The Transmigrant’s Home аnd Homeland in the Focus of Modern Conceptualization
Elnara Dumnova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.1-66-80
Abstract:

The article presents a refl ection on the conceptualization of the ideas of the migrant’s “home” and “homeland”. Rethinking the experience of conceptuali-zing these concepts seems appropriate due to its heterogeneity, which is due to the formation of the phenomenon of transnationalism at the end of the 20th century, refl ecting the emergence of transnational migration. Home and homeland are considered in the structure of transnational identity as its identifi ers. The theoretical framework of the analysis was the concept of the domestic researcher Z.L. Levin, which allows interpreting home and homeland as social, i. e. acquired identifi cations. The consequence of the reconstruction of the semantic fullness of the concepts of home and homeland is the transformation of identity and/or the formation of a trans-identity, involving a combination of elements of cultures, both the country of origin and the recipient country.

The beginning of the discourse about the home of the modern migrant falls on the 80s of the XX century when the issue of its loss to migrants was being considered. In the early 1990s, an anti-centrist line of research was formed, which is, in general, a complex of nomadic studies based on the concepts of globalization, transnationalism and cross-borderism. The idea of transforming the house is being formed. The house ceases to be a “fi xed structure” and loses the function of a geographical center, it becomes mobile, its topography expanding. At the same time, there is a group of scientists who deny the generalization of ideas about home and homeland. In general, when defi ning ‘home’, representatives of global discourse adhere to a number of its unifi ed indicators, the most signifi cant of which are terrain, sense of security, space, social relations of family and neighborhood. The analysis of the results of the modern conceptualization of home has shown the expansion of the semantic load of this concept and the identifi cation of new properties of home – mobility and plurality. If before the start of transnational migration, the concepts of ‘home’ and homeland were linked together by the formulation native home, then in the conditions of fl uid modernity, forming a plastic transnational identity of a migrant, these concepts began to exist separately. The concept of homeland, unlike home, has an ideological connotation. In the context of the mosaic of modern social processes and their political coloring, its conceptualization is in the process of development.

Practical Tasks of Posthumanism. Blurring the Outer Boundaries of Humanity
Yury Voronov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.1-81-101
Abstract:

This article systematizes practical tasks that can be attributed to the implementation of the ideas of posthumanism. The reader’s attention is drawn to the erosion process on the external boundaries of human society. There are many lawsuits that recognize animal rights. There are several aspects to this process. The fi rst is the recognition of the rights of wild animals and partial bans on their keeping in captivity and the introduction into legal circulation of the category ‘non-human person’. The second is to reduce the number of laboratory animals subjected to lethal experiments in order to obtain new drugs and develop new methods of treating people. Previously, this activity was considered morally justifi ed. Currently, it is under the close attention of animal rights activists and is controlled in the legal sphere. The third aspect of the problem is the emergence of ways to take into account the rights of pets. If previously pets were equated with things, now there is a shift towards external control over the relationship between pets and their owners. Many countries have laws protecting the rights of pets. The fourth aspect of the problem is that new relationships between human society and the world of microorganisms have formed. If previously this world was predominantly interpreted as hostile and predominantly pathogenic microorganisms were studied, in recent decades microorganisms that have a benefi cial effect on human health have begun to attract signifi cantly more attention. Finally, the fi fth aspect is the emergence and solution of new problems on the external border of humanity and the virtual world created by people. Previously, this world existed in the form of fantasies, religious concepts, art, folklore, etc. But the boundary between this world and real people was not fully realized. In recent years, artifi cial intelligence, intelligently operating mechanisms and much more have appeared in this virtual world, which makes this world equal to the human one.

Artificial Intelligence as an Intermediary between Animals and Humans
Daria Bylieva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.1-102-120
Abstract:

The development of technology has changed the position of animals in the modern world in various aspects. However, only the achievements of artifi cial intelligence in the fi eld of natural languages indicated the possibility of reaching a new level of understanding and relationship with animals. Modern technologies have made it possible to isolate and fi x animal sounds and collect a huge array of audio and video data, and the experience of translation, even in the absence of parallel texts, has indicated the potential for using artifi cial intelligence to analyze animal sounds. Despite numerous diffi culties, including those associated with the difference in the worldview of animals and humans, there are already precedents for translation from the language of animals. The article analyzes the possibilities of using artifi cial intelligence in conditions of limited data and its current use in the fi eld of animal communication. If for domestic and farm animals, researchers rely on the interpretation of meanings or emotions, then for wild animals, scientists compare sounds and behavior, and rely on the potential of artifi cial intelligence in solving unstructured problems. Although a number of recent studies report high reliability of “translation” from the language of animals, the very possibility of testing the effectiveness is diffi cult. Nevertheless, the accelerating emergence of new solutions that facilitate the recognition of the voices of specifi c animals, the classifi cation of sounds and actions of different animals, etc., indicate the possibility of a qualitative leap in the understanding of animals in the near future. Success in the fi eld of interpretation of animal sounds can lead not only to progress in a large number of areas related to the animal world, but also to a change in the status and position of the animal. At the same time, the achievements raise ethical questions related to the possibility of using new technologies to the detriment of animals and people.

The Image of the School Today and Tomorrow in the Context
Philip Kazin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.1-121-144
Abstract:

The image of the modern and future school in perception of high school students is examined in the context of understanding the system of their values and life views. Empirically the paper is based on the results of the fi eld research undertaken by the author in September-October 2021 among the 9–11 grade students of St. Petersburg schools, followed by further investigation among the same target audience in January-February 2023. New questioning of the students was accompanied by the questioning of teachers, which allows us now not only to analyze the data in dynamics, but also to compare the views of students and teachers. Theoretical background of the research is based on the current sociological and psychological academic discussion about the concepts of happiness and meaningful life.

We argue, that during the recent year and a half the image of modern and future school has signifi cantly changed and this change bears the value-oriented character. First, the move from the values of life stability and comfort towards the values of personal and professional growth and achievements has been identifi ed, i.e. from the consumer values to the values of development. Second, high school students demonstrate almost entire indifference towards the values of common good. And, third, the teachers’ perception of the teenagers’ values is signifi cantly different from the reality in two important aspects: fi rstly, according to the teachers the students are much more oriented on consumer values, than it takes place in fact. And secondly, in the teachers’ perception students prioritize successful learning of curriculum disciplines much less than they actually do. According to teachers’ opinion friendship and communication are much more important to students than studies as such. This in fact may mean the attribution to the students the system of values, spread among the teachers, which causes major diffi culties in identifying the optimal combination of teaching and upbringing.

European Utopias of the XVII Century: In Search of Models of Social Order
Nataliya Kozlova,  Sergei Rassadin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.1-129-144
Abstract:

         The article analyzes the European utopias of the XVII century on the ba­sis of the actor-network approach. The assemblage point of a utopian society is directly the idea of a social order, which is formed on the basis of scientic knowledge embodying instrumental reason. The study of man, societies, and natural phenomena allows the authors of utopias to offer a more rationally or­ganized, ordered, from their point of view, social world that provides satisfac­tion of the needs of both the individual and society. The social order based on scientic knowledge is conceived by the authors of utopias as a marker of civili­zation, thanks to which the utopian society as another (‘alien’) social order is en­dowed with positive characteristics. The authors believe that the construction ofthe utopian ‘social’ takes place within a closed network in space and time, which prevents the threat of the collapse of order, isolating cultural inuence from the outside, as well as guaranteeing the immutability/stability of a given algorithm of social relations in a chronological perspective. The authors identify the func­tioning in utopias of the regime of everyday life reproduction, excluding mo­bilization, orienting the inhabitants of utopia on the values of everyday work, moderation and harmony. The article shows that the construction of a society based on scientic knowledge determines the features of social strati cation in the form of a meritocracy of knowledge legitimized by natural religion. The au­thors believe that the ‘assembly of the social’ based on egalitarian principles ex­tends mainly to economic processes, while the public sphere is designated in the form of an aristocracy of intellectual labor. The expert community carries out total regulation of the activities of archaic/primitive by nature social institutions. The authors think of the collected models of utopian society as universal, po­tentially suitable for all communities experiencing problems with building a so­cial order.

