Philosophy: Tradition and Modernity

Logic of the Second Part of Asanga’s “Compendium of Abhidharma” and the Structure of Buddhist Practices
Sergey Burmistrov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-11-30

The logical structure of the second part of Asanga’s “Compendium of Abhidharma” (Abhidharma-samuccaya) correspond with the organization of Buddhist practice leading to the attainment of the highest goal of Buddhism – enlightenment (nirvāṇa). The first chapter of this part expounds the essence of Four Noble Truths being the basis of the Buddha’s teaching that is to be comprehended by disciple. The first Noble Truth, or the truth of suffering (duḥkha-satya) proclaims essential improperness of any existence in the wheel of rebirth (saṃsāra) determined by universal changeability. The second Noble Truth, or the truth of the cause of suffering (duḥkha-samudāya-satya) demonstrates universal yearning for existence (tṛṣṇā) inherent in any sentient being and caused by afflictions (kleśa) that are contained in any saṃsāric consciousness. The third Noble Truth, or the truth of the destruction of suffering (duḥkha-nirodha-satya) shows the possibility to find way out of saṃsāra. The fourth Noble truth, or the truth of the way to destruction of suffering (duḥkha-nirodha-mārga-satya) explains methods of overcoming the saṃsāric existence; the essence of these methods is the uprooting of afflictions present in an unenlightened consciousness from beginningless times and causing saṃsāra. The topic of this part of the “Compendium of Abhidharma” is Buddhist religious anthropology including the conception of unenlightened person and of persons practicing the Buddhist religious ideals. The theme of the second chapter is the types of texts presenting the teaching of the Buddha. The third chapter presents the Buddhist theory of personality types and the results that are to be attained by disciple in the course of practice. The topic of this chapter is the aspects of disciplinary and meditative practices in association with Buddhist religious anthropology. The fourth chapter explains the principles of argumentation and methods of propagation of the Buddhist teaching. The logic of the structure of the second part of “Compendium of Abhidharma” is based on the following principle: from the truths that are to be comprehended by a disciple to the analysis of his personality and persons of those whom he addresses his sermons and to the contents of the results that they will attain in the Buddhist practices and from this – to the principles of argumentation.

Symbol of a Boundary in the Myth of Daedalus and Icarus
Tatyana Denisova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-31-42

The focus of the following essay is one of the most known ancient myths about Daedalus and Icarus. This myth will be considered through a prism of the universal metaphysical problem of a boundary in correlation with the problem of human essence. The aim of this article is to present dialectical unity of two models of relationship of the world and a human, and two models of achievement of human self-identity in the process of establishment of actual borders and attempts of their surpassing. A person equally needs to establish and label his/her limits and overcome them for being him/herself. Moreover, he/she is able to discover his/her own borders only during the moment of their intersection. Thus, existence is always connected with transcendental acts, with the process of establishment and deconstruction of the borders. Both the establishment of boundaries and their destruction correspond to the nature of a human and his/her basic existential needs. The death of Icarus establishes (finds out) actual boundaries of a man, which he ignored before. The inventions of Daedalus establish (pave) new boundaries, overcoming the former ones.

Remembering in the Context of E. Husserl’s Concept of Time
Yana Batalova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-43-56

The article presents the analysis of remembering process in the concept of time that was introduced by E. Husserl. Research is based on the following thesis: Husserl gets an opportunity to build a new concept of mind by the virtue of such properties as temporality and intentionality. Consequently, Husserl is able to show how the time is flowing in the mind. That kind of concept allots memory a particular mode of existence in the consciousness that is being intended towards temporal lasting objects. The mind finds itself in an unbroken lasting flow of temporality. The subject of the article lies in the mode of existence of the memory in the human mind, it is therefore necessary to answer the question of how the mind may get access to the memory. In order to get a multi-faceted view of the problem, the article considers works of the philosophers (M. Merleau-Ponty, P. Ricoeur) who were influenced by Husserl’s method and concept to a great extent. They both use the concept in their studies and raise their own questions, giving interpretation of his work. The work of remembering process is discussed as exemplified in the following Husserl’s works: ‘Ideas I’, ‘Lectures on the Phenomenology of Internal Time Consciousness’, ‘Logical Investigations’. The article highlights the idea, that the specifics of the remembering process resides in distinguishing the content of the perceiving of the past and the reproduction of the consciousness of the past that was perceiving that content. Ultimately, considering remembering as a process of ceaselessly changing reproduction of the consciousness of the past makes us be positive about conceiving remembering as an incessant lasting process, but not  as a quiescent print that is receding with time. The remembering process is interworking with contstantly changing mind, that is herein addressed as a lasting act. Substantiation of the above listed points clarifies why constantly lasting interworking of mind and remembering is only possible in the absolute flow dimension.

