On the Paradoxical Mode of Self-Consciousness: Rock Culture as a Marker of Identity
Sergey Dyukin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-374-385

One of the tools that participate in the transformation of the identity system at the stage of transition from modern culture to postmodern culture is rock culture. It offers a person a number of identifi cation opportunities that have different properties compared to the possibilities of defi ning oneself in a manner characteristic of modern culture. There is a partial rejection of identity markers characteristic to the modern era. The identity formed by rock culture, in accordance with current theoretical concepts, can be attributed to multiple, small narrative identities. As its fundamental characteristic feature, the presence of an indefi nite core of identity is considered, which is understood as a set of phenomena perceived and interpreted by the subject as a basis for establishing one’s own identity with other subjects. This uncertainty lies in the weak defi nitions of rock, in the desire of subjects to refuse to positively identify themselves with rock, in denying the existence of this phenomenon as such. At the same time, rock does not turn into its own opposite, does not assume the functions of the excluded Other, remaining an object of centrifugal or centripetal motion. In addition, the weakening of the core of identity is due to the fact that the concept of rock turns into the focus of axiological aspirations of the subject. Rock culture is appropriated by the subject, turning into an absolute epicenter of identifi cation. Subjectivity, thus, is taken out of the framework of one’s own personality and is endowed with the characteristics of an object, while receiving the name of rock.

The real object for building identity disappears, being replaced by a subject, or at least a separate segment of it.

Social Attitudes of the Experience Society and the Logic of Consumer Behavior – Correlation Factors
Yuliya Lobanova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-386-397

This article comprehensively examines and analyzes the historical and cultural context of the transformation of a formerly consumer society into a society of impressions (“a society of experiences”), analyzed from J. Baudrillard and G. Debord to G. Schulze, whose work of the same name made a signifi cant contribution to the process of understanding the causes of change in the attitudes of consumer behavior recorded over the past decades. Developed by G. Schulze, the social concept of “consumption of experiences” of members of modern society is studied from the point of view of the growing crisis of the previous models of mass consumption, which are increasingly ceasing to meet the requirements of modernity. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the features of further development of all these ideas in the form of the emerging counter-culture of anti-consumerism, criticism of overconsumption and a number of psychologizing approaches to the study and search for solutions to the problems of the emerging “emotional economy” in its application to the broader concept of “emotional capitalism” in that form as it is presented in a number of works of domestic and foreign authors.

Value Grounds of Stratagem Thinking. On the Example of Ming A Complete Book of Wisdom (1614 - 1634)
Tatiana Zavyalova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-398-429

In the history of human thought, the question of the human wisdom nature, or the possibility to gain it, has never assumed a simple solution. Chinese thinkers and philosophers answered this question in different ways. The secular and practical character of understanding the concept of wisdom in the Chinese intellectual tradition was largely due to the infl uence of the ethical and political doctrine of Confucianism. From the point of view of Confucian ethics, the idea of using tricks and gimmicks was considered rather dubious. In the history of Chinese thought, there were periods when the intellectual elite had time to realize the beginning of a crisis in society and tried not only to theorize stratagem thinking, but also to fi nd suffi cient ethical grounds for applying stratagems in routine practices. The last third of the Ming dynasty reigning, when A Complete Book of Wisdom was written, was just such a period. At the same time, there was a serious value guidelines transformation of the educated class in China, which could also act as one of the factors in developing interest in stratagems and stratagem thinking. The aim of the article is to analyze the transformation of the value system of Chinese intellectuals, who lived in the last third of the Ming dynasty, and identify the value grounds of stratagem thinking described in A Complete Book of Wisdom.

The article presents a classifi cation of relevant factors that infl uenced the transformation of the value system of educated people under the late Ming. It describes and systematizes the data on the attitude of Ming emperors to educated people and Confucian ethical-political doctrine.  The struggle not only for real power but also for symbolic power in the area of values and ideals was one of the drivers for the transformation of the value system. In addition, the commercialization of life and mass culture was the main factor in the signifi cant change of Confucian philosophy. The article presents the analysis of educated people feelings and attitudes, which entailed changes in approaches to the process of knowledge and social practices. Thus, under the late Ming dynasty, there was the development of new models of social confl ict resolution and value grounds of stratagem thinking.

Soviet Sport: Attempts of Galvanizing Eidos in Modern Films about Outstanding Soviet Athletes
Valentina Lipitskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-430-440

