Social and Network Capital: The Relationship between Concepts in a Network Approach
Raisa Zayakina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.3.2-231-251

This article explores the differences between “social capital” and “network capital”, which are used in the context of network reflection. It is emphasized, that both capitals are interpretative variables and can be seen differently, depending on a semantic context. Every social structure implies branched social relations. That is why methodological tools of network approach are “convenient” for the study of social capital. In its core we find nuances of the interpretation of social capital. They depend not only on the nature of network actors but also on the researcher’s focus, on the network connections configuration or their content. Regardless of the course of the research, social capital is necessary for understanding social networks and social processes and is a result of said processes. As regards network capital, it can be defined as a form of social capital giving access to resources through interpersonal relationships (relational dimension). Defining characteristics of such relationships are trust and mutuality. However, the semantic emphasis can be transferred from the nature of relations to their modern support technologies. And so network capital appears as a measure of the value of communications maintained through telecommunication channels. The extreme position to social and network capitals suggests that social capital should be removed from the network approach and be completely replaced by the network capital. Otherwise, science denies other social forms of capital with their social characteristics. The author pays special attention to the ways of studying social networks using the theoretical capabilities of network capital in all its interpretations. The standpoint of its disregard, individualistic, and group approaches are highlighted.

Can Circular Entrepreneurship Save the World Economy?
Samrat Ray
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.3.2-252-265

Global polarization and linear economy models has for generations been the servant of ruthless capitalism and bourgeoisie ventures. In such ruthless circumstance there has been alarming situation both globally and locally to challenge prevailing linear economy structures to question and create a sustainable platform for protecting the resources and user structures of our future generations. Life cycle assessments globally has been a case study which has shown the minimal usage of products in value based propositions and bringing the environmental ecosystem in a balanced structure irrespective of political or governmental interventions. From the birth of the Paris Agreements on Climate changes, scientists and technologists globally has stressed upon the importance of sustainability and resilience on global food security as well as natural resource management. In such scenario resource allocations even in advanced countries like Europe and America has fallen prey to gross inequality, gender gaps and faulty resource transitions even in most advanced regions. Shocking Gini coefficient figures across boundaries have led scientists and economists globally to rethink and restrategise the way strategic business management hovers globally and to better revisualise globalization and utilize the resources our earth has endowed us upon. This paper challenges prevailing notions and even best practices in current management scenario and principles of economics of entrepreneurship to jump start a society based on values, tradition and value based usage proposition; in other terms from a linear based economy to a sustainable resilient circular economy model with greater emphasis on environmental protection, poverty eradication with better integration of triple line bottom of pyramid and better community disciplines to foster a vibrant shared economy model. There is a persistent gap lying across various parameters of a linear economy which has in turn been the causal effect of human impoverishment, poverty and vast scale ecological destructions. A case based approach and exploratory study in this research paper tries to answer rising question in addressing this burning topic of circular entrepreneurship which is quite different in structure and outcome to normative economical falsifications arising out of entrepreneurship models which has till now failed to create a functional economy devoid of hazards and wastes

IIA - a Step Forward, Giving a Leap into the Future
Nikolay Anokhin,  Nina Protas,  Egor Shmakov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.3.2-266-280

The study examines all aspects of individual investment accounts as a long-term financial instrument. The authors analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this tool for private investors and the state, give the main indicators of the development of IIA and the stock market. The paper gives the forecast of the dynamics of the development of the Russian stock market and compares it with the stages of development of the American one. The authors define the new conditions of the “game” and give characteristics of qualified and unqualified investors. The authors pay special attention to the regional aspect, determine the key directions of the development of IIA at the local level. In the conclusion, the ways and prospects of its development are proposed.

Research object: individual investment account.

Research subject: IIA as a long-term financial instrument.

Land Relations in the Agrarian Sector of Russia
Zemfira Kalugina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-330-350

The article deals with the history and current state of land relations in the agricultural sector of Russia, analyzes the land legislation of Russia, the problems and specifics of land ownership and land use in three sectors of the agricultural economy: agricultural organizations, peasant (farmer) economy, household farms. It is noted that in the process of economic reforms of the 1990s, the institutional framework and legal framework for all types of business activities in rural areas and the formation of a diversified agricultural economy were created. The author considers the institutional conditions of functioning, specialization and efficiency of agricultural production in all categories of farms. It is noted that the market transformation of the agricultural sector of Russia in the 1990s, aimed at adapting agricultural organizations to market conditions, was successful. This is evidenced by a significant reduction in loss-making farms. Peasant (farm) economy as an independent segment of the agricultural economy contrary to the expectations of the reformers did not become a leading sector of the agricultural economy. However, it has occupied a niche and produces about one tenth of the total production. The private sector remains a significant producer of agricultural products, although there is a decrease in its share. The paper considers land relations in historical retrospect. Legislative regulation of land relations is analyzed in the context of the “Land Code of the Russian Federation”. It provides for the rationality of the use and protection of land in the interests of the whole society, while ensuring the guarantees of each citizen for the free possession, use and disposal of land belonging to him. The author comes to the conclusion that the informal agrarian economy has become a form of survival of the rural population in the period of radical socio-economic reforms. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study was the fundamental research of agricultural problems of domestic and foreign authors. The study is based on the analysis of a wide range of statistical data, as well as materials of sample surveys characterizing the specifics of land relations in modern Russia.