Reflections on Initiation
T.B. Lyubimova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-57-76

Initiation is the most ancient and fundamental basis of the civilization existence. The forms of initiation have been changing over time, but its purpose has remained the same. The most ancient form of initiation we can find in shamanism. Later one can observe its hybridization in interaction with more complex and organized religions. Modern civilization has lost the original meaning of initiation rituals. Its symbols, themes have moved into poetry and literature. In this regard, the author considers the ideas of M. Eliade. The aim of the study was to show the underlying causes of transformation of traditional civilization into the anthropogenic one. This phenomenon is considered to be degradation according to the One Tradition. R. Guénon finds the cause of the degradation of Western civilization in the narrowing of the intellectual horizon. A sharp decline in the intellectual level, rationalism and materialism in philosophy, the reduction of everything to the quantity are characteristic of Western philosophy. And that had a negative impact on the civilizations of the East. The degradation of initiation is also related to this. Anti-traditional society has given rise to forms of fictitious initiation. One cannot, however, deny the existence of a genuine but secret initiation. R. Guénon believes that true initiation is a connection with the Supreme principle of being, the metaphysical source of all things. In our study we have tried to show the groundlessness and injustice of prejudice against the doctrine of the One Tradition, to reveal the spiritual meaning of the ancient forms of initiation; to show that the One Tradition is not ensured by the continuity of cultural forms; but these forms are only a symbolic expression of Tradition. The Tradition itself, as well as initiations, surpasses the conditions of human existence.

The Reformation Constants of John Locke
Alexander Shipilov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-77-85

The tradition of studying John Locke's philosophy in Russia is more than 200 years old, but the religious component of his system has often fallen out of the interests of domestic researchers. Locke's main theological works are still not translated into Russian, while in Western tradition J. Locke is considered one of the key thinkers of Protestantism. John Locke's theological treatise “The Reasonableness of Christianity” led to Protestant discussions. Locke reconsiders the bases of theological systems according to his own experience of understanding the Bible. J. Locke supposed that theological systems of different denominations were not satisfactory. J. Locke believed that in order to bring the opinions of the various churches and communities to agreement, it was necessary to highlight the only necessary doctrine stating that Jesus is the Messiah. The book was published anonymously by J. Locke in 1695. J. Locke was accused of sympathy for deism, socinianism and atheism after publication of the book. The treatise defined the direction of discussions in the XVII – XVIII centuries. J. Locke proposed the authentic method for studying the Bible derived from the epistemological bases set forth in “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”. Offering a sensualistic way of interpreting the Holy Scripture, Locke goes beyond ecclesiastical orthodoxy.

What is “Experiment” in Paracelsus’ Medical System?
Uliana Strugovshchikova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-86-106

The article is devoted to the Renaissance medicine, the origins of its formation as scientific experimental discipline. Economic, social and scientific processes that have direct and indirect influence on formation of the Renaissance scientific environment are taken into account. Among them: pilgrimage routes, fairs, including book fairs, wars, geographical discoveries, religious missions establishment, invention of printing, scientists’ correspondence from different countries. The Renaissance era has given many prominent personalities in different fields: Copernicus in physics, Luther in theology, Titian in painting, Michelangelo in architecture and many others. One of the brightest personalities in medicine was Paracelsus, a doctor who combined “high” university therapy with “low” craft surgical practices that were previously considered unworthy occupations for nobles, and also introduced chemistry into medical practice. Paracelsus’ merit also is systematization of previous eras knowledge and inclusion of this knowledge in his own medical system, based on interaction of three types of knowledge emitted by Paracelsus: science (theoria, scientia) – experience (erfahrenheit, experientia) – experiment (experimentum), while Paracelsus emphasizes the importance of experience (experientia), which a doctor gains in wanderings, contrasting it with theoretical, speculative training at medical faculties.

