SPIRITUAL PRACTICES OF COGNIZER AND THEIR TRANSFORMATION IN THE CHRISTIAN AND SCIENTIFIC CULTURE
M.A. Romashchenko,  A.A. Romashchenko,  A.S. Borshchov,  N.V. Dovgalenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-56-65
Abstract:

The article is devoted to the problem of development of a new project of reality that has overcome the post-nonclassical stage and faced difficulties in understanding human-like technoobjects in the present. The authors associate the emergence of "new structures" with transformation of human selfness, its practices of "disintegration", alienation from oneself. The beginning of this process launched by the medieval culture of thought, in which real, conceptual and nominal have appeared. They are recorded in the practices of discovering sinful within yourself; cashing out itself in contact with similar (other); revealing a formal (name). In the period of New European philosophy, a cognizer, tied to contemplation and will, begins to practice. He focuses on experience of reflection – a repeated inspection, control over the self, through which its "property" or aggressive withdrawal of irrational opportunities is established. The authors claim an idea that practice of a cognizer with ever-increasing estrangement from oneself generates a new reality in our time – the objects of kogito (virtual, conceptual, linguistic), objects that "complete" the embodiment (biotechnical structures). They are practitioners standing within the boundaries of will-kreacio, aimed at rational extension, transformation of cognizer. A purposeful will that has a rational intention, collects its own reality from the fragments or "traces" of the expressed, described, everyday, etc., constructs it from fragments of social action, text, experience. A methodology, built on the framework of mathematical and natural sciences, is gradually replaced by an activity-practical, hermeneutic, engineering-sociological approaches. Comprehension of science through spiritual experience of cognizer makes it possible to assess it not as something external, civilizationally fateful but as a conscious action, a choice, relying in a special fixation, self-examination.

A HUMAN IN VIRTUAL NETWORKS. LIFE AFTER THE "INFORMATION EXPLOSION"
E.A. Paltceva,  Vladimir Ignatyev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-84-94
Abstract:

This article analyzes a number of social and anthropological implications of the sharp increase in the flow of information, which have acquired since the mid-20th century the character of "information explosion". The authors analyze the postmodern concepts by identifying major characteristics of post-industrial society that brings these concepts together with the theories of the information society. The authors substantiate the hypothesis that, on the basis of the convergence of certain postmodern concepts with the theories of the information society there can be conceptual synthesis. The authors show that the informational approach, which is not used explicitly, is present in the works of post-modern artists as the concept of a special type of society, a society living and reproducing itself mostly in virtual reality based on mass production of sign-symbolic artifacts - signs, symbols, values and meanings, aggregated into streams of information. Information flows are the main "building material" and a resource for the construction of symbolic information and communicative space. The authors identified the following characteristics of the society after the "information explosion": there is a change in the content of communication; the symbolic world becomes increasingly unrecognizable for a human being; there is depersonalization of social codes; virtual strata appear; people experience information trauma of consciousness; human existence becomes fragmented; "information schizophrenia" sets in; "intellectual extinction" of mankind syndrome shows up; and then comes "normal anomie".

THE IDEAL MAN AND IDENTITY CRISIS
Evgeny Kazakov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-40-48
Abstract:

The article examines the role of a social ideal in history on the example of evolution of the perfect man image. The ideal is understood as a due thing, which allows to assess the present existing nature and to determine the direction of its development. Aspiration to the ideal, which is an essential intention of a person necessary in acquiring ideal traits of a man, is one of the driving forces of history. Every historical period constructs its own image of an ideal person and strives to get closer to it. Ideas about the perfect man have been regularly formed throughout history, this fact proves that there is a permanent innate human sense of dissatisfaction with him/herself (and with the whole world), the lack of self realization, the intention to discover their own inner identity. The first "perfect man" was a beast. In the primitive societies people conquered the “outer” beast, in Antiquity – the “inner” one. There appeared the first identity crisis as a consequence of inadequate self-esteem ("man as the measure of all things"). God was a "perfect man" of the Middle Ages. If a beast turns out to be in the inaccessible past then God is in the eternal unattainable future. So, the second identity crisis comes into existence. A Man becomes an ideal in Modern Times. There appeared a concept of a perfect man (as a real possibility). However, depriving a person of metaphysics leads to the third identity crisis. Nowadays the "perfect man", increasingly, appears to be a machine resembling a "man", devoid of human weaknesses with improved human qualities. The analogy between a human and a machine leads to the fourth identity crisis. "The new perfect man" is a man as a unique result of the development of all human culture, the synthesis of the unique and the universal.

