Economic theory

Important Contribution to the Coverage of National Income Statistics and the Economic History of Pre-Revolutionary Russia and the USSR
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-247-260

The author of this paper analyses the book by A. Markevich and M. Harrison, “Great War, Civil War, and Recovery: Russia’s National Income, 1913 to 1928”. He highlights the fact that the authors’ (A. Markevich and M. Harrison) calculations introduced in this article significantly expand and clarify the economic situation in Russia and the USSR in 1913-1928 from an economics point of view. For the first time, M. Harrison and A. Markevich evaluate the dynamics of national income and production of individual economic sectors, including the service industry, and compare the economies of Russia and the USSR with other countries in the same period.

The calculations show a more successful development of the economy of Russia than other warring countries during the First World War. In addition, the article analyzes the decline in Russia’s share in the world economy in 1928 compared to 1913. Thereby, the authors make a reasonable conclusion about the decrease in the efficiency of the USSR economy in 1928 compared to the pre-revolutionary period. Estimates of the national income, the personal consumption fund, and the population allowed evaluating the entire economic development of pre-revolutionary Russia, the USSR, and post-Soviet Russia. Finally, the authors reveal the consequences of the economic crises of the 20th century in Russia.

Drawing on personal and other researchers’ calculations, the authors criticize the opinion about the national income growth in 1928 in comparison with 1913 as exaggerated. Its significant drop during the civil war was caused by war communism as well as by the rupture of economic ties.

Modern Banking Products: Analysis of Development Trends in Russia and Abroad
Valeria Vagaytseva,  Alexandra Shmyreva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-261-276

The development of new digital technologies and their active application has an impact on the relationship of credit institutions with customers in the field of availability of products and methods of services provided. Currently, the activity of banks in creating and releasing products for customers is reaching a new level thanks to the development of technologies and innovations in this area.

The research and analysis of the current directions of development in the field of development and formation of modern banking products is carried out. The object of the study is the variety of products of commercial banks, the subject of the study is the global trends of their development. Purpose of the work: analysis of trends in the development of modern and innovative banking products in Russia and abroad. Based on the purpose of the work, the main types of banking innovation processes in the world were identified, such as a banking product in new market segments, innovations such as the development of activities in new areas of the financial market, modified financial intermediation services aimed at effective asset and liability management, new methods of cash management and the use of new information technologies, new products in traditional segments of loan capital.

The line of common banking products considered in the article, as well as the study of products of a new digital and remote format, allowed us to conclude that it is necessary to develop and disseminate the existing classification of banking products. Due to the increasing number of bank product developments, their classification becomes an integral stage in their formation and subsequent release. A number of classification features and distinctions were investigated, which helped to systematize the existing groups of banking products and identify areas for their development. The perspective of the banking sector is the transformation of the bank’s products. There is automation in many banking processes and, as a result, there are modernized products and services of the bank, which have not been considered in the theoretical aspect earlier in scientific and practical works and publications.

Problems of Innovative Activity Development of the Novosibirsk Region
Dmitry Vorotnikov,  Anton Kogan
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-277-295

The relevance of the study of problems in the field of innovation activity in the Novosibirsk region is due to the low susceptibility of the region to the introduction of new technologies, the complexity of choosing a strategy for the development of innovative companies, the lack of an effective method of finding business models for innovative products and the complex relationship of industrial partners with innovators.

All these problems are a consequence of the cultural characteristics of the Russian Federation, and without proper study of them we cannot present a complete picture of the development of the innovative sphere of the region.

The article discusses the concepts of “innovative susceptibility of the region” and “startups”. It is proposed to supplement the generally accepted characteristics of a startup by adding an institutional affiliation to them, dividing startups into three categories: park, academic and non-academic. Each of these categories has its own characteristics that must be taken into account when creating a development strategy and entering the market. It should be noted that the institutional affiliation of a startup, taking into account the cultural characteristics of the Russian Federation, has been studied superficially by modern economists.

The problem of distortion of statistical data when calculating the innovation activity of the regions of the Russian Federation on the example of the Omsk, Tomsk and Novosibirsk regions is indicated.

