Nikiforova L.E.,  Zyryanova A.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-43-55

The article is devoted to the theoretical understanding of the social group "young people" in the context of public administration theory. The authors consider the approaches to the definition of youth in domestic and foreign legislation, sociology and public administration theory. They also study the impact of different factors on socio-demographic groups differentiation and the content of youth policy. The article analyzes different approaches to the youth policy development taking into consideration all parties concerned. The authors suggest their own understanding of the "youth" and "youth policy" concepts in the context of Russia innovative development. Referring to the new trends in public life and the formation of a generational paradigm, the authors refuse to set a lower age-related limit. The period of youth policy development and its implementation exceeds the duration of individual stages of a human life cycle ("childhood", "adolescence" and "youth"). It is also known, that at these bifurcation points the variety of development directions of a person, both positive and negative, sharply increases. Thus, special attention must be paid to the public management of transitional periods. The authors have developed principles of the youth policy formation on the basis of a matrix approach. The approach suggests that the solution of specific problems of youth need to be supplemented by the integration of the components of the youth policy into all policies, programs and projects at all hierarchical levels of government. The authors suggest interpreting of the youth policy as a priority activity aimed at preserving the life and health of youth, reproduction of the population, improving the quality of young people life and developing its potential for the benefit of society and future generations. The subjects of the policy are state authorities and local authorities, youth and other parties concerned.

Sarsembayeva E.Yu.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-150-160

The author considers the opportunity of management activities optimization, which has been the subject of numerous scientific studies during a long period time. Today this area is still of the utmost importance. The structure of management activities is complex and it is built on multilevel psychological, socio-psychological and other phenomena. This article presents the data of modern studies aimed to support its distinctive features in perception, information processing, cognitive, emotional-volitional sphere of the right- and leftlateral respondents. This article is devoted to the study of individual styles of management activities of the executive educational team (school principals, head teachers). The study (n=140) proves that an individual management style is predefined by the peculiarities of lateralization of prefrontal lobes hemispheres of the brain. The significant differences are defined between individual management style of school principals and head teachers with different lateral organization of the brain. The study uses psychological tests (n=6) and statistical methods of data processing. It is proved that superintendents with left lateral and right lateral organization of the brain use different management tools. For example, in the activities of the left hemisphere superintendents stronger organizational skills are expressed, the authoritarian management style is used more often and motivation for success is expressed greater than motivation to avoid failures. The right hemisphere superintendents express stronger communication skills at a lower intensity of managerial skills, the democratic style of management is used more frequently, this type of individuals often focuses on avoiding failure than on achieving success. The main methodological principle laid down in the program of the study is the system approach. This study is in the "mainstream" of theories of individual differences that are explained by the features of braking force of regulatory unit in expression of the general properties of the CNS. This article contains recommendations that provide an opportunity to optimize managerial activities of individuals engaged in educational supervision. These recommendations are aimed at expansion of the components of management style.

Tyukhova I.S.,  Puiu Iu.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-28-33

The article deals with the problems of the essence of consciousness manipulation in the process of self-preservation of a social group by holding holidays. One of the most complex and unambiguously interpreted scientific problems at the present time is the problem of determining the place and various functions of the sacral in the everyday life of society. Of course, the traditional understanding of a holiday as a ritual action that transcends the transcendental nature of being has been preserved to some extent to this day, however, with the development of different social arrangements in the context of life, not only collective, but also individual, has somewhat changed its character. Strictly speaking, the development of philosophical thought with respect to this problem was extremely diverse, but at the same time it had certain homogeneity, manifested in the traditional understanding of a particular area of this aspect. The original understanding of the holiday as sacralization of being, which really exists here and now, was extremely important in the development of the history of the existence of an individual and his relationship with the objectively surrounding world. Of course, the birth of manipulation should not be directly proportional to the existential aspect of life as such. On the contrary, life, according to its dual nature, can not but perform various kinds of manipulation to determine the essence of its existence. The concept of dualism of being has acquired completely different features with the development of a philosophical view of the problems of this kind in the process of historical and philosophical consideration. The initial perception of this phenomenon was absolutely authentic, for it found responses in the determination of the One as the Absolute in its individual kind through the disintegration into plurality, revealing certain regularities in terms of transcendental being. Manipulation of consciousness in the process of research actually appears as a kind of technology of domination of the sacral over everyday life. Holiday as a ritual allows us to manifest the essence of sacralization, determining the place of man in the process of his own being through manipulative character in the context of interaction with the objective world.

