Social philosophy

Formation and Stages of the Development of European Sociality
Vadim Rozin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-11-33

Two main themes are considered in the article: the author's understanding of sociality and the results of his research into the formation and the first stages (antiquity and the Middle Ages) of the development of European sociality. The understanding of sociality is defined by means of the characterization of the sociological approach, in which four basic features are distinguished. The first feature is axiological interpretation of sociality (righteous - unfair, conformity - inconsistency with the model or ideal) and the establishment of alteration or improvement of sociality. The second feature is the analysis of mass behavior and social order. The third is the study of sociality, beginning with ancient culture; the idea of the nature of sociality and the identification of its laws; a dilemma: what sociology does study or, more precisely, should study - modernity or postmodernity. The fourth feature - sociology considers sociality as a phenomenon of modernity, i.e. studies the mass behavior of people as such, outside the historical and cultural context. Outlining the results of studying the formation and development of the first stages of European sociality, the author first of all distinguishes between proto-sociality, by which he understands the previous state and the preconditions of sociality, where specific forms of social awareness have not yet emerged, and sociality proper. He points out two reasons for analyzing sociality: first, this analysis avoids illegal historical reconstructions (upgrades), when it is considered that sociality has always been, and secondly, it gives an opportunity to understand what is fundamentally new in the process of the emergence of sociality. Only in sociality there is a personality, without which the first type of sociality would not have taken place - polis sociality. Here the thinking is formed, for the first time it allowed to divorce social life and knowledge about it (putting social life as an object in the schemes and knowledge, the person as a person could begin to think out sociality and set the task of improving it). Further, the characteristics of the three main types of sociality are considered: the ancient sociality, which assumes the decision-making within the framework of the policy by free citizens; imperial sociality, subordinating polis sociality to the centralized management of the emperor and medieval sociality, which whimsically united both of these types of sociality. The bridge is shifted to the next stage of the study - the New European sociality and its postmodern crisis.

Social and economic theory and practice

Fuzzy Logic in Economics – the Formation of a New Direction
Margarita Lebedeva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-197-212

The article presents a brief overview of the history of fuzzy logic. The considered path starts with the three-digit logic developed by the Polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz, who enters model statements (strong and weak approval and denial) and further develops an infinite (n-digit) logical system. Later in the works of Professor L. Zadeh there is fuzzy logic with an infinite number of results, created fuzzy sets – classes with inaccurately defined boundaries. We describe the main directions of fuzzy logic development in the field of data mining. It is shown that fuzzy logic is widely used in the field of economic research: in assessing the development of economic sectors, in insurance, decision support, modeling the economy of regions and countries, in forecasting and etc. Special attention is paid to the history of development and the possibilities of application of such direction of fuzzy logic as fuzzy cognitive modeling, the foundation for which was laid by the American researcher B. Kosko. The article includes examples of the use of cognitive approach to solve various problems in economic research, including theoretical analysis of the resource-dependent economy, the study of innovative processes in the resource-type economy, the construction of forecasts of the Russian economy. It is concluded that the existence of a lot of economic research that takes advantage of fuzzy logic indicates about its applicability to the study of various aspects of economic development.

Human Resources in the Conditions of Digitalization (Materials of the XI Siberian Personnel Forum)
Dina Konstantinova,  Yuliya Masalova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-213-224

