A Man must belong to Himself (interview with Pavel D. Tishchenko)
Tishhenko Pavel
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.1-236-256

The interview discusses a number of critical issues related to those social and technological transformations that are radically changing the way people think about their place within the state and amongst other people, and that have created the need for such a line of thought and action as bioethics. The discussion begins with the problem of just access to medical care, which turns out to be tied to the position that the individual occupied during the Soviet era, when in fact his physical body belonged to the State, when his subjectivity also belonged to the State, and his values and interests were represented by the doctor. The moral formula for the patient's actions was medical paternalism, represented by the doctrine of medical deontology. The task of the present time is the formation of autonomy of personality, the ability to realize oneself, where subjectivity is formed as a response to the demands imposed by various biomedical and bioethical practices. The core of this subjectivity is encapsulated in the concept of autonomy, and the rule of free and informed consent is its practical implementation. These questions are rooted in the problem of dignity, which, in turn, is deeply connected to the familiar model of the “other,” in which the doctor, when prescribing treatment, prescribes it not to this particular person, but to a generalized person. The task of philosophical criticism is discussed, which consists in diagnosing the zones of the most glaring discrepancy between our knowledge, skills, moral and legal norms, and philosophical understandings of the new reality. This diagnosis influences the formation of philosophical anthropology of B.G. Yudin, which interprets the borders of the human in human being’ consciousness as “zones of phase transitions”. The idea of transition from a dialogue to a conversation is discussed. Unlike dialogue, conversation is originally multipolar, intermittent and nonlinear, and problemocentric. Ultimately, this leads to the question of the meaningfulness of life in general, which, according to Aristotle, is the highest form of human existence.

Preconditions for the Imaginative Turn in Neo-Pragmatic Ethics
Magomedova Julia
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.2.2-445-457

The article is devoted to the analysis of ethical theories that were formulated in a neo-pragmatic discourse, in particular to the study of preconditions for an imaginative transition.  Since forming a new image of ethics is done by supporters of pragmatism by criticizing the rationalistic tradition, the categories that have traditionally been associated with the sphere of irrational come first, related to sensuality and aesthetics. Therefore, the effectiveness of solving moral issues in pragmatic ethics directly depends on the extent to which the resources of imagination are actively used. The author of the article offers to use the new term “imaginative transition” to fix the specifics of those ethical theories. There is a historical and comparative review in order to trace the transformation of the idea of the imagination. The author indicates the conceptual foundations of universalist ethical theory, where imagination belonged to the sphere of sensuality and had no privileged status. In formulating ethical concepts, the rationalistic tradition, which dates back to early Greek philosophy, was primarily based on gnoseology, and the main virtue was wisdom that was associated with an enlightened mind. Followers of Plato’s fundamentalism and Descartes’ objectivism treated the imagination as a derivative of blind feelings. The article has shown that the main actor in the transition from the rationalistic tradition to the romantic one, in which imagination will be interpreted as the highest form of spirit activity, was Immanuel Kant.  Based on the hermeneutic analysis of the philosopher’s texts, it has been discovered that the ability to imagine is crucial to the thinking process for Kant, and knowledge is interpreted as a synthesis of sensuality and reasoning in the activities of the imagination. The author shows that Kant’s aesthetics is the result of the problem of coordinating the pure and practical mind. The author comes to the conclusion, that the adherents of pragmatism, considering the ability of imagination as having moral force, develop an idea which was first clearly formulated by Kant.

Moral Economy: Identification and Comparison of the Theoretical Approaches
Zhernov Evgeny
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-190-208

The purpose of the study is to identify and compare the revealed theoretical approaches to the moral economy in order to substantiate the fundamental foundations of the integrative anthroposocial approach. Closely interrelated moral anthropic origin and moral social order are given as such foundations. The subject of the study is the existing approaches to the moral economy. The study is a theoretical analysis of the approaches to the moral economy, united by the author in two aggregated schools– anthropic-moral and socio-economic. The research methodology is the integrated approach for a comprehensive examination of the subject; general scientific principles of complementarity, diversity and unity. The results of the study, which constitute the scientific novelty: 1) it is revealed that there are the corresponding concepts of a moral person – Homo moralis – in all approaches reviewed, and it allows to establish the moral anthropic origin as the first foundation of the moral economy; 2) in the analyzed approaches, the main forms of sociality are revealed and characterized, functioning as “village community”, “religious community”, “Orthodox labour brotherhood”, “social institution”, which allow to define moral social order as the second foundation of the moral economy. The theoretical and practical significance of the study is that by identifying and comparing the existing approaches to the moral economy, its anthroposocial nature is defined 1) as the effective economic activity of a new person of high moral character; 2) as a set of intersubject economic relations based on the ideas of moral humanism. As a result, it becomes possible to compare existing approaches to the moral economy, when there is a person in its centre who respects humanistic morality in interpersonal relations of the economy of the society.