The Role of Socio-Economic Factors in the Formation of the Russian Statehood in the IX-XVI Centuries
Sofia Lyubyashhenko,  Alexander Zimens
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-296-311

The article is devoted to the analysis of the influence of various economic aspects of the development of Russian statehood in the IX – XVI centuries. The authors consider the most important sectors of the Russian economy in the pre-Roman period, such as agriculture, crafts and trade. They also show the role of trade in the formation of regional markets and their integration into a single national market. The article discloses the significance of trade routes and partners, the structure of exports and imports, the functions of the state in regulating foreign economic relations. A separate part of the article is a chronological analysis of the dynamics of trade development. The following stages are distinguished: 1) IX - XI: the emergence and flourishing of Old Russian trade, 2) the middle of the XII - XIII centuries: a recession in trade against the backdrop of feudal fragmentation, the beginning of the flourishing of foreign trade in Novgorod, 3) XIII - XIV centuries: the destruction of trade relations in the southern and northeastern principalities, the flourishing of Novgorod trade, merchants, 4) the end of the XIV and the first half of the XVI century: the rise of Moscow merchants, positive dynamics in the development of trade, the development of new trade routes, access to new ports, the development of foreign trade with European countries, 5) the second half of the XVI - early XVII centuries: the crisis of trade and economic relations, the decline of agriculture, the decline in imports and exports.

The article provides a rationale for the fact that trade played an important role in the spatial development of the state, as it contributed to the formation of cities, the resettlement of people and the integration of various segments of the population. Trade routes (‘from Varangians to Greeks’, Volga, Danube) penetrated the territory of the East European Plain, inhabited by tribal unions of the Slavs. Trade and defensive posts were formed along the banks of the rivers, which developed into large centers of trade, crafts, agriculture, military power, which formed the basis of the power of local princes and leaders. As a result, cities acquired not only trade and economic, but also administrative and strategic importance. The economic dependence of the tribes on cities, which were markets for agricultural products, handicrafts, precious metals, as well as the need to ensure security, became prerequisites for the formation and development of Russian statehood.

The article shows the origin of the system of law in Rus’, the regulation of trade and economic relations, as well as the importance of various forms of management and cooperation (merchant guilds), which contributed to the unification of the Russian state. One guild could unite merchants from different cities, which facilitated and accelerated the process of annexing territories. Thus, unity was ensured not only by military force, but also by economic integration.

Since the peasantry was the main element in the system of division of labor, the production of goods for foreign trade and material goods for domestic consumption, it can be considered a key factor influencing the development of trade and the main resource for the development of the economy. The historical transformation of the peasantry is closely correlated with the dynamics of the development of trade, so we can talk about the relationship of these elements.


Rorty’s Recontextualization and Davidson’s Principle of Charity
Oksana Tselishcheva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-312-324

The criticism of epistemology undertaken by R. Rorty in the book “Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature” is based on the concept of knowledge by J. Dewey of ‘research’ as an evolutionary change of beliefs. Rorty identifies two components of this process: the description of the transition from the old belief system to the new, and the development of a new system. The first is closely related to the problems of Kuhn’s paradigm shift, and the second to Gadamer’s hermeneutic tools. Both of these are intertwined in Rorty’s subsequent philosophy, undergoing changes under the influence of a pragmatic critique of the dualisms of Western philosophy. But since hermeneutics is only one of the means of mastering new beliefs, Rorty introduces a more general concept of ‘recontextualization’. This step requires a revision of the place of Kuhn and Gadamer in late Rorty’s philosophy. In relation to Kuhn, this was expressed in the rejection of Kuhn’s privilege of the natural sciences, while the role of Gadamer’s hermeneutics as an interpretation has suffered more damage. Rorty denies the universality of hermeneutics, addressing a rebuke to those philosophers whose interpretation comes to the fore, or in Rorty’s words, ‘is inscribed on the banners of the philosophical movement’ - Dilthey, Gadamer and Taylor. Recontextualization instead of hermeneutics is implemented by Rorty in the form of a translation concept. Rorty does not accept Quine’s concept of radical translation as an expression of extreme skepticism in understanding someone else’s linguistic framework, and accepts Davidson’s Principle of Charity, which emphasizes interpretation with the achievement of ‘maximizing’ meaning and ‘optimizing’ communication. As a consequence, Rorty uses the possibility of completely abandoning ontology as a tool for describing the world and teeters on the verge of adopting a purely ‘linguistic’ vision of reality.