Analysis of Tyranny in European Political Philosophy: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times
Vasily Markhinin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.1-145-165
Abstract:

Since late antiquity and till Early Modern time tyranny had been an issue of agreat importance for any set of ideological concepts as well as for any system ofpolitical philosophy. During this millennium-long period theories of tyrannical rulehad stimulated the development of political philosophies and caused paradigmaticshifts of political and legal reasoning in general. In its initial point (i.e. since IV AD)a conventional understanding of tyranny had framed itself within a Platonist(Patristic) description of a tyrant as a degenerated person who subjected his ownreason and will to perverted passions. So to prevent tyranny a ruler ought to re-subject his passions and carnal impulses to the reason embodied in divine and hu­man laws. The earlier versions of this theory (e. g. presented by Alcuin or Agobardof Lyons) had focused on the need for spiritual perfection of rulers while the laterones (e. g. those of John of Salisbury and Aquinas) noted the legal aspects of anissue first of all. The development of this so to say normative paradigm of theo­rizing had reached its peak in writings of John of Salisbury and Thomas Aquinason the right of subjects to resist tyranny. A set of inner antinomies had preventeda successful accommodation of those theories to legal & political practice whilethe need for such an accommodation increased. A shift to a new paradigm of po­litical thought had begun in the theories of state of Bartolo da Sassoferrato andAzzo and continued in the political philosophy of Italian civic humanists and Ma­chiavelli. According to them a tyranny emerges from a conflict between the needs of political systems & rulers and the lack of available resources (both natural andsocietal) rather than from a moral perversion of the ruling persons. An adequateanalysis of a tyrannical – and vice versa of a good – government thus required em­pirical circumstances (not just eternal laws) to be taken into account.

Dishonest Signs of the New Sincerity: Another Round оf Alienation оf the Performance Society
Ivan Romanov,  Anastasia Toropova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.1-166-184
Abstract:

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of the ‘New Sin­cerity’ as a kind of new ethics and its problematisation in relation to the consum­er society. Is the so-called ‘New Sincerity’ really a qualitative change in the human sensibility of 21st century society in a globalised world, or, on the contrary, is it becoming another trademark where signs of naturalness are successfully com­mercialised?

A genealogical analysis of the concept of New Sincerity was carried out inorder to realise the objective. Semiological analysis and hermeneutics of cor­poreal signs were then used to demonstrate the artificiality of the notion of‘naturalness’ itself. A critique of representational theory, on which the NewSincerity relies as an accurate external reflection of internal processes, was also undertaken.

The study revealed that the representatives of the New Sincerity are embed­ded in the capitalist logic of communication. Using various examples, particu­larly from the blogosphere, the signs of naturalness and sincerity that are suc­cessfully commercialised in contemporary show business and the blogospherewere identified. In particular, the difference between the showbiz epatage ofthe ‘old’ and the ‘new’ ethics of Lady Gaga and Ashley Halsey was revealed. Inthe first case, the outrage is a well-considered part of the stage persona, in thesecond case, it is a consequence caused by the affective behaviour of the staras a manifestation of the New Sincerity. Using the example of a video fromthe everyday life of the Korean K-Pop group BTS, it was found that successfulediting creates a feeling of the idols’ life ‘as if in the palm’ for the fans, at thesame time it removes such important aspects of everyday life as, for example,the sexual life.

The theoretical signicance of this study lies in the attempt to reect on the new cultural trends that are unfolding in contemporary society. The practical sig­nicance of the study lies in the possibility of applying the ndings to self-reec­tion and the formation of a clear view of the world in which we live.

The Habitus of the Ruling Elite of Modern Russia
Maksim Kozyrev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.1-185-206
Abstract:

The purpose of the article is to establish the peculiarities of the habitus ofthe ruling elite in modern Russia. The methodological basis is the position ac­cording to which certain points of view, type of thinking, habitus correspond to the social position. As a method of collecting information, one of the varieties of document analysis is thematic analysis. According to the results of the study, the following characteristic of the habitus of the ruling elite of modern Russia was given. The ideological attitudes of the Russian elite are oriented towards the patterns of Western culture, but the stability and depth of the referential orien­tation towards the West of the Russian elite groups depends on the political and economic situation. The ruling elite of Russia is conservative, it is generally sat­isfied with its position in Russia. The same reason leads to its negative attitude to any significant social transformations. The conservatism of the Russian elite leads to the rejection of analytical thinking, with the help of which reality is de­composed in order to construct from its parts the future that is fundamentally different from the present. The ruling elite strives to see the world as integral and organic. The elite strata, at least, are suspicious and distrustful of the intel­lectual abilities and moral qualities of the Russian population. Attributing certain stable socio-psychological qualities to the population (irresponsibility, low ability to self-organize and adapt to changing socio-economic conditions, infantilism, inadequate assessment of reality) indicates a deep gap between the elite and oth­er social groups, which, given such an obvious stigmatization, becomes not only political or economic, but also psychological. And this, in turn, is an additional conflictogenic factor. Failure to take into account the peculiarities of the situa­tion of opposing social groups, which is a consequence of socially determined stigmatization, will be perceived as an arrogant and dismissive attitude, which often becomes the detonator of social clashes. Such a negative and exaggerated assessment of the socio-psychological qualities of the population is reflected in the quality of public administration. In the latter, there is a tendency to primitiv­ization and one-sidedness of influence, a constant search for simple solutions. The failures caused by this are justified by the immaturity of the people, their low moral qualities, which only intensifies the social gap and differentiation.

