Three Origins of Poetry
Ivanov Andrey
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.4.2-451-472

The article substantiates the existence of three types of poetic creativity: technimatic (gaming), social-confessional and sophian. The personal-subjective aspirations of poet and playing with the language are the sources of technimatic poetry. The social-confessional line in the world poetry originates from the Chinese “Shijin” (“The Book of Songs”). The source of this type of poetry is a deeply personal reaction on the events taking place in the world, and the need to inform other people about personal experiences, contemplations and thoughts. Particular attention in the article is paid to the sophian line in world poetry. Its source is the eidetic super-personal reality. The poet creatively “connects” himself with this reality and introduces the reader to it through artistically revealed word. The feeling of the super-personal status of the created verses is one of the important attributes of sophian poetry. Homer, Dante, Avicenna, Rumi, V. von Eschenbach, Li Bo, Goethe, Tagore, Rilke, D. Andreev and Iqbal can be attributed to it. In Russian poetry of the 19th – 20th centuries Pushkin and Lermontov, Tyutchev and V. Solovyov, Blok and Gumilyov adjoin the sofian poetic line; Leopardi and Hesse –in the eastern and western poetic tradition. Sophian poetry performs important functions in culture. It is able to return to the words their original living meanings, familiarizing themselves with the essence of things and with the super-empirical reality of Cosmos. It also opens up new evolutionary horizons for language and national literature. The position of the sofian poet is twofold, which gives his work intense dynamism, and his life a tragic character. He simultaneously lives in two worlds: earthly and super-mundane, sensual-bodily and eidetic-semantic. From the eidetic layers of world existence, he is forced to convey knowledge to other people in the words, images and metaphors available to them. At the same time the inspirations and insights of the sofian poet are always preceded by intense professional work, the humility of one’s pride and vain passions.

Augmented Reality: Breaking into What World?
Ignatyev Vladimir
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.4.2-351-371

The article considers the phenomenon of augmented reality as a special hybrid reality and a part of social space. The author compares the differences in approaches to the interpretation of reality in philosophy, social theory and natural science. The provisions of phenomenological sociology are used as a methodological basis for the study. The author substantiates the necessity of conjugation of ontological and epistemological perspectives of interpretation of the “multilayer” social reality. The lack of concentration of attention in most studies on distinguishing these angles leaves the category of social reality on the periphery of the construction of social ontologies. And this is not a paradox, but a desire to avoid difficulties in choosing a research position when solving a problem of a certain class each time that arises: either to build ontological models of each layer of the social, or to re-enter into polemics about the permissible limits of avoiding solipsism.

The article shows one of the possible ways out of the vicious circle of polemics about the demarcation of ontology and epistemology by presenting the concepts of ‘social reality’ and ‘social actuality’ as a means of separating research angles. Their application makes it possible to establish that the environment formed by augmented reality is much more complex than it seems to the individual in his direct perception. It includes four spaces: 1) the objective world; 2) the mental world; 3) a hybrid world as a symbiosis of real and imaginary worlds; 4) symbiosis of fragments of the real world - torn apart in space and time and combined with the help of technologies in devices, which make it possible for an individual to be present while observing their combined existence and to operate with them. The author comes to the conclusion that this feature of the organization of space with the help of augmented reality implies the specificity of the changed social space in which individuals have to interact. There is a transformation of the basic ‘cell’ of society - the system of social interaction. It has been established that augmented reality technologies provide additional, qualitatively new opportunities for influencing individual pictures of the world. Augmented reality also complicates virtual reality, introducing, in addition to fictional characteristics, the content of practical actions. Augmented reality not only ‘comprehends’ the world, but is in direct practical contact with it, turning into a special side of constant reality. It was found that the interaction of augmented reality with social reality is reversible. Thanks to this process, social reality from ‘augmented’ reality is transformed into a ‘complex’ one, the qualitative determination of which can be designated as ‘hybrid social reality’. Its mode of existence is more complex than that of the human community, and is inaccessible to them as long as they retain the biological substrate of their corporeity. But no less significant consequence for social and anthropogenic transformation is the emergence in society of its new structural unit - a techno-subject, as an actor of a new species and a new agent that forms a hybrid society. It has been established that the user of augmented reality transforms the provided visual effects in his imagination into really (beyond imagination) existing things and phenomena (ontologization). A reverse movement also takes place - from illusions fixed in the imagination as objects (created by augmented reality), back to pure illusions (reverse hypostatization). The distinction between the observed and the hidden through the introduction of the concepts of social reality and social actuality makes it possible to discover a more complex structure of the social - its multi-layered nature, supplementing the ontology of social reality and, in particular, P. Donati’s relational theory of society, with ideas about such layers as actual and potential, virtual and valid. The article considers the possibility of extending the idea of ​​the heterarchical principle of the structure of society (developed in the works of I.V. Krasavin on the basis of the model of W. McCulloch) to the further development of the augmented reality ontology. The formation of space connections using AR technology is a continuation of the embodiment of the heterarchy principle, which brings the social structure beyond the structures of a constant society.