Steven Pinker’s Concept of Global Violence Decline and the Response of the Scientific Community
Ivan Diatlov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-325-345

Two widely discussed books on violence by Steven Pinker offer a grand metanarrative about the movement of humanity towards reason, progress, and humanism. The article briefly generalizes the main author’s methodological predispositions. The article also deals with the conceptual analysis of the theory. The scholar’s theory is based on several key ideas: the state, gentle commerce, the taming of manners, and the Enlightenment. The main point is that society, passing successively through such stages-ideas, moves in the direction of greater progress and limitation of violence. As for the criticisms, we illustrate the limitations of the method chosen and the inadequacy of its objectives. First, the author uses the criminological method of counting the number of murders per hundred thousand in a population, which can only characterize one segment of violence. Secondly, the measured violence does not always correlate with other violent crimes. We also point out objective difficulties in working with the available statistics. In particular, we are confronted with fragmented data and incomparable methodology of data collection from predecessors. In addition, we reveal many mistakes, inaccuracies, and in many cases even deliberate discrepancies within representative data. Steven Pinker often resorts to overly sweeping generalizations and comparisons of difficult-to-compare cases. Many scholars have also noted the author’s use of unprofessional literature. In terms of conceptual ideas, critics note the author’s ignorance of contemporary debates and disregard for differences in the works of those classics used in the work. We should also note the rather unfriendly tone of the discussion on the part of all the participants, since the dispute is about big ideas, which often leads to direct insults and labeling. In conclusion, we praise the communicative gesture of challenging the scientific community, but it seems clear that the main goal to give proof towards violence decline is inconclusive.

Ethical Risks in the Practice of Artificial Intelligence
Valentina Kazaryan,  Ksenia Shutova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-346-364

The article raises the question of the relationship between the practice of artificial intelligence and universal ethics. The topic is fundamentally important, since a person and society that have lost their ethical foundations are deprived of their humanity. The ethics of scientists, designers, high-level managers play a decisive role in modern processes of development and application of artificial intelligence. In their activities, an ethic of responsibility develops, originating from the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, published in 1955 in the conditions of a nuclear standoff during the Cold War. The article shows the modern indescribably rapid growth and development of artificial intelligence applications in the practical life of people. Attention is drawn to the fact of the presence of uncertainty in situations of practical application of artificial intelligence, the presence of unforeseen consequences in addition to the expected consequences, who is responsible for those consequences (individuals, corporations, governments). The responsibility lies with the one who decides on the action: the actor. The actor is in a situation of ethical risk. It is shown that the risk increases due to a number of circumstances: 1) a variety of applications; 2) uncontrolled rampant growth; 3) difficulties in tracking the empirical situation of application; 4) difficulties in theoretical analysis of the situation of action. The article focuses on the risks of the practice of peaceful use of remotely piloted aircraft, as well as their military use and automated weapons without operator confirmation. The sharp, apparently exponential growth of information technology, the practical implementation of artificial intelligence, puts people in a difficult situation, an ethical situation: what to choose ‘to have or to be’.  Or is there a third choice?

Some Problems with Artificial Intelligence Ethics
Viktor Shlyapnikov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-365-376

Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have brought digital ethics to the public’s attention and are the driving force behind many discussions on ethical issues related to digital technologies. This article analyzes the arguments of supporters and opponents of artificial intelligence, various approaches to the development of AI systems, ethical issues associated with the use of AI technologies, including the problem of managing artificial intelligence and the idea of active responsibility for the development of AI technologies, general principles for the development of AI systems formulated in the founding documents. The methodological basis of this work was the dialectical method; in the process of research the author used the comparative method and the method of document analysis. The sources were the studies by domestic and foreign authors on various ethical issues of artificial intelligence, the European “Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI” and the Russian “AI Ethics Code”. The author demonstrates the importance of the moralization of artificial intelligence technologies, that is, the conscious development of technologies for the formation of moral actions and decision-making. One of the clear problems is finding a democratic way to moralize technology, since technology differs from laws in that it can restrict human freedom without being the result of a democratic process. It is argued that it is necessary to create an independent international scientific organization to develop a clear scientific view of artificial intelligence, as well as an independent international body for the regulation of artificial intelligence, which would unite approaches to understanding this phenomenon from different points of view (states, private companies and academia).

