“Paths to Liberation” Philosophy: Shunyavada and Taoism
Irina Rodicheva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-111-132

The article attempts to consider the theories of «liberation» in the ancient Eastern philosophy, which, on the one hand, clearly reflect the similarities and differences between the Buddhist teaching of Shunyavada and Taoism, and on the other hand define the basic principles of two philosophical schools in question. Despite the emphasis in the text on the difficulty of comprehending such key concepts of the philosophy of «liberation» as «Tao» and «Shunyata», since they cannot be subjected to analysis of formal logic and rational definition possessing «intangibility», «ambiguity» and, one might even say, «transcendence»of meanings and definitions, the author in his work considers these terms using the dialectical method, its form of thinking embodies the unity of the basis of opposites «and this and that». The theoretical, methodological and comparative researches of the basic concepts of madhyamik’s «Shunyata» and emptiness of «Tao», covered in the article and taken as independent units of philosophical discourse, have shown that it makes sense to speak of the close relation of considered concepts, since there are two aspects of emptiness in each of them: «theoretical» that defines the classification of approaches and meanings of emptiness, and «practical» that reveals the methods (means) and strategies of self-improvement. As a result of the research, the author has proposed an understanding of emptiness in both considered philosophical systems through the model of «circular motion»: in relation to the Buddhist teaching of Shunyavada, it embodies non-duality, emptiness of samsara and nirvana, in respect of the Taoist teaching, it symbolizes «the internal state of interdependence and mutual permeability», the relativity of all things and phenomena, i.e. their emptiness. It has also been defined that Madhyamikas and the Taoists interpret the path leading to «liberation» (Skt. mokṣa) or enlightenment (Chin. «min») as median. Nevertheless, the interpretations of this path are diverse in the ancient Indian and ancient Chinese traditions, since, in relation to the Taoist doctrine, the Middle way is to overcome duality through harmonizing the «yin» and «yang» that create the continued integrity by dint of presence (dissolution) in each other. Folding and reaching the center, they give birth to a new «undetected» state of harmony and peace, namely the state of «the Great emptiness of Tao». In contrast to the Taoist Middle path, the Buddhist Middle way involves the complete elimination of opposites since everything is relative and identical to Emptiness (Skt. Sūnyatā) and it does not lie through «following naturalness» as indicated in Taoism, but through following «the eightfold path» (Skt. Arya aṣṭāṅgika mārga) that leads to understanding the illusory nature of all things, since one of the most important features of dharma as a constituent element of samsara is emptiness (Skt. Sūnyatā).

Moral Economy: Identification and Comparison of the Theoretical Approaches
Evgeny Zhernov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-190-208

The purpose of the study is to identify and compare the revealed theoretical approaches to the moral economy in order to substantiate the fundamental foundations of the integrative anthroposocial approach. Closely interrelated moral anthropic origin and moral social order are given as such foundations. The subject of the study is the existing approaches to the moral economy. The study is a theoretical analysis of the approaches to the moral economy, united by the author in two aggregated schools– anthropic-moral and socio-economic. The research methodology is the integrated approach for a comprehensive examination of the subject; general scientific principles of complementarity, diversity and unity. The results of the study, which constitute the scientific novelty: 1) it is revealed that there are the corresponding concepts of a moral person – Homo moralis – in all approaches reviewed, and it allows to establish the moral anthropic origin as the first foundation of the moral economy; 2) in the analyzed approaches, the main forms of sociality are revealed and characterized, functioning as “village community”, “religious community”, “Orthodox labour brotherhood”, “social institution”, which allow to define moral social order as the second foundation of the moral economy. The theoretical and practical significance of the study is that by identifying and comparing the existing approaches to the moral economy, its anthroposocial nature is defined 1) as the effective economic activity of a new person of high moral character; 2) as a set of intersubject economic relations based on the ideas of moral humanism. As a result, it becomes possible to compare existing approaches to the moral economy, when there is a person in its centre who respects humanistic morality in interpersonal relations of the economy of the society.