The Department of Labor Economics and Personnel Management of the Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management held the XI Siberian Personnel Forum. It is a visiting card of the university in the field of HR technologies. The article presents the events of the forum, new formats for its organization and conduct. It has become a tradition within the framework of the forum to hold an All-Russian Correspondence Scientific and Practical Conference “Human Resources Management: Theory, Practice and Prospects”. This year it acquired the status of the “Zaninsky Readings”. The All-Russian Olympiad for students of educational institutions of higher education in Labor Economics and Personnel Management (the second and the third rounds) for the first time was held in two stages: a distance and full-time tour. The first was the online stage of the Olympiad. More than 100 students from various universities of the country took part in it. The second stage was the full-time format. The best students took part in it. They represented 15 Russian universities. Within the framework of the forum there was a number of events: an Interregional Olympiad of Schoolchildren on Personnel Management; an All-Russian Competition of Student Scientific Works in the Sphere of Labor Economics and Personnel Management dedicated to the memory of V. I. Zanin; an interuniversity competition “Expert on Labor Law"; round tables; scientific and practical conferences and master classes. Schoolchildren and teachers of comprehensive schools, students and teachers of Russian higher education institutions, representatives of the business community, including heads and specialists in personnel management, employees of recruitment agencies took part in the forum.

Classification as the Basis of Accounting Method
Alexei Kovalev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-175-196

The article is devoted to the study of classification as the basis of accounting method. The author states that the role of classification in accounting has been studied rather poorly. Despite the centuries-old practice, the classification methodology is still at the stage of formation, which requires specification of the applied classification methodology. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief description of the history of classification as a general scientific method. The author describes the development of classification method by the Soviet (Russian) and Western scientific schools. The author states that currently the development of classification methodology is given too little attention, which underestimates its role in the formation of structured data. The author describes the types of hierarchical classifications on the example of information structures in accounting. The author identifies two types of hierarchical classifications, selected by the number of criteria applied at the same level of hierarchical division: a “multi-valued” level division and a “single-valued” one. The author analyzes the chart of accounts as a classifier of the facts of economic life. It is determined that the current chart of accounts corresponds to an unbalanced, irregular hierarchy with “multi-valued” level division. This structure is far from the optimal one. The author describes a number of anomalies in accounting due to the classification scheme used. Such anomalies include: violation of the unity of the base of division, violation of the ratio of the general and particular, violation of the completeness of the reflection of the allocated properties, violations of the information reflection of the sequence of economic processes, etc. Anomalies increase the risks of errors in the reporting data and misinterpretation of the reporting data, and reduce the intuitive clarity of accounting data. It is indicated that a promising direction of improving accounting is the use of “multi-valued” classification instead of the currently used hierarchical classification. The purpose of the paper is to characterize accounting as a classification of facts of economic life and to determine the characteristics and prospects of improving accounting classifications. In this paper, the classification is considered as the essence of the accounting procedure, the basis of accounting. The subject of the research is accounting as a classification of facts of economic activities. The research methodology includes the following methods: analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction and analogy.

Philosophy of science and technology

The Potential of the SWOT Analysis in the Formation of Knowledge Strategy Models
Irina Brylina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-162-174

The author presents knowledge as a valuable strategic resource. The maintenance of competitiveness of an organization requires a focused intelligent resource management.The article reveals the role of implicit knowledge in the realization of cognitive capacities of management strategies. The paper shows that the channels of replenishment and distribution of implicit knowledge are social relationships and interpersonal interactions. The author defines the role of social capital in strengthening of intellectual capital. The article reveals the role of technical and organizational initiatives in provision of a comprehensive infrastructure used in knowledge management processes. The paper accentuates the role of initiatives on knowledge management which enhances the competitive position of an organization that uses knowledge technologies and strategies in management processes. The author shows the main issues of the SWOT analysis. This analysis promotes the increase of effectiveness of current infrastructure, coordination of knowledge and business strategy of a company; its adaptation on the market. The author highly estimates the significance of the SWOT analysis for the market evaluation and market position of a company. The SWOT-analysis is interpreted as a business-strategy based on knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, its opportunities and threats. The strategy is considered as a balancing on the edge of external environment (potential and risks) and internal capacity of an organization. The inner capacity of an organization, which is characterized as a resource-based approach, is based on resources and capabilities of competitive organization.The article shows the duration and sustainability of resource strategy, discloses its advantages and specificity of the phenomenon of increasing returns. It is shown that knowledge provides increasing returns only when it is used, as demonstrated by a self-reinforcing cycle.