Ruban O.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-56-63

A systematic approach makes it possible to discover new ways of investigating the question of family-marriage problems. Through systematic approach the family is considered not from the point of individual elements’ qualities, but from the point of system’s qualities, which appear as a result of elements’ interaction. Once appeared, these qualities obtain the influence on other elements. In this way, system’s elements’ interaction becomes the key determinant parameter for system’s qualities. The three family systems: traditional, nuclear and individual- are considered within the scope of the systematic approach. Each of the mentioned types is defined by the presence of an over-systematic system-forming principle and orientation on existing cultural models or by their absence. Traditional and nuclear family types have certain patterns of interactions, worked out during the evolution. The third marked out type of family organization is still going through its establishment and development stages. The systematic approach within family-marriage range of problems, on the one hand, is based on epistemology of modern time, and, on the other hand, follows traditional philosophic intuitions in this field. This view allows us to prevent evaluation in description of system’s elements, shifting the attention on the dynamic constituent. This broadens the opportunities of finding modern viable family organization models.

Petrakova N.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-34-42

The paper deals with the relationship between dialogue and intersubjectivity. The idea of the subordinate nature of these relations is noted, a number of fundamental differences between concepts are revealed. Intersubjectivity and dialogue are correlated as possibility and reality, as space and action in this space, as timelessness and temporality, as whole and part. The space of intersubjectivity as three-layered is fixed: the existential-phenomenological, cultural-symbolic and institutional levels of intersubjectivity are unfolding each in its logic: the logic of the victim, the logic of the gift and the logic of exchange, respectively. The peculiarity of the dialogue is seen in the fact that it is accentuated on the second - cultural-symbolic - level of intersubjectivity. The existential-phenomenological and institutional levels remain outside the zone of dialogue. The first is due to the lack of attention to such an essential tool as speech. The second is due to the absence of the subject to whom this speech is addressed. Relations at the normative or institutional level of intersubjectivity are close to the subject-object relationship. At the same time, the layers of intersubjectivity are not homogeneous, the analysis reveals a fractal principle of their composition. Each level of intersubjectivity is similar to all intersubjectivity in general. So, in a dialogue, three logics are combined: the existential logic of expression, the symbolic logic of understanding and the institutional logic of positioning, which are correlative to the logic of sacrifice, gift and exchange. Moments, when the dialogue overlaps the whole space of intersubjectivity, are rather exceptions to the rules, but it is at such moments that it realizes itself completely.

Likhomanov Igor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-85-97

  The article considers social and socio-psychological prerequisites of Eurasianism coming on the stage. Eurasianism emerged in the early twenties of the last century as an ideology and a political movement. But its social origin dates back to the earlier period. Eurasianism is a consequence of the world war and the revolutionary situation. The active participation of Caucasian and Asian peoples of the Russian Empire as well as some features of the revolutionary everyday routine formed a part of the Russian intelligentsia`s perception of the revolution as the Eurasian matter. This was facilitated by the complex nature of the Russian identity which comprised two hearts of the Russian peoples – European and Asian. The specificity of the Eurasian perception of the revolution was the reassessment of the European and Asian components of the Russian identity. In the Russian public consciousness of the nineteenth century the Asian component was perceived negatively, but the European one - positively. A group of writers and poets, who in 1917 and 1918 called themselves “The Scythians”, under the influence of Nietzsche and Vladimir Solovyev and under the influence of tragic experience of the First World War, re-evaluated the two components of the Russian identity. The result of this re-evaluation was the birth of a Eurasian myth as an artistic reflection of the experience of the world war and the revolution. This myth was used as the basis for the creation of Eurasian ideology by a group of Russian emigrant scholars.