Modern Approach to Self-Management: Inversive Analysis
Dmitry Sevostyanov,  Irina Tolstova,  Tatyana Kaloshina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-351-370

The article analyzes self-management as a science of rational construction of one’s own life. The authors highlight the most important resource – the resource of time. The culture of using one’s own time and the time of other people is the most important aspect of the general culture of a person. The authors show that up to now self-management has been mainly considered as a set of some positive recommendations, or ready recipes of life. This is how it is mostly presented in modern literature. However, building your own life is a creative process, and these ready-made recipes do not work here. They do not take into account individual qualities of a person, as well as many other circumstances. The article presents another approach to self-management, which can be referred to as “inversive self-management”. It mainly deals with errors and difficulties (limitations) in self-management. Limitations in self-management are shown not as insufficiently developed skills, but as independent destructive stereotypes of behavior. In contrast to the methods of self-organization that require an individual approach, the limitations of self-management are quite stereotypical. In order to study them, the inverse relationship analysis is used. Inversion is a form of intra-system relationships in which the lowest element in the hierarchy actually becomes dominant in it, formally remaining in the same subordinate position. Hierarchical relationships are provided by the work of several organizational principles in the hierarchy. Inversion appears when there is a conflict between these organizational principles. So there are many limitations to self-management. Some components of human behavior that have adaptive significance begin to work against human productivity when the importance of these components is too great. The article examines a number of such examples. This article is an abstract of a more extensive study, which provides an analysis of the particular manifestations of restrictions in self-management, where the authors consider the difficulties in the formation of their own lives, caused by dependencies, adverse life scenarios, time orientation, etc. A number of these limitations are deeply rooted in culture.

Coordination as a Key Element in Managing a Complex System (On the Example of Public Sector)
Svetlana Belousova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-371-394

The author considers complex systems and problems of their management highlighting the problems in the public sector. The purpose of the study is specification of its complexity as an independent object of management, which requires acceleration of the coordination role and improvement of coordination mechanisms in a complex system management. The paper considers different options of complex systems and elements of their complexity, and then, defines four main types of them: multiplicity complexity of affine components, their behavior and communication and also cognitive difficulties. The object of the research is the public sector having several perspectives of consideration, each of which forms certain specifics of functioning and the corresponding problems, approaches and elements of its management. The author puts forward a hypothesis of the need of an independent vector in administrative activities for the solution of problems of system complexity in the public sector which includes the following functions: modeling and design, coordination, estimation, intellectual analysis and “clever” regulation. In its turn, coordination (the most important complexity management component) represents a difficult mechanism of administrative actions which are implemented at three levels (macro-, meso- and micro-) and three types of interaction (horizontal, vertical and displaced interactions). The methodology of research is based on cross-disciplinary interaction of the economic theory and the system analysis which allows to increase integrity of consideration of the public sector, to unite knowledge for the purpose of formation of new ideas and concepts. The result of research is system representation of the phenomenon of the public sector as a complex system requiring a corresponding set of measures for managing its complexity. The results of the research can be used both in the theory and practice of management, as well as in the development of the public sector economy.

The Formation of the Chinese Banking System and Its Current State
Lyu Inin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-395-409

The article deals with the formation of the Chinese banking system and its current state. The subject of the research is the Chinese banking system and its current state. The methodology of the research includes monographic, vertical and horizontal analysis. As a result of the research the genesis of the formation of the Chinese banking system was considered, the departments of the People’s Bank of China were designated and its functions were studied. The regulation of the People’s Bank of China is carried out by the law called “On the People’s Bank of China” and adopted on March 18, 1995. The latest changes were adopted on 12/27/2003. The list and the main stages of the development of joint-stock Chinese commercial banks were presented. The main requirements for foreign banks and the share of Chinese banks in the capital of foreign financial institutions were considered. The guidance of the People’s Bank of China is fulfilled by the manager and his deputies, who are appointed or removed from their post by the chairman of the PRC. Today, the People’s Bank of China performs two main functions: regulating the financial sector and conducting the monetary policy. The basis of the banking sector are large commercial banks. In 2003, the Standing Committee of the All-China Assembly of People’s Representatives adopted a row of amendments to the law, according to which the People’s Bank of China received a number of additional powers to ensure the overall financial stability and to conduct the country's monetary policy. Foreign currency transactions dominate in the activity of the People’s Bank of China. Chinese commercial banks are divided into two types: four banks with the state capital (“Big Four”) and joint-stock banks. The four largest banks with the state capital are: the Bank of China, the Agricultural Bank of China, the Commercial and Industrial Bank of China, and the Construction Bank of China. The aggregate amount of their assets was 53% of the total assets of the Chinese banking system in 2005. The country rating is determined by international agencies. The rating of China in the long term, both in the national and in the foreign currency is “A”.