Three links in a Golden Chain
Bigelow John
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.4.2-372-393

One of Plato’s dialogues, the Timaeus (ca 370 BCE), describes an abstract numerical pattern that is said to have guided the creative work of an artisan, the Demiurge, who designed both the soul that animates the material world as a whole and the souls of each of the sentient beings that live within this world. Any artist or artisan who took this creation story seriously might reasonably be motivated to take guidance from this same numerical design in his or her own creative work, hoping thereby to mirror the macrocosm in the microcosm of a work of art. Have any artists in history tried to do that? Three likely candidates will be examined here. The first is Plato himself (in a short narrative of the generation of the pantheon of Greek gods, which he recounts in the Timaeus). The second is an unknown Medieval author of an epic poem about Charlemagne (The Song of Roland, ca. 1100 CE). The third is Iris Murdoch (in a novel, The Unicorn, 1963).

Rock-Culture as a Method of Entering into Post-Industrial Culture
Dyukin Sergey
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.4.2-394-411

Rock-music and rock-culture, which is formed on its basis, are methods of entering into culture of post-industrial society described by D. Bell, E. Toffler, F. Fukuyama and others. The correlation between rock-culture and post-industrial culture is established in the aspects of values, rules, practices and identities. In rock culture we can see the formation of the following values: creativity, initiative and individualism. Independence of creativity becomes an ethic imperative. It is more important than techniques and professionalism, which are characteristic of industrial culture. Exaggerated prevalence of innovation over playing tradition strengthens the status and role of the author striving for the permanent re-creation of his own image and style. Another quality, which helps rock culture penetrate into postindustrial society, is assimilation of daily routine by creative activity. This factor initiates consciousness emancipation and breakdown of hierarchical social structures. Rock-culture, as well as post-industrial society, experiences decentralization, de-synchronization and de-standardization. Such social-cultural disorder correlates with marginalization of rock-culture. It forms amateurism as a normative attitude that is opposed to professionalism. Finally the above-mentioned changes entail the collapse of the existing “big” identities, which are substituted by “small group” identities in rock-culture characterized by small potential for internalization. This change of identities, their overlapping triggers the formation of mental plurality, tolerance to mutually exclusive values, normative settings, practices and symbols. Mental pluralism allows a person to change quickly life strategies, respond to external challenges. The stable boundaries between private and public, between art and everyday life are being destroyed in the rock-culture. At the same time, the author highlights the fact that within rock culture entering post-industrial culture is carried out by non-linear way, with expenses and contradictions.

Leonardo Da Vinci. The Apology of Eye
Mayorova Ekaterina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.4.2-412-428

The article is devoted to Leonardo da Vinci’s “eye is less deceived than any other sense” maxima. Leonardo’s belief about painting being the most perfect instrument for one’s ontology and epistemology is shown. Based on Leonardo da Vinci’s “Treatise on Painting”, a compilation of Leonardo’s works, the author explores how visual arts (and painting in particular) had come up to the forefront of the Italian Renaissance. Moreover, it is shown how painting takes a leading cultural role in Europe even to this day following the Renaissance. The article reveals why Leonardo da Vinci viewed painting to be better than science, mechanical arts and other liberal arts. The article considers the possibility of transforming personal experience into the universal experience of mankind. It also considers the focus on experience, direct comprehension of reality and varietà concept. The article is dedicated to the peculiarity of Leonardo’s art style, including its unique sfumato technique and chiaroscuro. The article also deals with the idea of Leonardo being the personification of the Renaissance’s creativity. As a result, he was the one who encapsulated the Renaissance period and simultaneously laid the foundation for further development of the arts for several centuries.