Explanation of the interactions of three types of knowledge is comparable with modern approaches to experiment’s definition, which different scientists explain differently. Definitions of the “experiment” by Galileo, Niels Bohr, and Ian Hacking were chosen as examples for comparison.

The article also focuses on Paracelsus laboratory as a kind of space that combines various factors: natural, social, technical and economic, where the living (doctors, patients, other people, animals, plants and mushrooms) and non-living entities (signs, texts, teachings) interact. When these entities communicate with each other, new knowledge arises.

The Concept of “Will”: on the Way from Philosophy to Psychology
Valentina Cherkashina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-107-118

The article analyzes the complexity of the formation of the psychological concept of “will”. The author concludes that this concept is still more philosophical than scientific. The author considers the need of the concept of “will” for psychology as well as various approaches to its definition. For the first time, the focus is placed on the ability to measure the will that opens up in the study of the history of such attempts. The article analyzes the methods that are used to measure various aspects of the phenomenon of will. So, according to the measurement theory, various experiments are considered, which cause and fix physiological changes during the volitional effort or the time it is held. The author analyzes the application of test methods and order scales. The author also examines the possibility of such a measurement from the perspective of measurement theory and experimental psychology, analyzing possible errors and difficulties. The article states that for practical purposes at least one can apply the method of expert evaluation and the formation of a scale of names, allowing to distinguish groups of people with and without strong will. This implies consideration of the will not so much as a volitional action, but as a characteristic of a person. The author comes to the conclusion that further studies of psychological traits will make it possible to specify the content of the concept of will and to clarify its structure.

Social philosophy

Socio-Energetic Aspect of Human Capital Generation: Three Paradigms
Radiy Ibragimov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-119-140

Research in the field of the human capital gained frontal character in domestic science. This research takes place in methodology too. In the process of development the calculate-formula of human capital has been steadily complicating since 1960, incorporating new indicators. Even this very complication has become the subject of discussions in the expert community, not to mention the need, justifiability and technological effectiveness of calculation of separate components of “the human development index”. The cross-disciplinary nature of human capital research has become the result of such complication. Sociologists, psychologists, experts in the field of IT developments, and others joined the discussion. The methodological basis of research and expert dialogue also extend respectively. For example, one can hear the opinions about the need to use qualitative methods for research of the human capital.

Multi–paradigm investigations become more and more obvious. While economists-libertarians were fiddling with macroeconomic indicators of education and income and extrapolated the results to a single person as a carrier of special capital, the speculative methodological nature of such procedures still could have remained in the shadow. But the more sophisticated the toy is, the easier it is to break it. It turned out that human capital has a complex structure. And the question about the core of human capital and its structural components depends on the system of axiomatic installations and terminology. That is to say, it depends on the paradigm consideration of the subject. The Marxist paradigm (the alternative to the libertarian one) was prior, historically speaking. The concepts of patrimonial essence of a person and workforce were introduced into scientific use one century prior to pioneers of the human capital research.

In my opinion, the greatest intrigue in a cross-paradigm polylogue is created by a vitalist paradigm. At least, exactly here it is possible to find the answer to the question, most inconvenient for the theory of human capital: if the intensity of educational practices and capitalization of a person are in a direct proportion, then how one can explain a notorious “syndrome of a mediocre pupil”? The article considers the importance of a motivation factor of passionarity in various paradigmal transcriptions.

Transition from the Soviet People to the All-Russia People: Assimilation Problems in the USSR and in the Russian Federation through the Prism of Interethnic Marriage
Svetlana Lourie
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-141-159