Classification as the Basis of Accounting Method
Alexei Kovalev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-175-196

The article is devoted to the study of classification as the basis of accounting method. The author states that the role of classification in accounting has been studied rather poorly. Despite the centuries-old practice, the classification methodology is still at the stage of formation, which requires specification of the applied classification methodology. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief description of the history of classification as a general scientific method. The author describes the development of classification method by the Soviet (Russian) and Western scientific schools. The author states that currently the development of classification methodology is given too little attention, which underestimates its role in the formation of structured data. The author describes the types of hierarchical classifications on the example of information structures in accounting. The author identifies two types of hierarchical classifications, selected by the number of criteria applied at the same level of hierarchical division: a “multi-valued” level division and a “single-valued” one. The author analyzes the chart of accounts as a classifier of the facts of economic life. It is determined that the current chart of accounts corresponds to an unbalanced, irregular hierarchy with “multi-valued” level division. This structure is far from the optimal one. The author describes a number of anomalies in accounting due to the classification scheme used. Such anomalies include: violation of the unity of the base of division, violation of the ratio of the general and particular, violation of the completeness of the reflection of the allocated properties, violations of the information reflection of the sequence of economic processes, etc. Anomalies increase the risks of errors in the reporting data and misinterpretation of the reporting data, and reduce the intuitive clarity of accounting data. It is indicated that a promising direction of improving accounting is the use of “multi-valued” classification instead of the currently used hierarchical classification. The purpose of the paper is to characterize accounting as a classification of facts of economic life and to determine the characteristics and prospects of improving accounting classifications. In this paper, the classification is considered as the essence of the accounting procedure, the basis of accounting. The subject of the research is accounting as a classification of facts of economic activities. The research methodology includes the following methods: analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction and analogy.

Fuzzy Logic in Economics – the Formation of a New Direction
Margarita Lebedeva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-197-212

The article presents a brief overview of the history of fuzzy logic. The considered path starts with the three-digit logic developed by the Polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz, who enters model statements (strong and weak approval and denial) and further develops an infinite (n-digit) logical system. Later in the works of Professor L. Zadeh there is fuzzy logic with an infinite number of results, created fuzzy sets – classes with inaccurately defined boundaries. We describe the main directions of fuzzy logic development in the field of data mining. It is shown that fuzzy logic is widely used in the field of economic research: in assessing the development of economic sectors, in insurance, decision support, modeling the economy of regions and countries, in forecasting and etc. Special attention is paid to the history of development and the possibilities of application of such direction of fuzzy logic as fuzzy cognitive modeling, the foundation for which was laid by the American researcher B. Kosko. The article includes examples of the use of cognitive approach to solve various problems in economic research, including theoretical analysis of the resource-dependent economy, the study of innovative processes in the resource-type economy, the construction of forecasts of the Russian economy. It is concluded that the existence of a lot of economic research that takes advantage of fuzzy logic indicates about its applicability to the study of various aspects of economic development.

Human Resources in the Conditions of Digitalization (Materials of the XI Siberian Personnel Forum)
Dina Konstantinova,  Yuliya Masalova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-213-224

The Department of Labor Economics and Personnel Management of the Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management held the XI Siberian Personnel Forum. It is a visiting card of the university in the field of HR technologies. The article presents the events of the forum, new formats for its organization and conduct. It has become a tradition within the framework of the forum to hold an All-Russian Correspondence Scientific and Practical Conference “Human Resources Management: Theory, Practice and Prospects”. This year it acquired the status of the “Zaninsky Readings”. The All-Russian Olympiad for students of educational institutions of higher education in Labor Economics and Personnel Management (the second and the third rounds) for the first time was held in two stages: a distance and full-time tour. The first was the online stage of the Olympiad. More than 100 students from various universities of the country took part in it. The second stage was the full-time format. The best students took part in it. They represented 15 Russian universities. Within the framework of the forum there was a number of events: an Interregional Olympiad of Schoolchildren on Personnel Management; an All-Russian Competition of Student Scientific Works in the Sphere of Labor Economics and Personnel Management dedicated to the memory of V. I. Zanin; an interuniversity competition “Expert on Labor Law"; round tables; scientific and practical conferences and master classes. Schoolchildren and teachers of comprehensive schools, students and teachers of Russian higher education institutions, representatives of the business community, including heads and specialists in personnel management, employees of recruitment agencies took part in the forum.