust are the most important constitutive elements of the socio-political and value-ideological forms of understanding the causes and nature of the unprecedented evil committed by Nazism and ways of further development of the human community. Frankly false concepts and analogies that directly affect the memory of generations about the Second World War and are authorized to exist in Western society require raising questions about the specifics of the connection between the existing forms of theological intentions of understanding the Holocaust and the philosophical discourse associated with them with the features of social-political construction narrative of historical memory of this event. The attempted interpretation of the texts by M. Heidegger, which contain intuitions about the ontological-theological essence of the coming historical catastrophe, aims to identify the specific features of the existing ‘Post-Auschwitz’ theology, which legitimize the value-worldview negative transformations in the self-consciousness of Western society.

The main method of research is the hermeneutic-phenomenological method, according to which the meaning, directly assimilated from the actual side of the event, cannot be identical to the constitutive meaning, which appeals to the essence of the event that is not revealed through facticity. The constitutive meaning of the event in this study is based on a comparison of the Thinker’s onto-theological intuitions about the essence of an event that has not yet occurred with the circumstances of its actual implementation. The specificity of hermeneutic work in relation to the correlation of the onto-theological contours of the tragic unity of human’s and God’s being revealed in the philosophy of the event ‘The Last God’ by M. Heidegger is determined by the correlation of these contours as constitutive elements of meaning with the event of the Holocaust, linking the fate of the Jewish people with the fate of God. In contrast to similar hermeneutic intentions present in the theology of the ‘Death of God’, M. Heidegger’s philosophy emphasizes the effective nature of human existence, which performs an act of gifting its own essence, leading it to death. The result of this gift is an act of ontological transcendence of human nature and the assimilation of divine nature, carried out by ‘The Last God’. As a development of this concept, an assumption is made about the act of ontological restoration by a person of the existence of God before the event. The interpretation of the difference of divine essences is carried out in a Trinitarian context.

The interpretation and development of the philosophy of the event of ‘The Last God’ by M. Heidegger, proposed in this article, are a priority form of development of theology, which aims at the categorical hermeneutic construction of the theodicy of the Holocaust event, determining the essence of the object of faith, as well as preventing value-worldview and socio-political insinuations associated with the transformation of the discourse of ‘guilt and forgiveness’ in Western society.

The Second Russian Revolution and N.A. Berdyav’s Utopian Project of Spiritual Aristocracy
Vladimir Boyko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.1-56-78

Throughout many years Berdyaev discusses the problem of spiritual aristocracy formation in Russia. The Russian philosopher defends an imperishable value of spiritual aristocracy, as he doesn’t see a direct connection between the socio-historical environment and the emergence of “knights of spirit”. In his works he underlines the priority of the universal objective Divine will, calls for renewing Christianity and all aspects of public life, connects religious revival only with the development of a person. Berdyaev believes that the ‘people-nation’ can be aristocratic if it is ready to subordinate their own actions to the absolute Divine will. In 1917-1918 the idea of a hierarchical structure of any reality defines a train of Berdyaev’s thought. The being of the free person is closely connected with cosmic hierarchy. Creativity and social equality are not compatible, creativity demands inequality; the nature of creativity and the essence of the person are aristocratic. The Russian thinker welcomes the overthrow of autocracy. He denies class foundation of the ongoing revolution, exposes bourgeois, non-creative base of the socialist idea. Berdyaev sees the cause of ‘the sacred realm’ downfall in the estrangement of Russian people from the state power, absence of spiritual aristocracy in Russia. He accounts for the victory of democracy as an external condition of spiritual knighthood’s making, whose thoughts are directed outside of the empirical world, a necessity and compulsion realm. The Russian philosopher hopes that the democratic revolution will release spiritual forces of the people, whose ascending creative movement will be accompanied by the formation of national spiritual aristocracy. But in July 1917 Berdyaev ascertains that Russia is sacrificed to revolutionary element. He considers the propensity of the Russian person to social utopias as a consequence of centuries-old slavish existence of the people, the absence of the sense of duty and responsibility in the Russian national character. The victory of Bolsheviks in race for power by autumn of 1917 has confirmed Berdyaev’s worst fears: the triumph in Russia of a bourgeois ideal of prosperous habitation in the material world, ideals of equality and justice over a hierarchical principle of the universe design acted as a characteristic symptom of Russian people’s degradation, transformed the project of national aristocracy of spirit into a utopia. The article also shows how the adherents of Marxist ideology have turned this project into a caricature on the philosophy of history.