The article considers assimilation problems in the USSR and the Russian Federation through the prism of interethnic marriages peculiarities in the country. But was that assimilation into the Russian society or the supranational model of the Soviet society? The article considers the concept of “peoples’ friendship”, since it was the basis of interethnic marriages and how the concept was embodied in reality in the USSR. The author considers the role of assimilation processes concerning those Russians, who lived in the Union Republics and often entered into interethnic marriages. The article also analyses and compares the relations of partners in interethnic marriages in contemporary Russia as well as the results of opinion polls. The author also considers the strategies of interrelations of interethnic couples identified by various researchers. She presents the data of the conducted sociological survey among students of Russian universities in several cities. The aim of the survey was to study the acceptance-rejection ratio of interethnic marriage in the context of spontaneous formation of the sociocultural scenario of interethnic relations in the country. The author comes to the conclusion that nowadays in the minds of Russians there are no value dominants that assert the significance of interethnic marriages, as it was in the USSR; that is, there are no ethno-cultural prerequisites for entering into ethnically mixed marriages. However, certain models of actions still remain, which make the interaction of representatives of different nations easier at the everyday level and, thus, they contribute to the formation of ethnically mixed marriages. It means that there are ethno-psychological prerequisites for interethnic marriages. Therefore, is it possible to say that the assimilation processes in Russia have stopped? Though interethnic marriages today are sometimes perceived with anxiety, their share among all marriages in Russia almost has not decreased compared to the RSFSR level. However, interethnic marriages no longer exist in the context of interethnic relations, but in the context of interpersonal relations. The environment of large Russian cities is sometimes characterized by ethnically indifferent social structure almost homogeneous at the behavioral level.

Grassroots: Political Foundations of Community Organizing in the USA
Sergey Sharapov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-160-177

Practice of community organizing is consistently associated with the idea of grassroots democracy. It is assumed that such democratic structures, independent of the state administration, will become instruments of direct participation of people in social and economic development of their living environment. Ideologists and practitioners of community organizing in the United States proceed from the fact that the improvement of urban environment is a political issue, and presence of depressed areas is the result of uneven distribution of resources at each level: federation– state – county – city. Therefore, community organizing involves endowing local communities with political subjectivity, teaching them collective tactics of putting pressure on the state administration in order to force it to listen to demands put forward by the community.

An analysis of key models of community organizing in the United States undertaken in the article shows that this approach does not eliminate the dependence of local civil communities on the state as the main agent of social and economic assistance. Communities remain a “service environment”, which significantly narrows the social base of community organizing. Community organizing methods have proven to be effective in bringing together low-income urban groups. Moreover, in the case of ACORN, it was possible to unite local communities into a single centralized network capable of being a conduit for the “left” agenda of expanding the “trusteeship” obligations of the state towards the poorest stratum of society. However, singling out the low-income strata as the target segment and locking the ideals of the welfare state deprives the community organizing of the opportunity to become a universal model for development of grassroots democracy.

Science in Modern Culture

The Consequences of the HAC Reform: Destruction of the System of Reproduction of Scientific Personnel
Anna Storozhuk
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-178-193

In recent years the reforms of the HAC system have been taking place. The main direction of these reforms is toughening of the requirements for dissertations, members of the dissertation council, organizations, where these councils are opened. Initially, the reason for the reform was a lot of abuse and the first stages of the reform were justified. However, at a certain stage of the reforms, positive feedback was launched. The existence of a dissertation board was made dependent on the number of dissertations defended. The reduction in defenses resulted in a reduction of the number of dissertation boards and vice versa. Technically more complex specialties suffered much more than the others since it was difficult to defend those dissertations even before the reform.

The author analyzes the materials of dissertation defense statistics and compares the indicators with the “pre-reform” period (2000 is taken as a reference year).

The article discusses the main stages of the reform in chronological order. So in 2011, the requirement to have 19 members of the board instead of 17 was introduced. Statistics show that in several years after the reform, the number of defenses for doctoral theses has decreased by almost three times, and the number of candidate theses has decreased by two times compared to the pre-reform years. Further, there appeared the requirement limiting a minimal number of publications in peer-reviewed journals for the applicants. Those who apply for the Candidate degree have to submit at least 3 publications in peer-reviewed journals, while applicants for the Doctor degree in social sciences and Humanities have to submit not less than 15 articles. But the most dramatic decline in the number of defenses resulted from the reforms of 2017, when the so-called “road map” came into being, imposing strict requirements on both the organizations opening the dissertation councils and members of the dissertation board themselves. So in 2017, the number of doctoral dissertations defenses is only 13% of the pre-reform number of defenses. Such a reduction in the long run can lead to the destruction of the system of reproduction of scientific personnel, especially the most significant scientific schools, which have adopted high criteria for evaluating scientific work.

