Cultural geography of philosophies

Siberian Philosophy: an Intellectual Challenge to Overcome "Provincialism" and "Indigeneity"
Nikolai Rozov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-11-31

The Siberian philosophy possesses features of both types: "provincial philosophy" (secondary, oriented to modern European and American traditions) and "indigenous philosophy" (isolated, discussing a secluded circle of local and / or long-outdated ideas). At the same time, there is a potential for a breakthrough to “metropolitan philosophy”, i. e. transformation of Siberian philosophy into one of the significant centers of the domestic and world philosophical network. The factors of overcoming “provincialism” and “indigeneity” include the combination of novelty and significance of results, the discovery and active discussion of deep difficulties, heated discussions on topics relevant in world philosophy with an indispensable original contribution, the combination of “pilgrimage”, “missionary activities”, attracting “stars” and interns from different centers of the global philosophical network. The definite competitive advantages and opportunities based on the positive features of the “Siberian ethos”can help to develop Siberian philosophy to prevail “provincialism” and “indigeneity”: courage and perseverance in overcoming difficulties, sanity, ingenuity, curiosity, practicality, horizontal solidarity and a willingness to mutual assistance.

To Originality of Siberian Philosophy through the Development of the “Philosophy of Siberia”
Andrey Ivanov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-32-38

The author comments on the article by N.S. Rozov “Siberian Philosophy in front of Intellectual Challenge: Overcoming ‘Provincialism’ and ‘Indigeneity’”. The author points out that self-consciousness of Siberian philosophers is still in its infancy, and their positioning themselves within world and Russian philosophy suffers either from “provincialism” (borrowing of theoretical ideas and their secondary commentary), or from “indigeneity” (fixation on their own, often homegrown constructions). The author highlights the idea that for deep self-awareness, creative consolidation and social self-affirmation, Siberian philosophers need a collective discussion and development of exactly the “philosophy of Siberia”. The involvement of metropolitan philosophers in discussing the problems of Siberia and its significance for the development of the entire Russian society can be not only a means of strengthening the ties between metropolitan and Siberian philosophers and a way to overcome our common ‘provinciality’, but also be a point of renewal and revival of all Russian philosophy, its transformation from spheres of purely abstract and obscure for the society philosophical conceptual games into the platform for a collective discussion of urgent and deeply vital problems of the national being. In this context the author draws special attention to the organization of regular nationwide interdisciplinary scientific seminar on the problems of complex development of Siberia. Perhaps it is the Siberian philosophers who have reason to act as its initiators, and Novosibirsk Academgorodok seems to be the best place to hold it.

Pragmatic Project of Siberian Philosophy: Pro et Contra
Grigory Illarionov,  Vyacheslav Kudashov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-39-56

The article is a response to the policy statement of Professor N. Rozov, proposing ways of developing Siberian philosophy with the potential to overcome its ‘provincialism’ and ‘indigeneity’ and turn it into a ‘metropolitan’ science. Designating Rozov’s project as pragmatic, the authors highlight the advantages of the formation of the philosophical network of Siberia and searching for scientific ‘underlying difficulties’ and discussing them in close contact with ‘metropolitan’ science. This philosophical network is based on the creation of a thematic unity, a common field of philosophy and “entry points” into it. Being implemented, the project is able to increase the intellectual resource of Siberian philosophy and intensify the exchange with other philosophical networks. Problems of the Rozov’s project include the use of the imposed, value-loaded concepts of ‘provincial’ and ‘indigenous’ science, which depreciate the philosophical work of Siberian authors on the basis of their thematic independence from scientific ‘metropolis’ and disinterest of the ‘metropolis’ in the dialogue on ‘non-metropolitan’ topics. The methodological basis of the project as a whole is characterized by ‘sociological reductionism’, the reduction of philosophical activity to the social relations of status, stratification, philosophical infrastructure. The disadvantage of this approach is that, taken as a maxim of behavior, it absorbs the internal factors of the development of philosophy - the freedom to choose a research topic and focus on obtaining knowledge rather than social recognition. The authors’ version of the ‘third way’ of Siberian philosophy, which is not reducible to ‘provincialism’ and ‘indigeneity’, is to strengthen the emphasis on the personal aspect of philosophical creativity. At the same time, recognition and intellectual resources are seen not as a goal and means, but as an important but optional result of the dialogue of the philosophers of Siberia with each other and with the ‘metropolis’, based on joint intellectual service of the inner need for knowledge. The third way is seen as the creation of a philosophical network that serves the ‘love of wisdom’, not reducible to one or another social relationship that accompanies philosophy.