The author believes that the so-called cinematic speaking on the Soviet, that is, an array of texts, formulated within the contours of fi lm, television, and other screen arts, is one of the representative sources shaping the domestic discourse of the reception of the Soviet. Within the framework of this work, research attention is focused on the consideration of modern Russian fi lms about the legends of Soviet sports, which, in the area of the abovementioned cinematic speaking, appeal to a number of phrase themes, such as sports, personality, heroism, asceticism, service, and moral values. According to the author, the repetitive nature of references to Soviet sports mythology is associated with the dire need of having some kind of incredible task fulfi lled; but, unlike, for example, S. Toymentsev, the author considers this task to be cultural, educational and didactic rather than politically predetermined. The author sees Soviet sports biopics as a good opportunity for a large-scale conversation at the level of everyday consciousness, designed to ensure the galvanization of eidos, re-launch of values and remastering of meanings. However, despite the self-evidently noble nature of such intentions, modern sports dramas are unable to fully realize their mission for a number of reasons. The fi rst reason why biographical fi lms about Soviet athletes do not turn into a guide to action, and their protagonists do not become sought-after role models, is the dramatic discrepancy between the glorifi ed personal qualities of the heroes and the main plots of current popular psychology, which consistently inculcates the cult of hedonism and the so-called ‘positive mindset’. The second reason that determines the emergence of the viewer’s “cognitive lag” is associated with the unanimous silencing in such fi lms of the ideological component of Soviet social relations as a factor that necessarily shapes personality (or the reduction of this factor to requisite and decorative markers): a complex of behavioral patterns, choices and motives thus turn out to be impenetrable to the viewer in the absence of interpretative model. As the third reason, the author names the formal, ‘dotted’ manner of depicting Soviet temporality in “champion fi lm sagas” and comes to the conclusion that unpacking and appropriating the didactic, instructive potential of legendary sports stories is impossible without a thoughtful depiction of Soviet social time.

Historical and Cultural Heritage of Towns of the Republic of Crimea in the Context of Constructing the Image of the City
Anzhela Normanskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-441-454

At the current stage of development, towns are in a diffi cult socio-economic situation, when the slowdown in economic and social development is caused by multilevel processes of an internal, regional and national nature. In many ways, the successful existence and functioning of a city depends on its image, i.e. attractiveness both for investors and tourists, and for the inner society – its citizens. In modern conditions, historical and cultural heritage is the basis of identity and continuity of generations, which, among other things, largely determines the image of each city. The relevance of the work is determined by the signifi cance of the historical and cultural heritage of towns of the Republic of Crimea in the socio-cultural and economic development of the region. The new economic reality actualizes the solution of a complex set of problems that hinder the attraction of investments in towns and are associated with the limited economic base, the low level of development of infrastructure facilities and the socio-cultural sphere. The study of the existing complex of monuments of historical and cultural heritage makes it possible to determine the cultural potential of towns in Crimea and the prospects for its use. The subject of the study is the analysis of the historical and cultural heritage of towns of the Republic of Crimea as an integral part of the urban image. The current development strategy of these cities is aimed at fi nding, developing and implementing effective methods of adaptation to modern realities, and creating more favorable living conditions for the population. As a result of historical-comparative and structural-functional analyses, the study identifi es a close relationship between the cultural potential of towns in Crimea and external factors of infl uence (geographical and historical-cultural conditions of settlement development).

Number Three in the Semiotics of Ch.S. Pierse. On the Issue of Triplicity
Sergey Proskurin,  Anna Proskurina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-415-428

The number three refers to an important factor in the construction of the semiotics of Ch. S. Peirce. The number three is a kind of leitmotif of the theory.The whole construction of knowledge rests on primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary, secondary and tertiary are reduced to the three sides of Gottlob Frege’s triangle and appear in a different terminology as representative, object and in­terpretant. These ternary coordinates of thought are its space and embody, in the words of Yu. S. Stepanova, three-dimensional measurement of language.According to Ch. S. Pierce, these coordinates have a teleological meaning. The very concept of Ch. S. Pierce appears as the sum of three trichotomies, which allows twenty-seven combinations of signs, of which seventeen combina­tions are prohibited. Only ten combinations are allowed. The idea of trinity in­volves 310 sign complexes. Some of them are forbidden from the standpoint oflogic. Thus, the index cannot serve as an argument. In the article, this is shown by the seating of subjects at a round table. The subject opposite appears to be on the right, but is actually opposite.

The universality of the trinity appears as a reasoned code of semiotic con­struction. The triadic nature of the concept serves as the basis for constructing the laws of semiosis. Primary is iconic, secondary is indexical, and tertiary is sym­bolic. Questions of trinity arise as implementation of the narrative, when the first is the beginning, the second is the end, and the third is the middle. The concept of three as the middle goes back to ancient art. The paper proposes an individual measurement of the middle as the third element. The counting tradition of the Indo-European peoples and the number of signs of the formula “faith, hope, love” are taken as the basis. The rearrangement of the elements of the formula, when the third in a row − love − occupies the middle second position, goes back to the earliest uses of this formula. This is the original approach to proving the middleness of the third in the tradition of the Indo-European peoples.