The Academy of Sciences in the Critical Period (1915-1930s)
Maria Sverzhevskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-194-204


The Academy of Sciences has been remaining the main scientific organization of the country since the date of its foundation by the decree of the Governing Senate in 1724. Over the past three centuries, it experienced many turning points. The article is devoted to the adaptation of the Academy of Sciences to the realities caused by the First World War, the February and October revolutions and the transformation of the political and public life of the country. This adaptation is related to the activities of the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces which was established in 1915 for the purpose of a comprehensive study of the country's natural resources. In 1930, during the reorganization of the Academy of Sciences, the Commission was transformed to the Council for the Study of Productive Forces. At the time of its inception, the Council was divided into the thematic and territorial departments. The thematic department was engaged in the organization, management and planning of the research work on the study of productive forces in laboratories and institutes of the Academy of Sciences. The territorial department worked on the organization and conduct of scientific expeditions in various regions of the USSR. In the 1930s the Council was the main instrument for the adaptation of the Academy of Sciences to the demands of the government. The article is based on the documents of the Archives of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the St. Petersburg branch of the Archives of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian State Archive of the Economy as well as the materials presented in scientific periodicals.

Philosophical Urban Studies and Pedagogical Saint Petersburg Studies in the Context of University Education
Tatyana Sholomova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-205-216

The article is devoted to the content of the terms “philosophical urban studies”, “pedagogical urban studies”, “pedagogical Petersburg studies”, which are simultaneously the names of university academic disciplines. Philosophical urbanism claims to become a general theory of the city, generalizing the sections and directions of modern urbanistics, including aesthetic, economic, sociological urbanism. At the same time, it is proposed to understand pedagogical urbanism not only as a methodology that makes it possible to identify and use for educational purposes the results of studies of philosophical urbanism, but also as a way of organizing the urban environment, and as specific everyday practices that organize the behavior of citizens, and as an educational technique, that is as an opportunity to use the historical space of the city for educational and educational purposes, since the city landscape has an educational function, forming moral and aesthetic coordinates of a person’s value self-determination.

It is the identification of the educational opportunities of St. Petersburg that causes the greatest difficulties, since everyone is aware of its historical and cultural significance, which results in the attitude to our city primarily as a monument, and not as a space intended for life and work. The article presents the results of sociological and pedagogical studies, which show that the inhabitants of St. Petersburg perceive their city precisely as a space for life, and in these assessments they can abstract from its beauties and historical significance and focus on everyday life. This means that when studying the “cultural capital”, one cannot limit oneself only to aesthetic analysis (taking into account how important the identity of its inhabitants is to the modern city), but to take into account the specifics of St. Petersburg as a modern city in its entirety.

Moreover, modern studies in the field of urban studies show that the mythologization of cities and urban space today can be carried out not only on a cultural and historical basis; the reasons for mythologization are numerous: the presence of large-scale production; mention in literature and in cinema. Philosophical urbanism allows you to identify and summarize such features of the existence of the city that represent it as an integrated system, functioning according to its own rules and laws.

The history of scientific life in the USSR-Russia in the memoirs of contemporaries

Honest and Talented Story about the Novosibirsk Academgorodok, the Soviet People and Soviet Society (Memories of Mikhail Kachan)
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.4.1-217-239

The paper analyzes the memoirs of Mikhail Kachan “To Descendants about My Life” (22 books). These books cover the author’s life from childhood till 1968. The most part of the memoirs relate to the life, social, research and teaching activities of the author in the Academic Town of Novosibirsk (Academgorodok). As the Head of the Trade Union’s Committee of the Novosibirsk Scientific Centre, the author and his colleagues and coworkers played a huge role in improving the daily routine of the residents of Academgorodok, and organizing local cultural and sport activities, turning this place into an “island” of relative cultural and political freedom in Academgorodok. Being in the power triangle, Kachan knew a lot about the inner life of top officials of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences and described plenty of earlier unknown facts. The author shows social life of Academgorodok in the context of world affairs and political events in the USSR. 

Basing on the memoirs of Mikhail Kachan, the author of the paper draws conclusions about the nature of the Soviet people, political and economic systems in the USSR, and the reasons that caused the collapse of the USSR. The author also analyzes the results of scientific efforts of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences and pays considerable attention to the effect of state-supported anti-Semitism in the USSR on the life of M. Kachan and the fate of the Soviet Union.