PUBLIC SPHERE: THE OUTLINE OF THEORETICAL IMAGE
N.T. Tovmasyan
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-53-64
Abstract:

The author considers the formation and development of the “public sphere”, the construction of its theoretical image, prospects and threats in the epoch of IT prevalence. The author analyzes different concepts of “public sphere” and reveals its substantial similarities and differences. He also gives a thorough analysis of the most popular approaches (terms, ideas, concepts) to the definition of "public sphere" in scientific literature. The author comes to the conclusion, that the result of the long-run discussion is the understanding of the fact, that the rational and fair space for discussions, which was mentioned by J. Habernas, needs the new forms of its implementation. It is quite possible and logical to put it into action in the Internet. At the same time, the problem of threats and the limits of the virtual public sphere are still unsolved. Therefore, the society needs support and coordination of people in the interaction with the new embodiment of “the public sphere”. The concept of "public sphere" is used rather often, but being highly controversial it gives rise to the need for careful consideration of its content for systematizing ideas and concepts that relate to it and predict further ways of its development or transformation to the virtual public sphere in the space of the Internet.

AESTHETICS OF ADAMISM: THE LYRICS OF M. ZENKEVICH, 1910
Elena Tyryshkina,  P.A. Chesnyalis
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-117-131
Abstract:

The article examines how the program of acmeism, proclaimed in the manifestos of N. Gumilev, S. Gorodetsky, O. Mandelstam, finds its practical embodiment in the early lyrics of M. Zenkevich, the representative of Adamism - the "left wing" of this poetic school. Adamism is characterized by a radical follow-up to the manifestos of N. Gumilev, S. Gorodetsky, O. Mandelstam, which emphasizes the need for aesthetic mastering of the earthly, material, objective world as opposed to the symbolist slogans of theurgy. M. Zenkevich "brings to the scene" a new hero, reflecting on his place in the universe, his nature - in the unity of the carnal / animal and spiritual. The task of "making peace in the whole aggregate of beauties and disgraces" set by the Acmeists in the work of M. Zenkevich does not receive practical implementation. In the collection "Wild Porphyry" nature appears as a unity of "earthly and mystical", unknowable and beyond the control of man. But to adopt its laws, where "equilibrium" is achieved through the rotation of infinite destruction and creation, would mean for the lyrical subject "dissolution in matter", the loss of subjectivity. In the second book "Under the Meat Purple" nature as the creative absolute is almost not paid attention. The same problem of natural and super-natural gets an aesthetic embodiment at the level of the microcosm, where man and woman are dual beings: "animal" nature is manifested in the erotic instincts of the first and - the physical perfection and cruelty of the second. In this case, the woman is a sacred creature (like nature in the «Wild Porphyry»), the earthly and mystical in it are merged together, and the man is sacrificed under the sign of death, sacrificing himself. But even in these "personified" models there is obviously a disequilibrium of "earthly and mystical": a woman is partly defective as a natural being (she is barren), and a man is doomed to die in the name of Eternal Femininity. At the same time, in the lyrics of M. Zenkevich, in the 1910s, the appearance of a new hero, "the coming Apollo," a human machine civilization free from natural determinism, begins to form. Thus, there is a rapprochement with the aesthetics of the avant-garde, where the subject challenges both nature and God, usurping the right of creation.

CULTURE OF THE LUSATIAN SERBS IN THE XXI CENTURY: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
E.L. Plavskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-154-163
Abstract:

The article is devoted to the problems and prospects of functioning of the Lusatian Serbs traditional culture at the present stage. On the basis of official documents and interviews with native speakers, the author examines the influence of assimilation processes on cultural identity as well as the possibilities of preserving and developing the Serbian culture. The main problems are identified: economic, political, linguistic and interethnic, which impede the full existence of the Lusatian Serbs culture. The author gives the assessment of its development potential and makes the conclusion about the significant role of the young generation in preserving the traditions and reviving the native language. She also emphasizes the role of folk art culture in the mechanism of storage and transmission of traditions.

SOCIOCULTURAL DETERMINANTS OF THE MODERN COMMUNICATION THEORY
R.A. Ivanova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-81-93
Abstract:

The research is devoted to philosophical reflection on the impact of socio-cultural factors on the modern theory of communication development. The source of the observed diversity of the disunity of modern communication research primarily contains in the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon. Multidirectionality of communication studies is also a consequence of the researchers’ aptitude to the influence of certain socio-cultural factors. The article offers the challenge to outline a number of socio-cultural determinants that caused the dynamics of communication studies of the XX – the beginning of the XXI centuries and to clarify the mechanisms, procedures of their influence on the formation of the theory of communication. As a result of linguistic and chronological approach to modern communication research in the article the author traces the genesis of certain intentions of the communicative theory generated by the state of social and cultural backgrounds of the implemented communication studies. There is a revealed number of significant socio-cultural determinants based on the analysis conducted by the author, such as: a high level of internal autonomy of researchers and research dissonance of cultural and linguistic chronotopes. The impact of social and cultural events from the outside (especially in cases when the events affect the deep layers of society) is located in the same row. Actually, the purpose of the article is a factual verification of generally known terms of the socio-cultural determination of modern communication studies. As a result, we plan to designate a number of socio-cultural factors behind a range of the research intentions in the framework of the theory of communication.