The “Justification” of a Soul as the “Justification" of a Man: Philosophical and Religious Perspective
Evgeny Kazakov,  Tatiana Gritskevich,  Larisa Logunova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.1-79-91

The article (using the example of the European cultural tradition) actualizes the problem of the heuristic potential of the concept of ‘soul’, which is far from being fully used, due to the dominance of positivist ideas. The category ‘soul’ is the most adequate in its content and depth, for the study of the inner immaterial world of a person in its integrity. The concept of ‘psyche’ that displaces and replaces it is narrower, covering mainly the processes of reflecting the world for optimal adaptation to it. The dominant of this concept, on the one hand, expresses the real impoverishment of a person’s inner life, the loss of moral, metaphysical experiences and reflections by it. On the other hand, the view through the ‘prism of the psyche’ has a limited cognitive potential, not allowing to reveal the fullness of the inner world of a person, his essential depths. The category ‘soul’ is the earliest, most developed, universal, allowing to explore the structure and functioning, formation and development of the inner world of a person. It is the concept of ‘soul’ that appears, starting from ancient and early Christian thought, synonymous with the concept of ‘human life’. The evolution of the content of the ‘sole’ concept in European thought is a reflection of the real processes taking place in the inner being of a person. During the period of anthroposociogenesis, the formation of the human soul takes place, consisting in the ‘gathering’ of its main parts. In the development of spiritual life, one can distinguish the line of ascent – to the spiritual, and the line of descent – to the material, carnal. The line of ascent unfolds from the first steps of history to the bright Middle Ages. The line of descent plays an increasingly active role from the ‘dark Middle Ages’ to the present. In the New and Modern times, the process of reducing the soul into the psyche is actualized. Moral and metaphysical experiences and reflections, which constitute the essence of the soul, lose their leading role. The ‘death of God’ (as the highest moral and metaphysical law) is an expression of the ‘death’ of the soul, leading to the ‘death’ of a person. The “justification” of the soul, its “new finding” will allow a person to realize a “new finding” of himself.

How the Existent and the Deontic Meet
Alexey Timoshhuk
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.1-127-146

The English empiricist philosopher David Hume (1711–1776) formulated the logical problem of the interaction of essence and deontic: moral imperatives, norms, laws, values, goals, policies, etc. are not derived from facts. The existence quantor does not apply to statements with ‘should’, ‘must’. Similarly, artificial intelligence can operate with temporal, epistemic, and even aletic modalities, but cannot analyze deontic and axiological operators, etc. Hume’s guillotine forces a distinction between the normative and the descriptive and the deductive.

Law is the most normative and precise human science, where the present and the ideal are correlated. The desire to define its essence gives rise to fundamental questions about its location. Is it worthwhile to equate norm and being? Is it possible to derive law from social rationing? Can we see it in the psychological need for order and stability, in the subjective experience of duty? How can we bring together the being and the proper in the contradictory category of ‘law’, which means both the objective and the present, and, on the other hand, the valuable and the concrete. The social avatar of the dilemma of the ontic and the deontic is the gap between normative and sociological jurisprudence. The methodological purity of normativism collides with a fluid social reality. Special-legal means and procedures can create a police regime, but they cannot create a system of social justice. Law from the point of view of the proper is the recognition of the dependence of the legal on the social, the political, the economic. Without the proper, however, law loses its instrumentalism. Therefore, the state is like a mangrove biome, uniting heterogeneous environments of the essential and the proper. This article develops models of legal metatheory, or such a descriptor of law, which would explain the forms of the union of the existent and the deontic.

Philosophy or the History of Philosophy: An Analysis of Inversive Relations
Dmitry Sevostyanov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.1-112-126

The article examines the current situation related to the prospects for further development of philosophical knowledge. It is pointed out that in the interpretation of a number of authors, philosophy is now actually reduced to the history of philosophy, turning into a purely historical discipline. Philosophical thought boils down to the analysis and systematization of what was created before, but not to the free search and creation directed to the future.

The current situation has been created due to the practice in which every thought does not arise by itself, but is necessarily based on previously expressed thoughts. Philosophy deals mainly not with the actual, but with the previously described and interpreted reality. Therefore, it is almost impossible for modern philosophers to create on virgin soil. In addition, the amount of philosophical knowledge has reached such a volume that it is almost impossible to keep it within individual human memory. A significant part of philosophical research at present is actually aimed at studying the history of philosophy, while such works sometimes do not contain their own thoughts at all. This situation is considered in philosophy as a systemic inversion: the service, subordinate element of the system acquires a dominant meaning in it.