Capitalization of Morality in the Activities of Modern Corporations: Opportunity or Necessity
Elena Prokaeva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-377-390

Modernity has presented a new challenge to capitalism, the answer to which may be the emergence of ‘moral capital’. Since the end of the 20th century, corporations have become convinced of the importance of a strong ideology and the need for developed meaningful corporate ethics based on values understood and accepted by all members of the company. The exaggerated importance of personal gain in Western philosophy since the time of Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham has led to the formation of an ‘economic man’ who views the world around him through the prism of individual material interest. The life credo of such a person is “I feel good, so everyone feels good.” has become a real threat to society, making it impossible for adequate forms of collectives to exist. In this article we study large corporations as they are the most visible as representatives of modern capitalist society. An analysis of the activities of corporations and their reactions to crises has shown that companies that have managed to survive a critical situation, as a rule, make changes to corporate ethics 2-3 years later, having undergone some reflection. The competitive environment, the requirements of society, the state and international organizations contribute to the manifestation of greater social responsibility to comprehend and fix these changes. All types of capitalism, as Max Weber saw them: ‘predatory’, ‘adventurous’ and ‘rational’ simultaneously coexist in the present time. Time will tell whether capitalism is able to transform into its more moral form or whether we observe the emergence of a new social order. If multinational corporations manage to overcome their natural thirst for profit and transform it into a desire to ‘bring the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people’, expanding this ‘greatest number’ to a planetary scale, the answer will be positive. The way some of these companies are overcoming their own crises is encouraging. The time of change is wonderful because everyone can contribute to the current changes by acting in accordance with human standards of morality.

Theory and history of culture

Conditions of Loyalty of the Military-Service, Commercial and Industrial Administration to Central Power
Sergey Filippov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-391-408

The article deals with investigation into the conditions of loyalty of commercial as well as industrial and military-service administration to the central power. The analysis is based on comparing cases which demonstrate different levels of loyalty. A relatively high level of loyalty was shown by the “power” of the Stroganovs (merchants), including both the merchants and the population of their fiefdoms in the 16th–17th centuries, whereas the Volga, Don and Yaik Cossacks (16th–18th centuries) demonstrated a relatively low level of loyalty. It was revealed that the level of loyalty of military and commercial administration in Russia in the 16th–18th centuries was affected by processes of different social scale. The defeat of Novgorod by Moscow and the termination of the eхpeditions of Novgorod pirates named Ushkuyniks both in the North-East (Northern Urals) and in the South-East led to taking this niche in the Volga basin by the Cossacks that continued extracting revenues through the use of violence. The Cossacks’ growing dependence on the Tsar’s pay, combined with their skills and means of violence, caused revolts and rebellions in the 17th and 18th centuries that can be considered as a form of bargaining with the authorities for symbolic recognition and material supplementation. In the northern Ural, geopolitical changes resulted in introducing a new strategy in exploring the region – industrial (salt production) and agricultural colonization with tax exemptions and socio-economic patronage for the Stroganovs’ kholops (serfs) under conditions of underdeveloped state institutions, which resulted in relatively low levels of ethno-social conflicts in the region without the need to maintain a strong enforcement apparatus, which could become a resource for disloyalty to central power. Favorable conditions for the salt trade in the domestic Russian market (high price, limited competition) further strengthened the loyalty of salt producers.