Lars von Trier’s Apocalyptic Consciousness in the Anthropology of the House That Jack Did Not Build
Vyacheslav Kon
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-429-454

The subject of the study is the concept of the historical hero as a victor ofthe gods and his role in contemporary Western cultural heritage, with a focus on the reinterpretation of Scandinavian culture in the works of Lars von Trier. The research methodology is based on the analysis of Hollywood’s reception ofneo-European rationalism and the ideas of individualism and free will in Euro­pean culture. The author examines the influence of the implementation of free­dom without morality on the exploration of the idea of the Übermensch (super­man) and discusses unresolved questions in this context. The research findingshighlight the importance of the themes of personal responsibility and freedom in Western culture, as well as the legacy of Scandinavian culture as a source ofthe manifestation of truths. The conclusions of the study emphasize the rele­vance and significance of the discussed issues in the contemporary cultural con­text. The main goal of the research is to identify the consistent stages of Lars von Trier’s apocalyptic consciousness, particularly in the context of resistance to the colonization of art by ontological philosophy and the dominance of Hol­lywood clichés and political sentiments in the film market. This work conducts a methodological investigation into how Lars von Trier applies the philosophy ofimages through cinematography as a tool to separate false and immaculate repre­sentations of the world, with a focus on the problem of sin in his composition. This work methodologically explores this process and analyzes how it interacts with contemporary culture and cinema. In the context of the scientifi c novel­ty of the research, a question arises about Lars von Trier describing himself as a ‘sadistic doctor’ who saves lives but remains, in the eyes of those saved, an an­tichrist and a criminal in the humanistic world and humanity’s defense of a world different from the existing one. The results of this research can be used to study philosophical anthropology in the fi eld of film studies and visual arts, as well as in related social and humanitarian disciplines, to analyze how this theme interacts with culture and society.

The idea of Transfiguration in Russian literature of the 20th century
Irina Kosheleva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-455-468

The article presents the idea of Transfiguration expressed and fixed in the semantic potential of language, sign and symbol as the initial, fundamental idea of Russian literature. The tasks solved in this article were formed under the in­fluence of research in the field of the semantic potential of language, which is revealed to its speakers in specific historical and cultural realities. In particular, the connection between the peculiarities of national consciousness and the lexi­cal meanings of such words that have no direct analogues in other languages (“svet”, “mir”, “pravda”, “volya”), i.e. create very specific meanings that speakers of other languages cannot recognize as such. These meanings form the spiritual foundation of the national character. The analysis of the contextual meanings ofthese words forms the basis of the presented work and leads to the conclusion that they form a semantic unity, including at the level of the idea of the Transfig­uration of man and the world, which is central to Russian culture and literature.

The analysis of the idea of spiritual transformation of man in Russian litera­ture of the XX century is carried out on the basis of representation of seman­tic-semantic models of the artistic worlds of works by I. Shmelev, V. Shukshin,

A. and B. Strugatsky works, including the concepts of the idea of Transfigura­tion. The writers lead their characters through different paths to inner transfor­mation, and the transforming components are always personified. In I. Shmelev’s work, the vector of transformation is formed by the concepts “soul – faith – mir­acle – heart / heart’s look – peace – truth – freedom – light / light / to shine”. In the work of V. Shukshin – “soul – conscience – peace – peacefulness – humil­ity – truth / justice – clarity – light / bright / shine – will / freedom”. In the work of A. and B. Strugatsky – “light / shines / dawn – miracle / miracles – will / will barrier – world / world – hope – truth / half-truth – gift – happiness / happy –soul”. The degree of the hero’s approach to the world, light, truth is different, it is set, among other things, through the quantitative saturation of conceptually significant words in the work and through their correlation with the concepts-antagonists. Thus, an individual vector of movement of the human soul, aspir­ing to the acquisition of new higher meanings, is formed. At the same time, the unifying component for them is the intense inner work, which is continuously conducted by writers and their characters.

Art of Forgery as a Phenomenon of Culture
Tatyana Sholomova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-392-407

The article deals with the problem of falsifi cation of works of art (forgery) and attitudes towards falsifi ed works: falsifi cation as a cultural phenomenon; the meaning of falsifi cation in different types of art; falsifi cation through the eyes of an art connoisseur, philosopher, forger; falsifi cation as an aesthetic and ethical phenomenon; the signifi cance of falsifi cation for modern aesthetic theory and for the art market. The relevance of the topic is justifi ed by a large number of falsifi cations both in the modern art market and in the artistic fi eld. The article defi nes falsifi cation; reveals the problem of distinguishing a fake from legal ‘secondary works’. Particular attention is paid to the lack of clear criteria for identifying falsifi cation: as a rule, this is the intention to bring a secondary work to the market or to the artistic sphere.

The different meaning of falsifi cation in different types of art is associated not only with different opportunities to be the subject of investment, but also with the specifi cs of the types of art. In accordance with the theory of N. Goodman, for ‘autographic’ (‘visual’) types of art, the history of creation of a single unique copy has exceptional value; for ‘allographic’ ones such as cinema and literature, each reproduction is original (but works of these arts are not the subject of investment). T. Kulka, a prominent representative of modern aesthetics, explains why the “correct” aesthetic perception of an original or a fake without a hint from the outside is impossible and always requires knowledge of the context. This is a very important point for understanding the attitude towards falsifi cation: it is not built into the history of art and therefore cannot claim the same reverent attitude towards itself that the originals deserve.

The ethical problem of the existence of falsifi cation is shown on the example of E. Hebborn’s “The Art Forger’s Handbook”, which explains how to shift responsibility for establishing the status of a work to art critics, using the peculiarities of their professional psychology.

In general, the article recognizes the important role of falsifi cation in the modern art market: the fi rst unsuccessful acquisition of a novice collector becomes a kind of act of initiation and strength testing.