Ritual as a Way of Transmitting the Ideas of New Spirituality
Redin Fedor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.4.2-429-450

The article is focused on the ritual practice of “NamMaReal”, the analysis of which allows to make a conclusion, that contemporary spirituality (also known as “new”, “post-secular”) can be transmitted through the ritual, which is similar to a religious one, despite the fact that religion and spirituality are mostly contraposed nowadays. The article presents the results of a qualitative study of “NamMaReal” based on the method put forward by A. Strauss and J. Corbin, with the help of which the author makes a conclusion that “NamMaReal” can be considered as a ritual of contemporary spirituality. The process of gathering the data and analytical procedures demonstrated great potential of qualitative research strategies in the empirical study of the phenomenon. The observation that lasted for one year and a series of interviews with participants in the practice and the subsequent categorization of the data obtained empirically revealed the presence in the worldview of participants of such semantic units as monism, the holistic nature of the worldview, the paramount role of personal experience and the path to individual truth, focus on achieving comfort and success in earthly life. It is established that NamMaReal has a pronounced three-part structure “concept-climax-denouement,” which, in accordance with their actual content, can be described in terms of the pre-liminal, liminal, and post-liminal stages highlighted by V. Turner in his theory of ritual. The presence in the structure of the event and specific symbolic actions of the elements of creativity of all participants, regardless of their ritual status, the dramatic filling of what is happening with their interactions and experiences, allows us to define NamMaReal as performance and agree with R. Schechner in his view on the performative foundations of ritual practices.

Critical’ Philosophy of Culture: Actual Contexts and Assemblage Point
Martynov Vladimir
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.3.2-260-289

The annual outbursts of controversy surrounding the presentation of the main film awards of the planet in the last few years (primarily around the Oscars) are important for cultural philosophy because they are indicators of tectonic shifts in the paradigm of modern cultural knowledge. The concept of ‘high’ culture is increasingly losing its ontological significance. Criticism fell upon this concept almost a hundred years ago, but so far this has been a fact of ‘high’ theory. Today, the denial of a ‘high’ culture has become the reality of mass communication. The pressure, which used to be a problem only for academic classrooms, has become an order of magnitude greater. This is the line on which we need a clear accounting of the results, the balance of pro et contra. The answer of the ‘critical’ philosophy is understandable in principle: the contradictions between the ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultures are not an insoluble conflict. The axiom of the death of a ‘high’ culture is incorrect. The modern theory of ‘high’ culture is possible. But its construction is cumbersome and not fast. You need to start by protecting the ‘high’ culture from reproach for violence. The assemblage point of radical criticism of the ‘high’ culture is W. Benjamin’s treatise “A Work of Art in the Era of Its Technical Reproducibility”. Therefore, the defense of ‘high’ culture cannot but begin with an answer to W. Benjamin. At the same time, thinking specifically about this small treatise, we need a careful analysis of the whole structure, the words of Benjamin as a whole. And this word is peculiar. It is thoroughly public and political. Benjamin’s treatise is not a theoretical reflection. This is a manifesto, more precisely, two manifestos. The first is the manifesto of the new Marxism. The second is the manifesto of the artistic avant-garde. Benjamin saw the possibility of synthesizing these two ideologies and gave his model. It turned out, firstly, unfounded, and secondly, it was dangerous. It is dangerous because culture is the main barrier that holds back the advent of utopia. Having destroyed this barrier, we find ourselves defenseless against utopia.

From the History of Russian-French Musical Relations. Harpists’ Tours in Russia in the Mid-nineteenth Century
Pokrovskaya Nadezhda
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.3.2-290-304

In the middle of the XIX century the musical component of Russia’s cultural ties with Europe significantly increased. This was due to the emergence of romanticism – a revolutionary phenomenon in all forms of art. The touring activity of its creators was a characteristic feature of musical romanticism. Outstanding composers, masterly playing their instruments, introduced a lot of new things to the technique of playing them and to the imaginative sphere of music. They sought to promote their skills in major cities around the world, including St. Petersburg and Moscow.

