The Creativity of V.V. Rozanov: Technique of Description and the Theory of the Change of Things as a Method of Reflecting Reality
Akimov Oleg
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-353-368

The creativity of VVRozanov is a special kind of theory (speculation), allowing one to see things as potencies. The thinker perceives the phenomena and processes of the material and spiritual plane in the context of this speculation. Istria defines the internal and external relationship of these processes as a set of external and internal changes. External changes are defined by the concept of uncertainty, and internal definitions of a certain potency. Rozanov considers the interaction of these potencies simultaneously statically and dynamically. Statically, it presupposes the existence of regularities and the victory of order over chaos. Dynamically manifested as the primacy of randomness in life, since all potencies can not be realized. The interaction of these two forms of change creates life in all its complexity, Rozanov's theory helps us comprehend, therefore, at different periods of the thinker's creativity, both static and dynamic aspects of potentiality that create the history of the world as a sounding word and as a silence. This avoids subjective and one-sided interpretations of the thinker's philosophical heritage. The author uses the method of reconstruction in the work, which makes it possible to show that the philosophical heritage of Rozanov is a semantic field formed around the concept of "potentiality." The scientific novelty of the study lies in the possibility of isolating  broad contexts of Rozanov's work and considering its various aspects as a complete metaphysical and dialectical theory, that helps to integrate different aspects and sides of Rozanov’s creativity  and  makes it more understandable.  

The Purpose of the Poet and the Meaning of Art in the Worldview of Paul Claudel
Kobrinets Maria
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-369-382

The article is an attempt to reconstruct Paul Claudel's views on the tasks of art and the role of a poet. We find a connection between his thoughts and the philosophy of Thomism, and consider the problem of the world order, presented in his work "Poetic Art" (1907) and we show its connection with the question of the aims of poetry. The article explains the meaning of the specific Claudelian term co-naissance, simultaneously translated as "cognition" and "shared birth", "coexistence". This notion is important for understanding Claudel's model of the universe. The basic theoretical intuition that underlies his cosmism is clearly formulated in the mentioned text and developed both in Claudel's literary work and in his articles "Religion and Poetry", "Poetry is Art", "Art and Faith" and others. The notion of the reciprocal relationship of all that exists implies a view of the world as a harmonious divine creation in which man and the artist are directly involved. The duty of the artist is close to that of the Christian and the saint, but it also includes very special tasks. Poetry can even be considered as a priority type of creativity, but Claudel's interest in other arts, in particular painting. The genuine artist and, more specific, the poet are charged with both the knowledge of divine truths and the instruction of the public. In this connection, the conclusions also include an analysis of the question of the artist's moral responsibility, to which Claudel provides an answer that assumes the primacy of ethics over aesthetics. In the historical and cultural context, this answer itself may hardly seem original, unlike the way of justifying it — that was revealed by the author of the article.

military poetry, modernism, logocentrism, theurgy, eschatology, neo-mythologism, Russian nationality, life-building
Kuznetcov Ilya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-383-397

The subject of the article is modern Russian poetry based on military themes. This poetry was not previously considered as an artistic system. It began to develop extremely intensively in 2022 in connection with the beginning of the special military operation in Ukraine. Such poetry existed throughout the eight years of the war in the Donbas, but now it has manifested itself as an established thematic community, with signs of a current, and has attracted considerable public attention. At the end of 2022, the publishing house "Peter" released the anthology "Resurrected in the Third World", in which this community is presented comprehensively. The anthology brought together poets belonging to different generations, as well as in some cases adhering to different aesthetic principles. However, their lyrics, presented in the anthology, have ideological unity and reveal common stylistic features. Comparative-historical, as well as phenomenological and hermeneutic methods were used to identify these features. Their application allowed us to formulate a number of observations that appear as the results of the study. These observations are as follows.

Modern military lyrics have a number of features that distinguished the art of Russian Art Nouveau. First of all, it is logocentrism, the belief in the substantiality of the word and its ability to change (in the language of modernity – "transform") reality. Hence, it is a belief in the theurgic potential of poetry. This is eschatology and apocalypticism, specifically characteristic of the Russian consciousness and clearly manifested in the literature of the Silver Age. This is a fundamental religiosity combined with neo-mythologism. This is a pronounced idea of nationality, a sense of the Russian world as God's people, and in the extreme case, as a divine people. This is the actualization of the idea of life-building.