LEGAL STATUS OF CANADIAN INDIANS: ETHNOCULTURAL PECULIARITIES
G.Yu. Frenk
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-164-170
Abstract:

The article analyzes the legal status of Canadian Indians highlighting its ethnocultural peculiarities. Canada is the first country in the world that ensured the legal status of Indians on the Constitutional level. The Aboriginal rights movement, rooted in the 1970s, greatly encouraged the adoption of the new policy towards Indian population. It should be mentioned that vast majority of Aboriginal people didn’t assimilate into Euro-Canadian society; thus, they still maintain a traditional indigenous lifestyle. Nowadays, all the Indians in Canada are divided into two legal categories: status and non-status Indians. Status Indians proved their Aboriginal origins; they are eligible for registration under the Indian Act, which provides a number of special rights and social benefits including the right to live in reservations. Non-status Indians are not registered with the federal government, so they are deprived of a range of rights available for status Indians. Indians residing on a reserve share unique cultures, identities, languages, and views of self-government, education, healthcare and tax systems.

THE PROBLEMS OF FORMING ENGINEER’S PERSONALITY CULTURE AS THE BASIS OF HIS PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
I.A. Fedoseeva,  Yu.V. Veselova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-108-116
Abstract:

The aim of the work is to identify the problems of the formation of engineer's culture in the system of higher education. Proceeding from the key role of social education in the development of culture, the authors analyze the state of contemporary Russian education, relying on the opinions of many academic educators. Basing on the conducted analysis, the authors draw a conclusion about the need for social and moral education of students, in particular, future engineers, in the process of their professional training. The authors substantiate the proposition that the basis of the professional ethics of an engineer is high culture of an individual, which must be formed at all levels of education. The concepts of the general culture of an individual and the professional culture of an engineer are correlated. The authors present the characteristic of the engineer's personality culture in the context of the new standard of education. It is indicated that the competence approach is fundamental in the formation of a technical college of engineering specialties graduate. The article also reveals the shortcomings of this approach; the main ones are the narrow specialization of a modern graduate of a higher education institution and one-sidedness of his education. It is pointed out that it is necessary to form such qualities of the future engineer as initiative and responsibility. The article analyzes the students opinions about the ethics of an engineer, the most part of students agree that the ethics of an engineer assumes responsibility to the society for the results of their activities. The article analyzes two main approaches to modern education. At the heart of the first is the formation of professional competencies, the basis of the second is the primacy in the formation of the person’s spiritual values. Moreover, the latter implies an organic integration of the competence approach and the traditional cognitive approach to the culture-centricity of vocational education, in the process of which spiritual, aesthetic, social, ecological and political development of the personality takes place. The basis of this approach should be a set of fundamental concepts of general and professional culture, based on national culture. Cultural-centric approach allows you to approach professional training in a comprehensive, systematic, holistic manner, which is a necessary condition for the formation of a future engineer's culture.

PECULIARITY OF SOCIAL ACTOR SELF-IDENTIFICATION IN TRANSITIONAL SOCIETY
Elnara Dumnova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-3.2-73-80
Abstract:

The article presents a sociophilosophical analysis of the problem of identity formation in contemporary society with its systemic transitional character. The idea of complex identity formation in sociospatial form is put forward and substantiated. Identity types, presented as a hierarchical structure in some conceptions, are positioned as components of sociospatial identity.  Due to highly dynamic social changes and processes the structure of sociospatial identity undergoes transformations, resulting in strengthening some components and loss of importance of the other ones. Factors, determining new identity types and transformations of the process of identification of the social actor are discussed. Major tendencies of its self-identification and their results are revealed. The most relevant of them are the following: identity fragmentation and, consequently, the breakdown of its hierarchy, transgressing the limits of national identity and formation of alternative identities (transnational, binational), strengthening of ethnic and cultural identities. Overall, the shift of identity formation from macro-social level and its dispersion to meso- and micro-social levels is established. The significance of the structure center loss is emphasized, indicating the state of chaos, which is analyzed from post-modernist viewpoint as a chance for plural identity formation in the contemporary society and, consequently, antinomic tendencies of the process.  The most relevant aspects of the presented issues, requiring further empirical investigation, are identified in the conclusion.