Young Generation of Siberian Philosophers: Position in the Intellectual Network
Olga Persidskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-57-61

This is feedback on N.S. Rozov’s article “Siberian Philosophy in front of Intellectual Challenge: Overcoming ‘Provincialism’ and ‘Indigeneity’”. The author considers various forms of adaptation to the communicative distance in the intellectual network. The author analyses the reports of young philosophers participating in the All-Russian Conference of Young Scientists of Siberia “Actual Problems of Humanitarian and Social Research”.

Some Remarks on N. S. Rozov’s Ideas
Vasiliy Syrov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-62-66

The author analyses the ideas considered in N. S. Rozov’s paper. He agrees with the division into two types of philosophy: “indigenous” and “provincial”. The author affirms that the Russian philosophical tradition as a whole has a provincial character. He believes that this state of affairs characterizes the way the research community functions and allows us to find our place in the international “division of labor.” It is noted that the experience of postcolonial studies could help in the search for originality and identity of Siberian philosophy.

On Self-Determination of a Philosopher
Sergey Smirnov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-71-76

This is feedback on the article by N.S. Rozov “Siberian Philosophy in front of Intellectual Challenge: Overcoming ‘Provincialism’ and ‘Indigeneity’”. The author stresses the fact that despite the quantitative concentration of philosophers (as well as everything else - capital, information, people, etc.) in the metropolitan cities, the very event in philosophy, i.e. the actual eventuality of the author’s thought is not at all determined by the geographical habitat of the philosophizing subject. The author suggests describing the philosopher's topos not in the categories of geography and social statuses, but in the categories of I. Kant: philosophy can be built according to the school concept and the world concept.

The Potential of Siberian Philosophy
Oleg Donskikh
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-77-80

This is feedback on N.S. Rozov’s article “Siberian Philosophy in front of Intellectual Challenge: Overcoming ‘Provincialism’ and ‘Indigeneity’”. The author highlights provincialism of Siberian philosophy. Provincialism can create a sense of inferiority among the provincials - then provincialism can be treated negatively. However, there is another side of provincialism: consciousness of being unspoiled, rooted in the national culture; this provincialism is treated positively. Negative provincialism is quite surmountable, but the question remains, if positive provincialism has any chance to be realized? I think that it can be realized only if sincere curiosity of Siberian philosophers is directed towards the endless spaces of Siberia, as a political, cultural and geographical concept. Then we can talk about a certain type of person, and about the correspondence between habitat and mentality, etc. And the significance of the corresponding philosophy will be determined only by the level of reflection and representation.

The State and the Trends of Potential Development of Siberian Philosophy
Vladimir Razumov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-81-86

This article is a response on N.S. Rozov’s article “Siberian Philosophy in front of Intellectual Challenge: Overcoming ‘Provincialism’ and ‘Indigeneity’”. I will begin the discussion with its high assessment as the sound scientific research carried out in the genre of “Sociology of Philosophy”. The author of the commented article, on the one hand, notes the fact of a certain professional consolidation of philosophers of Siberia, on the other hand, he draws attention to the fact that the further development of the phenomenon of the Siberian philosophy is possible only if we can provide an adequate response to the challenge to overcome such vices of the modern Russian philosophy as ‘provincialism’ and ‘indigeneity’. In general, N.S. Rozov considers the state and potential trends of the Siberian philosophy development in terms of R. Collins’ concept of intelligent networks. I completely agree with the author of the article regarding the expediency of using this approach. However, N.S. Rozov carries out his research within the framework of a provincial tradition. In my commentary, I raise the question: which of the currently available challenges the intellectual network of Siberian philosophers should respond to? In my opinion, the route of Siberian philosophy evolution according to N.S. Rozov is hardly realistic, because its implementation will take significant time (several generations). I will make an assumption that the main tension in intellectual activity by the end of the XX and the beginning of the XXI century focuses on issues of changing dominance in the world culture from science and education to technology and techniques. In the changed conditions, the goal of Russian universities to overtake world universities is deactivated. Therefore, attention should not be focused on the usual forms of scientific discourse, usually focused on the generation and discussion of ideas, problems, theories, but on developing cognitive instruments, providing the transfer of knowledge from science and education to the creation of new technologies and techniques. It should be taken into account that organization of reasoning does not differ much from the samples of Por-Royal logic of the 17th century. It is also appropriate for philosophers to think about practices of inclusion in project activities. For example, philosophers of Siberia suggest adding to the national projects the following one – ‘The Wisdom of Russia’.