Two conclusions follow from the observations made. First: military poetry, including the lyrics of military commanders, today represents one semantic whole, in fact, a formed current. Second: the above-mentioned properties of military poetry allow us to believe that at present the postmodern crisis is being overcome by Russian literature, and it is restoring its modernist identity, which was undermined in the 1960s.

The Throne Imagery and the Otherworld (Thronosis of Demeter, Ereshkigal’s Throne and the Divine Throne in Ascent Apocalypses)
Kozhevnikov Mikhail
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-398-419

The article investigates the throne imagery in the Homeric hymn "To Demeter", "Inanna's Descent to the Underworld" and in several Judeo-Christian ascent apocalypses: in the First and Second "Books of Enoch", "The Ascension of Isaiah" and "The Apocalypse of Abraham". These texts are united by the theme of transition to another world, death-rebirth, initiation and related revelation of the secrets of another world. It is noteworthy that in all thematically related texts, a significant role in the development of the plot is played by scenes with a fundamentally static image: a solemnly seated Demeter, the throne of the underground goddess Ereshkigal or the throne of God. The article consecutively examines these three images, their variations and their role in the development of the plot. The first part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the role of seated Demeter in the text of the hymn. It is suggested that the significance of the image of the seated goddess in the text about the main myth of Eleusis resulted in its reflection in the ritual practice of the mysteries and, subsequently, in the representation of such practices in the Athenian drama, in the ritual of θρόνωσις and in a parody of it in Aristophanes' comedy "The Clouds", which is briefly discussed in the article. The second part of the research is devoted to the climactic scene of “The Descent of Inanna” in the throne room of Ereshkigal. Approaching the throne becomes the final stage of “anti-initiation”, the immersion of the goddess into the world of the dead and the loss of her earthly and heavenly powers, the logical outcome of which is the death of Inanna and the beginning of a new storyline: the salvation from the world of the dead. The final part of the paper deals with the divine throne acting as a milestone, both requiring and signifying the completion of protagonist’s initiation and rebirth, resulting in them becoming a member of the angelic heavenly host. The latter is shown as a prerequisite for the character’s ability to receive the divine revelation – that is, to reveal the essence of any apocalypse.

Philosophy as an Initiation into the Mysteries: The Role of Memory in Overcoming the Fear of Death
Filimonova Angelina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.3.2-420-435

The present paper examines the extent to which the mystery practices of the Classical period may have influenced Plato's philosophical views. The many quotations from dialogues of different periods give a clear picture of the fact that Plato's conception of philosophy was shaped by the mysterial experience. The notion of the mysterial experience itself is of course in need of serious reconstruction. However, on the basis of literary and archaeological evidence it is accepted as a working hypothesis in the article that the mysterial experience can be understood as overcoming corporeality, but not in the sense of rejecting the body, but in the sense of overcoming those cognitive distortions which are due to corporeality. In a religious context, the mysterial experience may have provided the initiate with some information about posthumous existence, but for Plato this was only a starting point. By going further and applying often poetic and religious expressions to describe his cognitive experience Plato extends the realm of the mysterial experience to knowledge of the true world order. Particular attention is paid to the notion of philosophy as a kind of divine frenzy. Thus, Plato appears to us as a philosopher interested, among other things, in the inner world of man. Plato's interest in personal experience, the notion of the soul and the awareness of his own mortality betrays a tendency to penetrate into the deeper layers of consciousness, revealing a mystical Plato.

Musical Minimalism and Russian Musicology: History of Research, Genesis and Evolution
Zvyagina Anastasia
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-438-458