The problem of Choosing the Path of development of Russia in the Philosophy of Westerners and Slavophiles in the 19th century
Tamara Rubantsova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-409-419

In the philosophical discussions of Russia in the 19th century, an important place was given to the problem of the formation of a national idea, the search for new ways of civilizational development of Russia. This topic is still relevant today, it does not lose its problematic nature, since at present, just as in the 19th century, the process of comprehending Russia's place in the world is underway and the problem is being solved: “Which way to go? Choose your own, national path or follow the European tradition in the formation of modern Russian society? These questions were already raised in Russia in the 19th century, when the process of searching for and forming the Russian national idea was actively going on. The purpose of the article is to analyze the problem of choosing the paths of Russia's development in the disputes between Westerners and Slavophiles in the 19th century, to show the similarity of some historical positions on the main problems. The paper discusses the main approaches of the main representative of Russian Westernism P. Ya. Chaadaev and the philosophical ideas of the Slavophile I. V. Kireevsky. The study attempts to find common approaches of these authors to the problem of the development of Russian society and all-Russian ideals, since in modern scientific works, in our opinion, a simplified view of the development of Russian civilization in philosophical disputes in the ideological struggle in the 19th century is widespread. Both the Westernizers and the Slavophiles were looking for the best way for the development of Russia and were confident in its special mission in the civilizational world processes.

The work uses a dialectical and historical-philosophical method, which allows us to consider the complex ideological searches of philosophers in the context of the historical development of Russian society in the 19th century. To analyze the philosophical and methodological foundations of the theories of Westerners and Slavophiles in the course of the civilizational choice of the future development of Russia in these theories, the methods of analysis and synthesis, ascent from the abstract to the concrete, were used in the article.

The Public and/or Private Nature of Commercial Space in History: From Antiquity to the Present
Tatyana Chaplya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-420-437

The author of the article draws attention to the formation and development of consumption culture and its embodiment in architectural forms. The development of the consumer space and the retail space as its form developed in parallel throughout the history. The purpose of the article is to analyze the dynamics of organizational methods of the trading space from antiquity to the present day. The study is based on the wave theory presented in the works of E. Toffler, Yu. M. Lotman, where history is represented as a pendulum motion. However, each of the oscillations of the pendulum appears at a new point. The author examines the evolution of the retail space, starting from antiquity and one of its forms: the retail space or market. This type of space combined many functions: trade, political and religious. It was a type of public space accessible to everyone. The sellers and buyers in market conditions could also constantly change their roles. The spread of shops and stalls in the Middle Ages and at the beginning of modern times represented the movement of trade into private space, organized according to the principle of the public. It combined a place of residence and a place of work. The movement of trade inward meant a change: in the past, goods came to the consumer, but now the buyer went to get the goods. To a large extent, trade in small shops was monofunctional.

The second half of the 19th century gave rise to two forms of retail space: a street (passage) and a building. In terms of architecture, they replaced palaces and temples, had a very simple structure, used a large amount of glass, iron, and light. They were the first to use gas heating and elevators. These spaces were private but functioned according to the principle of a public space: open to everyone. The twentieth century introduced malls and supermarkets that combined many different functions: trade, entertainment, food service, credit institution, pharmacy, etc. As a result, we can conclude that the development of retail space throughout history proceeded according to the principle of a pendulum: from the free public space of the market, with its multifunctionality through the closed private space of shops and small shops with their monofunctional purpose, to the private-public or quasi-public space of modern malls and supermarkets, but on a different level.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

Musical Minimalism and Russian Musicology: History of Research, Genesis and Evolution
Anastasia Zvyagina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-438-458