History of philosophy

Dialogue “Octavius” in the Context of Religious and Philosophical Polemics between Christianity and Paganism
Lidiya Schneider
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-145-161

The author considers the early stage of religious and philosophical polemics between Christianity and ancient culture, exemplified by dialogue “Octavius”, which is probably the first literary Christian apologetic work in Latin. Following the ancient tradition Minucius Felix, the author of the dialogue, gives every participant of the disputation an opportunity to express their point of view. Paganist Caecilius steps first on the polemic stage. Like an Epicurean philosopher he declaims materialistic idea of the world origin and denies the God's will and action. As a sceptic Caecilius states that questions of religion are unavailable for human cognition, so people shouldn’t try to settle them, and the best option is to belong to ancestor’s religion. In his oration, directed against Christian religious ceremonies, common superstitions about Christians are reflected: accusations of ritual murders, anthropophagy and lechery. The advocate of Christianity, Octavius first of all declares that it is a mistake – not to notice God’s touch in harmony of cosmos and living creatures. Thus Octavian denotes two traditional arguments of the existence of God: cosmological and teleological. Then he raises the question about the genesis of roman polytheism and concludes that it is a consequent of the deification of real people – kings and heroes of the past. Noteworthy is the fact that Octavius reinforces his speech with references to ancient philosophers. It is related to author’s aspiration to draw a parallel between Christianity and ancient philosophy, to introduce Christianity as a respectable intellectual school of thought. As a result of detailed analysis of this dialogue it becomes obvious that "Octavius" deserves special attention, not because of the disclosure of the content of the Christian religion, but as an example of a polemical dialogue between the old and the new cultural paradigms. It allows us to understand what was the first impression Christian religion has made by its first acquaintance with the culture of the Roman Empire of II century.

The Concept of the Cognitive Unconscious and Its Criticism by John R. Searle
Alexsander Katunin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-129-144

The problems of consciousness, cognition, and unconsciousness have always been relevant in philosophy and at the same time these problems are the main issues of cognitive science. The latest achievements in the field of cognitive science have clearly shown that a person is able to receive, to process and apply information not only on the conscious level, but also unconsciously. Modern science generalizes all the processes associated with cognition under the concept of "the cognitive unconscious", which becomes one of the most discussed concepts in cognitive science nowadays. To clarify this concept, in the first part of the article the author gives examples of manifestation of the cognitive unconscious, based on experiments. First, the author considers implicit memory and implicit learning. It is the ability of a person to acquire information, skills as a result of life experience, but these processes occur at an unconscious level. Another form of manifestation of the cognitive unconscious is subliminal perception - a psychic phenomenon, when stimuli not fixed by consciousness become modifiers of human behavior, influencing thoughts, feelings, actions, value judgments. Then the author considers the phenomenon of priming, which causes qualitative changes in the results of the solution of the problems presented to the person, subject to preliminary presentation of information in some way related to this task, or the likelihood of a faster reproduction of the information received in the same conditions in which the prime was shown. Among other forms of the manifestation of the cognitive unconscious, the author also cites such processes as: automatism, blindsight and comes to the conclusion that, according to numerous experimental data, it is fair to say that in addition to the conscious system responsible for the processes of receiving, processing and using information, the system of the unconscious is actively functioning within the human psyche. This point of view over a number of decades has become widespread and many critical assessments have been given. In the second part of the article, the author analyzes the criticism of the cognitive unconscious by the well-known American philosopher John R. Searle on the basis of the arguments presented in his two monographs: "The Rediscovery of the Mind" and "Seeing Things as They Are: A Theory of Perception" . In both books, Searle argues that consciousness remains absolutely central in any discussion of perception and cognition, and at the same time he admits small, minor unconscious processes and completely denies the deep unconscious. In the end, reflections on Searle's position and his critical attitude to the concept of the cognitive unconscious are analyzed.