The Pursuit of Truth Does Not Preclude Reflection Over The Sociality of Philosophical Creativity
Nikolai Rozov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-87-103

My critics made the most serious remarks on the following issues: 1) the (in)significance of geography and social environment for philosophical creativity, 2) rejection of intellectual hierarchies, 3) whether a high desire for truth excludes reflection on the social aspects of philosophical creativity. An analysis of each example of "independence" of philosophy from geographical location (B. Spinoza, L. von Wittgenstein, M. Bakhtin, M. Heidegger) shows the paramount importance of the social environment of each thinker both in the formative period for his work, and in the mature period for high lifetime and/or posthumous intellectual reputation. The social environment itself (inclusion in a certain intellectual network) is largely, and in the past centuries, almost completely determined by geographical location with a specific cultural and intellectual background. The next question concerns the real contradiction between the ideal of equality in the "republic of scientists" and the reality of hierarchies of intellectual prestige between individual thinkers, between nodes and parts of intellectual networks. This contradiction is prevailed as an imperative to overcome the “illegal” hierarchy which means achieving such creative results and such an intellectual position that excludes the possibility of ignoring or arrogant neglect from “capital” positions. The most difficult question concerns the correlation of “importance” (intellectual significance, validity, proximity to the truth) and “audibility” (recognition of the results by contemporaries, if they even notice them). A model of five-part cognitive relation in philosophy is presented, on the basis of which it is shown that the “pursuit of truth in itself” does not prohibit reflection on the social nature of one’s own creativity, but allows one to more accurately express one’s thoughts. From this perspective, the collective strategy of integration of efforts within the framework of Siberian philosophy is justified as a proven way to achieve the long-term significance of ideas by the famous regional philosophical schools of the past.

Philosophy: Tradition and Modernity

Transhumanism and the Problem of Immortality
Evgeny Ivanov,  Oleg Shimelfenig
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-104-122

Transhumanism is an actively developing form of the modern worldview, which regards the overcoming of the biological conditionality of a human being and the achievement of individual immortality as the main task facing humanity. The main disadvantage of transhumanism is not its ethical unacceptability, but rather its philosophical naivety - which is manifested in the uncritical acceptance of the naturalistic model of man as the only possible one and discarding without any sufficient justification and consideration of all the others, including alternative (non-natural) concepts, and religious - philosophical concepts of human nature. The article shows that naturalistic understanding of a person is confronted with very significant, essentially insurmountable problems concerning the nature of “the self” and the solution of the psychophysical problem, which makes it necessary to evaluate naturalism as a false model of understanding human nature. Next, the problems of transhumanism and immortality are viewed through the prism of the plot-game paradigm, the main feature of which is the proposal to add a third parameter to the space-time model of the world - an individual who in each instant perceives the first two aspects in his own way - space and time. In general, this gives a plot perception of reality to each creature at a given moment in a given place, while their perceptions and actions are somehow coordinated with all others, mutually complementing, “balancing” within the framework of a holistic Cosmic Game. From this point of view, each “the Self” is, first of all - the scenario according to which his body and a set of ready-made reactions to typical events are formed, and then a collection of the stories of his life from birth to the current moment is constantly rewritten. Thus, it makes no sense to make plans to achieve the immortality of the “the Self”, without having a clear answer to the question, what the “the Self” is. Only by studying what death really is we can decide if it is the enemy to us or the door to other worlds, behind which there are enormous opportunities for our spiritual evolution.