The article presents an analysis of the main versions of the emergence and evolution of minimalism, proposed by both domestic and foreign art history. In the domestic literature of the 80-90s, there was an opinion that the origin of musical minimalism was a reaction to the European avant-garde that preceded it. However, today this statement looks somewhat speculative and not entirely reliable, due to objective historical reasons. The lack of information about Western art in all its diversity that existed at that time made it necessary to fill in the informational gaps with theoretical constructions and assumptions, one of which turned into a sincere conviction of many researchers that each new avant-garde phenomenon arose as a reaction to the previous one. Given the lack of facts, such a view could be considered quite justified, but it did not make it possible to recognize the true nature of minimalism. The modern level of information accessibility makes it possible to overcome the prevailing stereotype regarding the genesis and evolution of minimalism. The role of the international creative association “Fluxus” was very important in its development, in the ranks of which both representatives of the European avant-garde and American experimenters freely exchanged ideas. Very different and sometimes underestimated sources merged in musical minimalism, among which are the heritage of the musical and non-musical avant-garde, abstractionist and visual minimal art, experimental audio technicism and actionism, and an appeal to non-European music. This fusion of ideas and artistic techniques eventually formed a new synthetic phenomenon; a special minimalist style of a number of American composers - T. Riley, S. Reich, F. Glass, J. Adams, as well as European composers, among which M. Nyman became the most prominent figure. It was Nyman who proposed to extend the term ‘minimalism’ to the art of music, starting with the creative searches of J. Cage and his followers. In recent decades, among domestic musicologists, in relation to minimalism, the prefix ‘post’ has been increasingly added, heralding the transition to the era of postminimalism. However, in the avant-garde currents, such a transition was never synchronous and occurred gradually, when the subject of artistic reflection consistently rejected and replaced the former modernist conceptualism, actualizing direct perception and emotional reactivity. However, in musical minimalism, including its Russian branch, the mentioned process has not yet reached its final stage

Cinema as a “Soft Power” Instrument of the State: Examples of Spanish and U.S. Cinematography
Darya Kulikova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-459-475

The article considers cinema as an instrument of soft power of states, using the example of cinema in Spain and the USA. Different approaches are shown. On the one hand, the United States, which uses universal concepts, on the other hand, Spain, which uses stereotypical ideas and recognizable images about its country. In American films, most often, universal topics are used that are understandable to all people: the struggle between good and evil (moreover, evil is universal, threatening the whole world, and good is the United States), love, happiness, compassion. Even if purely national issues are raised in American films (for example, African-American racism), these problems are presented as universal, as a problem of human dignity, honor, etc. In Spanish cinema, well-established stereotypes about Spain and its culture are actively used: bullfighting, flamenco, Andalusian folklore, traditional cuisine and clothing (for example, the matador costume), as well as typical, recognizable images of the Spanish man and woman (Spanish macho - Antonio Banderas and swarthy, passionate, beautiful Carmen - Penelope Cruz). All this forms the concept of ‘españolada’. The United States does not officially support its film production, but coordinates and consults with the film productions and directors through unofficial resources, primarily the Motion Picture Association of America, whose leadership includes many former White House officials. Spain, on the contrary, actively supports its filmmakers, helps to promote Spanish films in the international arena, develops joint film production, stimulates the shooting of films at the state level, including foreign ones, using Spanish locations, etc. Thus, one can see two different approaches to cinema as an instrument of soft power, and although American cinema certainly dominates the world market, the obvious success of Spanish cinema, which is becoming increasingly popular, should be noted.

Unfulfilled Identity
Egor Yurchenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.2.2-476-493

This article examines unfulfilled identity, which is expressed in the subject’s inability to actualize his or her identity due to internal complexes or social pressures. First, the main types of mistakes that can lead to erroneous actions and processes are highlighted. These processes, form an unfulfilled identity. The first type of mistake is the misunderstanding of one’s own natural state and social expectations. In this case, the subject cannot relate his or her abilities, characteristics and functional properties to reality. As a result, there is a tendency to form only the apparent integrity of an identity that can easily collapse. As a result, the subject is unable to be fully established as a person. This kind of identity has been called a ‘failed’ identity. The second mistake is to shift perception to external factors, disregarding internal experiences and attitudes. Thus, one’s interests, needs, and desires are replaced by others that are taken from the environment. A substituted identity is formed, which also does not have the property of completeness because of the lack of systemic connections between the personality and reality. Such an identity is called ‘substituted’. The author discusses the main reasons for the formation of an unfulfilled identity. The reasons are divided into different systems: global, local-social and individual. Thus, the first cause is identified as globalization. Its influence covers all subsequent systems. Globalization leads to the blurring of norms, differentiation and separation of values and attitudes. The processes of upbringing within different social institutions are included in the local-social system. The author outlines the main problems of upbringing and growing up, which affect the formation of identity. Subjective distortions are on the next level, complexes and mistakes that lead to unfulfillment. They include the inability to concentrate and accept the consequences of choices, associated with a lack of responsibility; denial of biological determinants and the narrative of one’s own existence, a lack of life resources.