Philosophical anthropology

Plato’s Political Anthropology
Olga Ivonina,  Yury Ivonin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-103-128

“The human nature” category was an important tool of Plato’s political axiology. The core of his political anthropology was an analysis of the normative state of the subject and the object of political activities, the study of political institutes as a result of their interaction as the subject and the object of politics. It is necessary to consider principles of hierarchy, etatism and publicity as a foundation of Plato’s political axiology. The dualism over the soteriological and distributive function of a state led to a contradiction of his philosophical and political anthropology. The implementation of the first function required taking into account the spiritual hierarchy, the apex of which Plato considered wisdom. At the same time, the organization of a just life meant limiting the significance of wisdom. As a result, in the Platonic project of an ideal state, wisdom gives way to submission, friendliness and rationality. Wisdom is fraught with a loss of political loyalty, and therefore in an ideal state is under control – in particular, the political status of a wise citizen is determined by the age requirement. Platonic etatism recognizes the instrumental significance of the individual for the good of the state. Distribution of the etatism principle on the policy-makers brings a philosopher to confession of the state power publicity. Anthropological property of statesmen is altruism, allowing them to carry out power in public service form unconnected with acquisition and accumulation of individual property. Public character of state determines civil solidarity, overcoming mutual envy and rivalry. The necessary etatism consequence is a project of autarchy. An autarchy allows to attain the virtue of moderation, which is considered by Plato as the limit of people’s anthropological perfection. In addition, an autarchy allows to avoid escalation of conflicts in international relations. A just society does not need war as an instrument of foreign policy. Thus, solidarity of citizens in the autarkic state is its main foreign-policy resource.

Social philosophy

Philosophical Understanding of the Settlement Agreement as a Responsible Action via Moral Philosophy of M.M. Bakhtin
Galina Yungus
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-86-102

The article is devoted to the understanding of a settlement agreement as a responsible act of the conflict parties. Both parties, which concluded it, are responsible for the implementation of the terms of the settlement agreement. The agreement is based on reconciliation. The philosophy of the act is reinterpreted in various foreign and domestic works, scientific articles. The author considers the conclusion of a settlement agreement as a responsible act, using the conceptual apparatus of Bakhtin's philosophy, identifies the conditions, under which not only the probability of concluding a settlement agreement increases, but also its implementation is possible. Theoretical analysis will allow to consider the settlement agreement as a derivative of the responsible act. The act of concluding a settlement agreement forms a new reality, where there is no conflict, contradictions in the conflict of interests are settled within the framework of the points of the settlement agreement. The parties of the settlement agreement take responsibility for the implementation of the agreement, the level of legal awareness and responsibility of the parties shows the true intentions of the parties. A person, who has violated the terms of the settlement agreement, denies his own act to conclude peace, forgetting about responsibility, allowing himself to exist within the “non-alibi- in-being”. Under the conditions of legal nihilism, a person is not always able to realize the value of a moral image. Thus, despite the triviality of the thesis, the higher the legal culture in the society, the better the mediation mechanism in the conflict works, the more interested the members of the society in maintaining their own moral image are. The fulfillment of the terms of a voluntarily accepted settlement agreement is an example of a “non-alibi-in-being”.

Russian Humanist Society: Its Place and Role in the Spiritual Life of Russia
Valeriya Sleptsova,  Ekaterina Korostichenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-57-85