Neuropsychological Methods in the Penitentiary System in Terms of Neuroethics
Timoshenko Galina,  Sidorova Tatyana
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-171-189

The article states the problem of protecting individuals from discrimination when using neuropsychological methods in the penitentiary system. In the field of ethical reflection in neuroethics, the authors propose to consider not only new opportunities to influence human consciousness and mental health, which are used in modern neuroscience, but also to include methods that have a rather long history. The penitentiary system was chosen as an object of study, which makes it possible to weigh the regulatory capabilities of neuroethics in the special conditions of a priori coercion and involuntary position. The paper considers the action of principles of respect for the dignity of the individual, voluntariness in the expression of consent to participate in psychodiagnostic and psycho-correction activities. The question of expressing informed consent for neuropsychic effects is by analogy considered with biomedical intervention. The authors describe the experience of applying neuropsychological methods on the examples of using a polygraph (a lie detector) and neuro-linguistic programming. The study shows that the polygraph is widely used not only in investigative and judicial practice, but also in diagnostics when people are applying for a job, moving to a higher (or different) position at work, entering educational institutions of the penal service. The authors highlight the idea that in the situation where the client is dependent on a psychologist, in order to undergo the procedure the problem of the voluntary expression of consent should be solved in accordance with the principle of vulnerability. It is stressed, that for the members of vulnerable groups, it is obligatory to use the rules, which take into account the specifics of their situation. Despite the improvement of the process of lie detection using a polygraph, there is no confidence in the accuracy and reliability of the data obtained. However, the results can be interpreted to the detriment of the individual, like the results of other methods of psychodiagnostic research, in the absence of proper ethical principles. Neuro-linguistic programming allows collecting of data on subconscious motives and having a targeted impact on a person. When using this method, there is also the problem of expressing informed consent, taking into account the specifics of the penitentiary institutions. A person may not fully realize the results of neuro-linguistic programming. The general trend in Russia is expanding the use of NLP and polygraph methods, which indicates a desire to acquire neuropsychological tools that will quickly achieve a visible result, without much concern about the ethics of getting the information, its reliability, and long duration. The authors have come to the conclusion that the focus on humanization of the penitentiary system in Russia with the help of the psychological service gives positive results. However, there is a danger of using methods of psychodiagnostics and psychocorrection for manipulative and ethically questionable purposes, which leads to a loss of confidence in them.

International Scientific Conference in Memory of B. G. Yudin “Living in the World of Neurotechnologies: Social and Ethical Problems”
Sidorova Tatyana
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.2-296-306

The paper presents an overview of the international scientific conference “Living in the World of Neurotechnologies: Social and Ethical Problems”. This is one of the first interdisciplinary forums where the issues arising in the context of the development of neuroscience were discussed by philosophers, ethics and medical specialists. The conference opened a research area for humanitarian studies. Conference participants often recalled the name of B. G. Yudin, because his ideas have been recently in great demand in developing new approaches. B.G. Yudin is considered to be one of the founders of bioethics in Russia. This conference laid the foundation for the study of ethical, anthropological and social problems in neuroscience and neurotechnology - an area that goes beyond biomedicine and declares itself as the most current trend of modern research. The tasks of neuroethics include defining, assessing and managing the social and humanitarian risks of various scientific fields with the prefix of neuro- arising in the light of the latest brain research. Neuroethics has already established the status of an interdisciplinary direction abroad, but in our country it is taking the first steps. The international scientific conference held in Moscow was one of the first significant events in its formation. The author presents the main theses of the most significant speeches of the participants of this conference.

The Discrimination Issue in the Context of Neuroethics
Sandakova Lyudmila
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.2-274-295

The development of bio- and neurotechnology is significantly changing human reality and perceptions of humans themselves. This results not only in the new opportunities, but threats as well. In such conditions, the problem of discrimination gains topicality, and specialized legal or psychological considerations of this issue are no longer sufficient. This article discusses the potential of neuroethics in research and prevention of discrimination associated with the development of neuroscience and neurotechnology. In the scientific sources, there are various interpretations of neuroethics. Therefore, the problem of discrimination is considered in the scope of different understanding of the subject and methods of neuro-ethics. The research methodology is based on two key principles. 1) Transdisciplinarity is understood as the realization of the philosophical methodology of thinking in post-scientific reality. 2) Any issues of the moral and legal field should have a humanitarian dimension. At the same time, a human is viewed as a specific creature uniquely combining in his being opposite characteristics: biological and social, natural vs. artificial, individual vs. collective, and subjective vs. objective. Therefore, the dialectic methodology of thinking seems to be effective. The empirical basis of the study comprises domestic and foreign publications that raise issues of discrimination in connection with the development of neuroscience and neurotechnology. The author suggests that the complex nature of the phenomenon of discrimination is due to 1) the heterogeneity of social reality; 2) the contradictory biosocial nature of a human, suggesting interaction in terms of "competition vs. cooperation"; 3) ideological attitudes and ideas that justify and reinforce in culture the significance of certain differences and the specific attitude towards them. Our regulatory capabilities are connected with the outlook and cultural mechanisms of the regulation of social life. Therefore, it becomes important how the problem of discrimination is raised and solved. The article analyzes the prospects of political, ideological, ethical, scientific and bioethical statement of the problem. It is shown that the bioethical statement of the problem is most consistent with the current socio-cultural processes. The transdisciplinary nature of bioethics helps to maintain a multidimensional vision of the problem, and preserves and reproduces the contradictory human nature in the conditions of modern technological culture. Neuroethics, interpreted as a new ethic of the neurofuture, generates high risks of discrimination. This is due to the loss of the basis of ethical regulation, i.e. a human with his/her specific nature. Serious risks also arise when ethical phenomena are reduced to neurophysiological processes. Neuroethics, understood as the ethics of neuroscience and neuro-interference, has a low potential for preventing discrimination. It can be found in the accumulation of precedents and problematic situations, which are caused by new opportunities and new needs for the development of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Neuroethics as a part of bioethical discourse on the problem field of neuroscience provides a theoretical and methodological opportunity to estimate and prevent possible risks of discrimination.