Of course, the role of the history of philosophy in this discipline itself cannot be disputed. Philosophy is a kind of cumulative knowledge in which the past is inseparable from the present and the future. However, it is impossible to identify the history of philosophy with philosophy itself, because this approach closes any path leading to the future for philosophical thought. It is implied that philosophers from now on should be engaged exclusively in rethinking what was created earlier. The further development of philosophical thought with this approach is actually denied. However, Aristotle pointed out that even the complete denial of philosophy implies the use of philosophical argumentation, and therefore, willingly or unwittingly forces one to accept the existence of a philosophical discipline.

The most important point is that philosophy is a discipline of interest not only for philosophers themselves. Philosophy is not a ‘toy for philosophers’, it is a cognitive tool that is in demand in all other areas of human knowledge. And since science and practice as a whole continue to develop, philosophy will remain in demand precisely as a living, developing discipline, and not as a frozen collection of accumulated thoughts.

Returning to the Philosophical Comprehension of the Phenomenon of Post-Truth
Svetlana Khmelevskaya,  Nataliya Yablokova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.1-11-27

The subject of the study is the phenomenon of post-truth (reflective post-truth and valuative post-truth), considered from the perspective of philosophical methodology, for which the authors turn to the definition of this phenomenon and the analysis of its essence. The article indicates the difficulties that the very construction of this term causes. In addition, the indistinguishability of the notions ‘reflective truth’ and ‘valuative truth’ leads to incorrect translations of the term ‘post-truth’ into Russian. The authors of the article believe that the term ‘post-truth’ can be translated as ‘reflective post-truth’ and applied to reflective knowledge, revealing objects in their own logic of development, and as ‘valuative post-truth’ – in relation to value knowledge, revealing an axiological approach to the world. The analysis of the use of the term ‘post-truth’ has shown that there are at least three approaches: in a negative connotation, as a state of society in which the universally valid truth (objective truth) has ‘disappeared’, everyone interprets it in their own way, although ‘their’ interpretation is, in fact, an imposed interpretation; in a positive connotation, when in a state of post-truth, the truth is not denied, but it is stated that it has changed the form of its existence, dissolving into partial truths expressed by numerous subjects; in a neutral connotation, proceeding from the fact that the post-truth has always been, now, due to new information and communication technologies, it has simply become more noticeable. In conclusion, it is concluded that the situation of post-truth has created new conditions for the development of reflective knowledge, primarily due to the ‘democratization of science’, as well as value knowledge – including through the processes of self-communication. But the results obtained must be critically rethought. This means that it is necessary to return once again to the established rules of the game, analyze them from the perspective of possible risks, and take measures to prevent them. To this should be added the need to develop critical thinking, including among a wide audience of social networks.

Francis Bacon Against Alchemy: Sociopolitical and Philosophical Aspects
Vasily Markhinin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.1-28-48

The paper brings the analysis of the evolution of Bacons’ views on alchemy. The polemics against alchemy has become a central subject of his early writings (1584-1595) on the scientific knowledge. Bacon criticized occult traditions, an integral part of intellectual culture of early modern English establishment. Bacon argued that till his time all serious intellectual efforts of mankind had been directed to futile goals like alchemical transmutations, etc. or endless disputations of natural philosophers; at the same time all the greatest inventions (e.g., nautical needle, gunpowder and printing) had been made only by chance. Bacon believed government should have support of scientific & technological research and suppress alchemical fraud. Doing that a government would gain a most effective tool for increasing its power and wealth.

To support his views Bacon launched an intense propaganda campaign that culminated in the series of masques performed at Elizabethan court in 1592-1595. Baconian efforts caused counter actions of the court members who believed in the efficiency of alchemical enterprises.

During late 1590’s Bacon revised his attitude towards alchemy as well as towards the government, which was able in his opinion to support the development of sciences. The basis of his views is the ethical-theological concept of the values of scientific knowledge, which excludes previous ideas about the role of government in the development of sciences. Another area of research that changed his assessment of alchemy is the work on the problems of the scientific method. In the light of new political-philosophical, axiological and epistemological concepts, criticism of alchemy loses its former degree of relevance for Bacon. The developments made by Bacon in the 1580s-1590s during the polemic against alchemy become a kind of foundation on which he relies in the further development of his philosophical ideas.