The paper investigates organized Russian freethought as a specific sociocultural phenomenon. We make an attempt to construct a cohesive pattern of the development of the Russian Humanist Society (RHS) from its beginning (May, 1995) to the present moment. We consider the organization structure, social image, nature of practical activity, worldview of RHS members. To create an accurate account of activity of Russian humanists we have analyzed a large body of publications, including magazine articles, electronic publications, policy papers, treatises authored by leaders and theoreticians of the organization. Conveyed facts have been cross-checked for objectivity. RHS as nationwide union of secular humanists became the first Russian civil society that aimed to "uphold and develop the concepts of secular humanism, associated with thinking and spirit, humane way of living". We show that the specificity of theoretical and practical activities of RHS in many respects is connected with philosophical ideas of Paul Kurtz. Within the framework of our research we describe the RHS interpretations of the terms "atheism", "religion", "humanism", "religious and secular humanism". We prove that currently there is a deep crisis in the RHS, despite its remarkable methodological and discussion activity in the mid - 90's – the beginning of 2000's, and intense commitment to publishing, research and education. We conclude that Russian humanist movement in its current state cannot compete with Orthodox Christianity or other persistent ideologies either in the public sphere or in the private one. Nonetheless, the history of the RHS represents an important part of the complex processes of secularization underway in Russia.

Farewell to Post-Modernism: Alterglobalism as a Socio-Humanitarian Strategy
Oleg Agapov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-45-56

The article considers alternative globalization as a form of international social and humanitarian movement that proposes to develop the theoretical and methodological "optics" of the perception of the dynamics of the Modern-World system (XVI-XXI centuries) in order to develop programs and practices that reduce the risks of negative scenarios of the crisis of the modern world economy, world order and geoculture. The author pays special attention to the process of dismantling postmodernist ideologies of the XIX-XX centuries as the most important practice of "resetting" the forms of social consciousness. In particular, the author believes that the “paradigm of alter-globalization” should work out: a) a new methodological and disciplinary canon of the social sciences and humanities; b) the modern forms of the energy channeling of antisystemic movements; c) alternative to the ideologies of Modernity - nationalism, racism, national socialism, colonialism, populism - ideological patterns of thinking. It is important to remember that history is an open and free process, and it continues beyond the socio-historical forms of modernity, which legacy also needs to be treated creatively, without breaking the social “fabric” created by it, but distinguishing intentions and forces that can revitalize its socio-historical dynamics. In the end, modernity, striving with all its might to break with the traditions of previous eras, has become a tradition itself, showing its historical certainty / limit of ideas, technologies, and practices.

Social Construction of the Normality in Psychiatry and Science Fiction
Elena Kosilova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-34-44

The problem of normality in psychiatry has not been solved yet. Therefore, a philosophical understanding of the notion of the norm and abnormality becomes particularly important. These two concepts should be discussed together. To solve the problem the author uses the method of analysis of norm and abnormality in psychiatry and fiction. In psychiatry there are only disorders. Their classification was historically developed by means of social construction. The conceptions of normality are different in three kinds of psychiatry. In the state psychiatry it is the absence of social complaints to the person, in commercial psychiatry it is the patient’s mental comfort, in the scientific psychiatry the statistical criterion takes place. Science fiction is a kind of literature where the normality is specially questioned. The author shows that the statistical criterion does not work in defining the norm. We can distinguish the following criteria of normality: 1) normality as a possibility of communication. In the psychiatric situation the communication of the doctor and the patient is also possible. For this, the psychiatrist must carefully and delicately grasp the biased vector of patient’s senses. When the patient turns off, the doctor’s task is to carefully go round and avoid the defense, without breaking it. 2) Normality as a possibility of mutual interaction. For a patient, the interaction with the members of the family is important, as well as with the big society in the process of inclusion. 3) Normality as an adequacy. It is an adequate person who has a non-rigid personal basis, which allows him/her to open himself/herself to a new experience. The psychiatrist must constantly increase the patient’s adequacy with the same accurate ways, as in communication with him. The novelty of the approach is, first of all, to exclude the statistical criterion of the norm and to introduce the criterion of mutual understanding and interaction. The notion of adequacy is also introduced, based on the attitude to the world, openness to it and willingness to interact with it. Fantastic worlds are a model of abnormality, and the subjects of fantastic works are a mental laboratory for understanding and overcoming the mutual abnormality of different cultures and minds.