The Paradigms of Religious Liberty in Christian Culture
Anton Komarov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-123-138

The article suggests the author's concept of Christian reflection of religious liberty through a number of stable paradigms. The author considers briefly the following paradigms: the paradigm of apologists, the paradigm of Augustine, Evangelical paradigm, the paradigm of Christian modernism and the Second Vatican Council. The author considers the paradigms proposed in the article to be suitable for the description of the complex phenomenon of freedom of religion, as it excludes the existence of a single model of reflection within the Christian confessional worldview. Each paradigm has its own unique set of principles that distinguish one paradigm from the others. The paradigm of apologists is connected with the New Testament biblical tradition, based on the “defensive” tactics of the church, excluding coercion in religious affairs. At the same time there is an idea of the church as a community separated from the world and the separate coexistence of the two kingdoms: the secular and the church. It later formed the basis of the doctrine of separation between church and state. At the heart of the paradigm of Augustine or the paradigm of the dominant church was the doctrine of Aurelius Augustine on the close relationship of state and church. It had various historical forms: Byzantine, papal, Synodal, Anglican, etc., which used various degrees of violence in matters of faith. In contrast to the previous one, there appeared an Evangelical paradigm that provided mutual independence of the church and the state. In its development, it destroyed the framework of previous forms of state-confessional relations, relying not on the authority of tradition, but on the principle of free interpretation of the Bible. Within its framework, the concept of a Free Church as an autonomous religious organization independent of the state was formulated. The paradigm of Christian modernism was formed under the influence of philosophy and liberal approach to the Bible. It was expressed in the high ethical pathos and primacy of Christian ethics over dogma, the perception of the Christian church in itself outside the confessional framework and the acceptance of universal Christianity, the primacy of each personal experience over the tradition of the church, the denial of the framework of knowledge of God. The paradigm of the Second Vatican Council is an example of renewal and modernization within a large and authoritative confession. After the Council, the Catholic Church made Christian humanism its official ideology, proclaimed a tolerant approach to representatives of other Christian and non-Christian religions, and took a step towards a more open understanding of Christian values and ideas.

Philosophical anthropology, philosophy of culture

How Can One Represent in Thought Research in Philosophy and Science?
Vadim Rozin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-139-153

The author raises the question of the existence of scientific research in philosophy, as well as what research in philosophy and science is in general. The scientific status of philosophy is denied, while the interaction of philosophy and science in modern culture is emphasized. The author notes that the studies, as we understand them today, took shape quite late, not earlier than in the first half of the 20th century. Although in philosophy, there was something similar to research, perceived as dialectic (Plato) and thinking (Aristotle), which originated in ancient culture; in science, research develops later in the Hellenistic period (Archimedes is already a real scientist, not a philosopher). It is proposed to reconstruct the study, in which the problems and tasks are defined, as well as the construction of schemes and ideal objects, objective and subjective aspects are considered. A subjective aspect means self-actualization of the personality of a philosopher or a scientist in the process of research. The author discusses and characterizes the already mentioned distinctions on the material of two cases (Plato's “Pir” and Galileo’s work “Conversations and Mathematical Proofs Concerning Two New Branches of Science Relating to Mechanics and Local Motion with the Appendix about the Centers of Gravity of Different Bodies”). At the same time, they are compared with each other in order to clarify their features for philosophy and science. The author considers two cases of the formation and use of research methodology: first, when the methods have already been formed and determine the entire study, the second, formation of the methodology during the study itself. At the end of the article, the author discusses some features of the research, which are determined by its belonging to the institute of modern science.

Functioning of Inclusive Strategies in the Mythological and Ritual Context of Traditional Culture
Kirill Lugovoy,  Marina Kuratchenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-154-170

This article is devoted to the study of the problem of adaptation and social positioning of physically disabled people in the archaic society. These inclusive strategies are defined by common notions of space and time, ways of forming identity, character of determining boundaries between the norm and anti-norm. The notion of the need to maintain stability is the key element for the traditional culture, and any way out of the normal and familiar is seen as a risk to the whole community. It is worth drawing attention to the fact that here it is about the received, but not inborn deformities. Having been injured a person can not perform his function, he becomes marginalized, which is extremely undesirable for the traditional society. Consequently, there is a need for such a mechanism that allowed disabled people to find their unconditional place in society, which, as any stable position, must be accurately defined and have a clear and functional algorithm of theoretical and practical reproduction.

The study is based on the structural-semiotic approach, which is based on K. Levi-Strauss and V. Ya. Propp’s theoretical and practical constructions, which has been further developed in the works of number of national and international researchers. Also, comparative methodology, which allows to compare similar variants of traditional world perception with each other and its implementation in relevant texts, and thus to recreate the missing components of the world picture of this culture, plays a big role in this study.