«The End of America» – the Transformation of Democracy in the USA
Irina Zhezhko-Braun
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.1-88-116
Abstract:

Numerous publications indicate the presence of a deep political crisis in the United States. One of the most obvious indicators of the crisis is the authoritarian tendency in the development of the political system. Polarization between the two major parties has reached its peak. Polls show, with both sides perceiving the opposing party not just as a political rival, but as an enemy of the nation. The divergence of positions between them on important issues has greatly increased, which gives rise to extreme partisanship in decision-making. This article is the fi rst in a series about the “end of America”. The topic of “the end of America” or “the death of America” has become especially relevant in the publications of the last 20 years. These phrases are used so often that many people no longer notice that they are compound metaphors. The article analyzes the framework or fi elds of meaning in which these metaphors acquire their context and content. The following meanings of “America” are identifi ed and described in the article: a sovereign country, a social and political-economic system, civilization and culture, a geopolitical player, a superpower, and, fi nally, the “American experiment,” that is, a unique political and social project for self-government in the state. The answer to the question “is America dying” (“died”) depends on what features of America, what values and principles of its structure are considered the main or system-forming ones. Most modern authors call democracy the main characteristic of the political system and understand by the “death of America” the “death of democracy,” or more precisely, the degeneration of democracy from liberal to authoritarian. The article contains examples confi rming this trend. Predictions of the “death of America” do not mean its inevitable end, since not all changes are irreversible. The current crisis in the history of the United States is far from the fi rst in the history; its political system contains opportunities and mechanisms for resolving crises and restoring the foundations of the “American project.”

Feng Menglong’s “A complete book of Wisdom” as a source for the study of Chinese Stratagem Thinking
Tatiana Zavyalova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.1-117-149
Abstract:

 

Studies of Chinese stratagem thinking in Russia still do not take into account works created in line with the Confucian philosophical tradition. “A Complete Book of Wisdom” by Feng Menglong (1574–1646) can be regarded as a collection of stratagems. The grounds for this assessment may be found in traditional bibliographic descriptions and the modern research and publishing tradition.

The fi rst edition was published in 1626, the supplemented edition – in 1634.

Formally, “A Complete Book of Wisdom” can be referred to encyclopediasleishu. The text is not a continuous narrative, but consists of individual short stories; the number depends on the edition, from 1061 to 1236. Each story describes a precedent for the application of a stratagem. The period of the narration covers years from ancient times to the Ming Dynasty. Feng Menglong selected proper stories, edited them, and added his own comments. Typologically, similar stories are organized into separate sections (28 in total), which, in turn, are organized into chapters (10 in total). One chapter contains from two to four sections.

“A Complete Book of Wisdom” retains the features of the “A New Account of Tales of the World” by Liu Yiqing (403–444), which are characterized by a value classifi cation of people’s deeds. All the stories are arranged according to the principle of “from the best to the worst”.

Feng Menglong wrote a large preface to the entire work, and provided extended prefaces to each chapter. Each section is preceded by a brief explanation. Feng Manlong’s own ideological views can be discovered as the paratextual elements: prefaces and commentaries.

The article consists of two parts. The fi rst part is devoted to the description of the peculiarities of the narrative language of “A Complete Book of Wisdom”, as well as the analysis of the socio-philosophical issues that stimulated the creation of this work. On the basis of quotation from classics in Feng Menglong’s works two types of author’s meaning formation are revealed. The author of the paper shows transformation of ethical models of Sung neo-Confucianism and the changing status of the category ‘wisdom’ in Feng Menglong’s ideological program. The second part of the article offers the author’s commented translation of Feng Menglong’s general preface to “A Complete Book of Wisdom” and ten prefaces to each chapter.