Masalova Yuliya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-3-12

The formation of human resources of a certain quality is a complex and time-consuming process. It is implemented both at the macro level (country, region, industry), and at the micro level (organization, people). The subject of the study is management relations (methodological approaches) arising in the process of shaping the quality of human resources. In the course of the research it was found out that the subject of management in the process of shaping a certain quality of human resources can be, both an individual himself/herself and the managerial staff of the organization, the country. Approaches to the formation of the quality of human resources differ at the individual, organizational and state levels, depending on the interests and needs of subjects and management objects. The object of management is the quality of human resources. It is a set of characteristics of human resources that meets the requirements that are formed in the external and internal environment of the system in the process of creating their competitive advantages. The subject of the study is management relations. Requirements for the quality of human resources are permanently changing. They are manifested at different levels: at the state level (for example, regarding the qualification level of employees and the level of productivity of their work), at the organizational level (for example, regarding the competencies of employees and the efficiency of their activities), at the individual level (as an attitude toward the process of formation and application of his/her human capital).

Kazakov E.F.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-40-48

The article examines the role of a social ideal in history on the example of evolution of the perfect man image. The ideal is understood as a due thing, which allows to assess the present existing nature and to determine the direction of its development. Aspiration to the ideal, which is an essential intention of a person necessary in acquiring ideal traits of a man, is one of the driving forces of history. Every historical period constructs its own image of an ideal person and strives to get closer to it. Ideas about the perfect man have been regularly formed throughout history, this fact proves that there is a permanent innate human sense of dissatisfaction with him/herself (and with the whole world), the lack of self realization, the intention to discover their own inner identity. The first "perfect man" was a beast. In the primitive societies people conquered the “outer” beast, in Antiquity – the “inner” one. There appeared the first identity crisis as a consequence of inadequate self-esteem ("man as the measure of all things"). God was a "perfect man" of the Middle Ages. If a beast turns out to be in the inaccessible past then God is in the eternal unattainable future. So, the second identity crisis comes into existence. A Man becomes an ideal in Modern Times. There appeared a concept of a perfect man (as a real possibility). However, depriving a person of metaphysics leads to the third identity crisis. Nowadays the "perfect man", increasingly, appears to be a machine resembling a "man", devoid of human weaknesses with improved human qualities. The analogy between a human and a machine leads to the fourth identity crisis. "The new perfect man" is a man as a unique result of the development of all human culture, the synthesis of the unique and the universal.

Kayumov O.R.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-95-104

The reforms carried out over the past fifteen years in the RF education system are not related to the discoveries in pedagogy, but to the changes in social orientations, which are imposed by external "Bologna commitments". The forcefully introduced "competence approach" to the planning of education in higher education gave rise to many difficulties, because it was actually incompatible with the Russian educational tradition. The development of "competence" rhetoric at the reporting level had almost no effect on the methodology of teaching in domestic universities, but the goals and ideals of education have radically changed. Now they are formulated not by the society and the state, but by perspective "employers", transnational corporations are usually meant by them. Instead of "comprehensive harmonious development of the personality," the competence approach actually involves preparing a person for the labor market with the subsequent sale of human qualities. Expanding of the buying and selling sphere is the result of the globalization processes, today only state sovereignties can prevent this expansion, and within traditional societies only "family and school" have to stop this expansion. The author considers this gradual transformation of traditional pedagogy into "market pedagogy" from the point of view of modern inter-civilizational confrontation. The triumphant "economic dominant" is not a universal "innovation", but the result of the expansion of Western civilization. The author substantiates the idea that introducing this competence approach, borrowing the goals and ideals from alien cultures hamper the natural development of our national educational system.