The announcement of their performances and laudatory reviews in the press seemed to fully reflect the state of Russia’s relations with European musical reality. However, the organizational side of the tour, which required a lot of effort on the part of the host and on the part of the tour operators, was not disclosed in the official press. This hidden work was carried out thanks to acquaintances abroad of representatives of the domestic elite with the best musicians in Europe and through their private correspondence. It was done through personal contacts of the Russian enlightened amateurs, which more accurately reflected the depth and nature of our country’s ties with the culture of other countries.

The author studied the archival sources in search of information about the appearance in Russia of some guest performers, the structure of their performances and life. The memoirs of contemporaries contain interesting details and direct impressions of the musicians’ playing. This article attempts to show the true value of harpists’ concert touring in our country, their resounding success, noted by the official press. The author highlights the educational role of Russian highly educated music lovers in establishing ties with the best professional musicians in Europe in the middle of the XIX century.

Impressionism in Pierre Loti’s “Madame Chrysanthème”
Grushitckaya Marina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.3.2-305-313

Pierre Loti was a novelist and a marine officer who visited lots of countries. He gained popularity writing about his travels and travel impressions. This article analyses his travel to Nagasaki back in 1885 where he lived for half a year and had a ‘temporary wife’. His novel written during that travel is called “Madame Chrysanthème”. It’s one of his most extravagant and interesting pieces which made the author world-famous. It reflected common interest in the oriental life typical for that time and it predetermined the image of Japan in the European consciousness of the second half of the 19th century. Pierre Loti wrote about his ambition to make the novel as impressionist as possible determining impressionism not as an intellectual but as a decorative phenomenon related mostly to arts and translation of sensory perception. His interpretation of impressionism was expressed in “Madame Chrysanthème”, which is an attempt to describe the world around us, represented not only by the material world but by the author’s sensory perceptions and feelings. To be exact, this is impressionism in fiction. The world is a product of our sensory experience, and the author’s goal is to fix this experience, which is the sum of his observation and impressions. Pierre Loti creates his work where color plays the main role together with sounds and words. They are a sum total of the elements determining the reality in equal amounts. Stylistically “Madame Chrysanthème” is created according to impressionist canons, with lots of epithets, comparisons, metaphors, the author’s neologisms. The novel is written as a diary where separate episodes in chapters are separated from one another by large white empty gaps. The article discusses similarity of impressionism and the Japanese culture. However, a closer look demonstrates considerable differences between the European and the Oriental minds.

The German Language in the International Cultural Space
Vasilyeva Galina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.3.2-314-336

The author considers the factors, which determine interest to the German language in different regions of the world. The object of research is the role of the German language in international sociocultural contacts and the humanitarian sphere development, in the world educational space formation. The subject matter is practical experience of mastering the German language, linguistic achievements and problems of specific nations in this area. The author   considers practical application of the German language in the language policy of several countries, studies intercultural interaction difficulties, analyses international research projects in ethno-social dynamics. The goal of the research determined the tasks: to present a socio-anthropological approach to the consideration of the language situation in the countries, to comment on the institutional aspects of the German language dissemination, to substantiate the multilingualism significance as a tool of intercultural education. The chronological framework of the study covers the first decades of the XXI century.  At the same time, if we consider the problem in a historical aspect, we will inevitably turn to the earlier periods.  A systematic approach allows us to establish a logical relationship and interdependence of these periods, traces changes in the status of the official language in Germany. This issue is not only linguistic, but also historical and cultural. The author analyzes the problems of the ethnolinguistic situation associated with the study of the German language in a number of countries: among them, the United Kingdom, in which other languages (but English) have a lesser degree of social prestige and are being squeezed out of the language space.  The French Republic, along with the Federal Republic of Germany, as the leader of Europe, has always been on the axis of European construction.  The country continues the policy of promoting internationalization of the French language.  At the same time, Francophonie is a movement for cultural diversity. The Kingdom of Belgium and the Swiss Confederation are related to Germany in institutional architecture. It is necessary to study the situation in these ethnically heterogeneous and multilingual federal states, where German is one of the official languages. The author appeals to the history of Spain and the Republic of Korea because the citizens of these countries participated in the reconstruction of Germany after the Second World War. Issues related to the individual linguistic rights implementation determine national and political processes, educational and cultural policies. Learning several languages forms the idea that a multilingual society is the standard model of communication.