The analysis of archaic plots leads to the conclusion that traditional culture offers a variety of strategies to solve problems of maintaining social stability, providing unique and paradoxical opportunities for the effective functioning. Besides, social positioning of physical impairment within traditional culture should prospectively be considered in terms of notions about the necessity of compensation of lost opportunities by other ones, acquired as a result of injury. Here there is the rhythm of losses and acquisitions, customary to archaic worldview, when the damage in one area is compensated by the advantage in another.

The Anthropic Principle in Modern Science and Its Ontological Interpretation
Shaoyun Bao
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-171-180

The author of the article carries out ontological research of the anthropic principle in the limelight of worldview and scientific ideas. The author considers theistic and classical scientific approaches for their justification and shows their methodological incorrectness. In the theistic concept, its representatives stop the course of their reasoning as soon as it comes to the Creator who “intended to create” a certain world. The problem of interpretation is transferred from the material to the ideal level, but it does not find a satisfactory justification. In classical scientific approaches, the coincidence of constants is considered as an incredible accident and is explained by the existence of a plurality of worlds or even their ensemble, which again transfers the problems of interpretation to a higher level of being, but does not justify the essence of the case. In this and that case, the answer to the question, why the Universe we observe is like this, – remains open. In the context of modern post-non-classical scientific explanations, it is possible to substantiate the anthropic principle without additional worldview speculations. The universe functions according to certain laws, in which no objective was originally set. And since the goal has not been set in advance, it is methodologically incorrect to talk about the probability of the appearance of a particular structure, since the concept of a “favorable event” in principle is absent. When a complex structure is formed, the probability of its occurrence becomes equal to one – this is a reliable event. According to the author, the appearance of a man in such an ontological interpretation acts as a natural stage in the evolution of the cosmos. In this case, it is impossible to speak about a specific biological species, but we can speak about the fundamental possibility of complication of matter, as a result of which certain properties appeared in the system that had not taken place at the earlier stages of the structural organization of matter. The appearance of new systemic properties at each level of structural organization of matter leads to an increasingly complex structure that sooner or later will lead to the birth of human mind. In other words, in modern scientific interpretations, an anthropological turn to the understanding of the Universe as a place of “moving a man into the Universe” is carried out, and his role in the further development of civilization is incommensurably increased.

Philosophical Substantiation of Morality in the Modern World: Priorities and Models
Fatima Nagoy
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.1.1-181-195

The article investigates the problem of philosophical substantiation of morality, the urgency of which is caused by aggravation of contradiction between the current state of ethical knowledge and the need to understand the new moral reality. The main issues, covered in the paper, are the following ones: defining the priorities, analyzing methodological models and defining the contours of the ethics future based on the disclosure of the content of classical and non-classical approaches to ethics. The author highlights the idea that philosophical justification of ethical knowledge reveals the interrelated statements: morality is the realm of real human experience; the starting point of morality is not an autonomous person, but people in their relationship to each other; the moral quality of human relations is determined by the ability to put oneself in the place of the other and to support general social agreement. Morality is a reaction to a specific human situation in the world and it is adequate to the peculiarities of human existence. To solve the formulated tasks, the author considers the problem from the generalized historical perspective and uses comparative approach, she also analyses advantages and shortcomings of methodological models showing characteristics of modern ethics. The first model under analysis is the metaphysical model, which establishes the conformity of moral provisions and methods of their philosophical justification, the second – an intuitive normative-ethical model, the third – a communicative normative-ethical model. Further, the author characterizes the existing approaches and points of view to solving this problem: absolutist and relativistic, special attention is paid to the activity approach. The author substantiates her position by emphasizing, that modern ethics should continue the humanistic tradition, taking into account the issues of moral attitude not only to a man, but also to the humanity as a whole. The author highlights the tendency to strengthen the opposition of morality and ethics nowadays. Some researchers think that these concepts denote coexisting phenomena. Responding to accelerated changes in the objective and ethical reality requires work to create a modern ethical paradigm, the essential characteristic of which should be the orientation of the person and society for the future. In conclusion, the author sums up the results: the formation of a new image of ethics implies moral creativity of the subject as a source of it. The problem of ethical codification is of particular importance, which is expressed in the practice of creating professional, corporate and service codes. Moreover, modern texts of codes combine features of professional, corporate and official documents. The future of ethics depends on the transformation of its basic foundations that will make morality the priority in the society. The prospects of ethics are connected with the improvement of tools and mechanisms of applied ethical research.