The article presents an analysis of the main versions of the emergence and evolution of minimalism, proposed by both domestic and foreign art history. In the domestic literature of the 80-90s, there was an opinion that the origin of musical minimalism was a reaction to the European avant-garde that preceded it. However, today this statement looks somewhat speculative and not entirely reliable, due to objective historical reasons. The lack of information about Western art in all its diversity that existed at that time made it necessary to fill in the informational gaps with theoretical constructions and assumptions, one of which turned into a sincere conviction of many researchers that each new avant-garde phenomenon arose as a reaction to the previous one. Given the lack of facts, such a view could be considered quite justified, but it did not make it possible to recognize the true nature of minimalism. The modern level of information accessibility makes it possible to overcome the prevailing stereotype regarding the genesis and evolution of minimalism. The role of the international creative association “Fluxus” was very important in its development, in the ranks of which both representatives of the European avant-garde and American experimenters freely exchanged ideas. Very different and sometimes underestimated sources merged in musical minimalism, among which are the heritage of the musical and non-musical avant-garde, abstractionist and visual minimal art, experimental audio technicism and actionism, and an appeal to non-European music. This fusion of ideas and artistic techniques eventually formed a new synthetic phenomenon; a special minimalist style of a number of American composers - T. Riley, S. Reich, F. Glass, J. Adams, as well as European composers, among which M. Nyman became the most prominent figure. It was Nyman who proposed to extend the term ‘minimalism’ to the art of music, starting with the creative searches of J. Cage and his followers. In recent decades, among domestic musicologists, in relation to minimalism, the prefix ‘post’ has been increasingly added, heralding the transition to the era of postminimalism. However, in the avant-garde currents, such a transition was never synchronous and occurred gradually, when the subject of artistic reflection consistently rejected and replaced the former modernist conceptualism, actualizing direct perception and emotional reactivity. However, in musical minimalism, including its Russian branch, the mentioned process has not yet reached its final stage

Cinema as a “Soft Power” Instrument of the State: Examples of Spanish and U.S. Cinematography
Kulikova Darya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-459-475

The article considers cinema as an instrument of soft power of states, using the example of cinema in Spain and the USA. Different approaches are shown. On the one hand, the United States, which uses universal concepts, on the other hand, Spain, which uses stereotypical ideas and recognizable images about its country. In American films, most often, universal topics are used that are understandable to all people: the struggle between good and evil (moreover, evil is universal, threatening the whole world, and good is the United States), love, happiness, compassion. Even if purely national issues are raised in American films (for example, African-American racism), these problems are presented as universal, as a problem of human dignity, honor, etc. In Spanish cinema, well-established stereotypes about Spain and its culture are actively used: bullfighting, flamenco, Andalusian folklore, traditional cuisine and clothing (for example, the matador costume), as well as typical, recognizable images of the Spanish man and woman (Spanish macho - Antonio Banderas and swarthy, passionate, beautiful Carmen - Penelope Cruz). All this forms the concept of ‘españolada’. The United States does not officially support its film production, but coordinates and consults with the film productions and directors through unofficial resources, primarily the Motion Picture Association of America, whose leadership includes many former White House officials. Spain, on the contrary, actively supports its filmmakers, helps to promote Spanish films in the international arena, develops joint film production, stimulates the shooting of films at the state level, including foreign ones, using Spanish locations, etc. Thus, one can see two different approaches to cinema as an instrument of soft power, and although American cinema certainly dominates the world market, the obvious success of Spanish cinema, which is becoming increasingly popular, should be noted.

Unfulfilled Identity
Yurchenko Egor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-476-493

This article examines unfulfilled identity, which is expressed in the subject’s inability to actualize his or her identity due to internal complexes or social pressures. First, the main types of mistakes that can lead to erroneous actions and processes are highlighted. These processes, form an unfulfilled identity. The first type of mistake is the misunderstanding of one’s own natural state and social expectations. In this case, the subject cannot relate his or her abilities, characteristics and functional properties to reality. As a result, there is a tendency to form only the apparent integrity of an identity that can easily collapse. As a result, the subject is unable to be fully established as a person. This kind of identity has been called a ‘failed’ identity. The second mistake is to shift perception to external factors, disregarding internal experiences and attitudes. Thus, one’s interests, needs, and desires are replaced by others that are taken from the environment. A substituted identity is formed, which also does not have the property of completeness because of the lack of systemic connections between the personality and reality. Such an identity is called ‘substituted’. The author discusses the main reasons for the formation of an unfulfilled identity. The reasons are divided into different systems: global, local-social and individual. Thus, the first cause is identified as globalization. Its influence covers all subsequent systems. Globalization leads to the blurring of norms, differentiation and separation of values and attitudes. The processes of upbringing within different social institutions are included in the local-social system. The author outlines the main problems of upbringing and growing up, which affect the formation of identity. Subjective distortions are on the next level, complexes and mistakes that lead to unfulfillment. They include the inability to concentrate and accept the consequences of choices, associated with a lack of responsibility; denial of biological determinants and the narrative of one’s own existence, a lack of life resources.

Socio-Philosophical and Culturalogical Thought in Relations between Russia and Serbia
Kartseva Aleksandra
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-427-443

The article deals with the issues of socio-philosophical and culturological thought as a factor of interaction between Russia and Serbia in the modern European space. In the study the author presents the historical periods of socio-cultural development of relationships between the two countries, beginning from the first millennium. The work focused on identifying the common mental, cultural and historical commonalities of our peoples which allowed for the development of interaction between the two countries in the field of scientific cooperation, socio-philosophical, cultural and spiritual relations [1, c. 244-250]. The author defines the role of the language of communication and examines an important stratum of Serbian culture: Orthodoxy. In this context, the aspects of spiritual and cultural unity between Russia and Serbia, which have shaped the unity of views of the representatives of Serbian science and cultural, socio-philosophical and spiritual-cultural thought have emerged. The author defines the role of the ‘Russian House’ Centre for Culture and Science in Belgrade, Serbia, as a fulcrum of cultural, scientific and religious life of the Russian immigrant community and a firm manifestation of the Russian-Serbian spiritual, socio-philosophical and cultural ties between the two states.

The paper focuses on such phenomena of intercultural contacts between Russia and Serbia as the scientific and cultural influence of the Russian intelligentsia after the 1917 revolution. Several waves of Russian emigration in the 19th and 20th century had the biggest impact on Serbian spiritual culture, architecture, civil engineering and art. One of the first associations of Russian post-November emigrants was the Archeological Society of Serbia (1921), represented by the Slavist historian A.L. Pogodin. Emigration to Serbia increased after the ruefully known ‘Philosophical steamer’ in 1922. This year, the St. Petersburg scholarly community widely marked the 100th anniversary of this exodus of Russian intellectuals, which marked the loss of the spiritual forces of Soviet Russia, but there was a considerable acquisition of culture, science, architecture, and theatrical art in Serbia, and thus in Europe.

The Conformity to Nature Phenomenon in Modern Japanese Architecture
Dumnova Elnara
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-388-405

The article examines the uniqueness of modern architecture in Japan from the point of view of combining aesthetic principles, the origins of which go back to the traditional religious and  philosophical thought of the Far Eastern civilization, with new design techniques. The author gives a retrospective analysis of its formation, starting from the Meiji era. The phenomenon of the naturalness of the architecture of metabolism and minimalism is revealed based on the analysis of the most important Japanese aesthetic principles, the observance of which allowed modern Japanese architects to create an architectural sign-symbolic space filled with deep meanings reflecting the connection of times and generations.

The understanding of form in the Far Eastern aesthetic tradition is considered, through the analysis of the concepts of katati, kata and sugata, as well as its determination within the framework of the ‘aesthetics of wind’. The importance of the ideological principles of kaei and ma in shaping in the architecture of metabolism and minimalism, as well as in the organization of space, is revealed. The concretization of the kaei principle in relation to the architectural form is the recognition of layering and the duality of the latter. The form hides the inner semantic content of an architectural object, being a kind of shell, a symbol. In addition, the explication of the kaei principle is observed in the transition of internal space to external space. This is how a sense of unity with nature is achieved, even in an urbanized environment. This principle is embodied in the aesthetic concept of renmentai.

The category of the main architecture is a space–time interval. Applied to architectural space, ma reflects emptiness and rhythm. Ma unites and fuses space and time; it is expressed in such things as openings, transitional spaces, space defining the form, smoothly changing forms.

The analysis of the principle of excess of color comes to the conclusion that the formation

of the aesthetics of black and white is a reflection of the characteristics of wabi – simplicity. Using the example of a semiotic analysis of the works of architects-metabolists and minimalists, including the projects of Kisho Kurokawa, Kenzo Tange, Tadao Ando, the implementation

of some traditional aesthetic principles in modern Japanese architecture is considered, that allowed us to achieve harmony of architecture and nature.