Neuropsychological Methods in the Penitentiary System in Terms of Neuroethics
Galina Timoshenko,  Tatyana Sidorova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-171-189

The article states the problem of protecting individuals from discrimination when using neuropsychological methods in the penitentiary system. In the field of ethical reflection in neuroethics, the authors propose to consider not only new opportunities to influence human consciousness and mental health, which are used in modern neuroscience, but also to include methods that have a rather long history. The penitentiary system was chosen as an object of study, which makes it possible to weigh the regulatory capabilities of neuroethics in the special conditions of a priori coercion and involuntary position. The paper considers the action of principles of respect for the dignity of the individual, voluntariness in the expression of consent to participate in psychodiagnostic and psycho-correction activities. The question of expressing informed consent for neuropsychic effects is by analogy considered with biomedical intervention. The authors describe the experience of applying neuropsychological methods on the examples of using a polygraph (a lie detector) and neuro-linguistic programming. The study shows that the polygraph is widely used not only in investigative and judicial practice, but also in diagnostics when people are applying for a job, moving to a higher (or different) position at work, entering educational institutions of the penal service. The authors highlight the idea that in the situation where the client is dependent on a psychologist, in order to undergo the procedure the problem of the voluntary expression of consent should be solved in accordance with the principle of vulnerability. It is stressed, that for the members of vulnerable groups, it is obligatory to use the rules, which take into account the specifics of their situation. Despite the improvement of the process of lie detection using a polygraph, there is no confidence in the accuracy and reliability of the data obtained. However, the results can be interpreted to the detriment of the individual, like the results of other methods of psychodiagnostic research, in the absence of proper ethical principles. Neuro-linguistic programming allows collecting of data on subconscious motives and having a targeted impact on a person. When using this method, there is also the problem of expressing informed consent, taking into account the specifics of the penitentiary institutions. A person may not fully realize the results of neuro-linguistic programming. The general trend in Russia is expanding the use of NLP and polygraph methods, which indicates a desire to acquire neuropsychological tools that will quickly achieve a visible result, without much concern about the ethics of getting the information, its reliability, and long duration. The authors have come to the conclusion that the focus on humanization of the penitentiary system in Russia with the help of the psychological service gives positive results. However, there is a danger of using methods of psychodiagnostics and psychocorrection for manipulative and ethically questionable purposes, which leads to a loss of confidence in them.

Foundations of Modern Passibilism and the Problem of Its Compatibility with the Antique Philosophical Theology
Alexey Streltsov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-155-170

This article deals with various historical treatments of the problem of impassibility or passibility of God. The author demonstrates connection of passibilism as the view admitting divine suffering with the sociocultural context of modernity, and also points out different attitudes throughout history to whatever is considered to be worthy of God. Standard concept of ancient philosophical theology held absolute impassibility of God. While Christian thought of Late Antiquity likewise considered God to be impassible, it did not exclude discourse of the suffering of God the Son. This opinion transpired throughout medieval period as well as Reformation, although Luther’s theology of the cross made an emphasis on divine revelation in the suffering of Christ. It was the dialectical approach of Hegel’s philosophy of religion that laid foundation for the option of theological passibilism. Such views came into being in the late 19th – early 20th century in Germany, England, and Russia. N. Berdyaev especially made an influence on subsequent thought. Among principal reasons for the passibilist development one can name popular view of uncritical reception of ancient Greek philosophy by the early Christian thought, process theology, apologetic need in new approaches to theodicy in view of global cataclysms of the 20th century that caused massive suffering of people, and, finally, democratization of political life as compared to absolutist monarchies of old. The author observes peculiar approaches in contexts of Japan, Korea, and African continent. While modern passibilism holds that only the concept of the suffering God is capable of alleviating human suffering, representatives of the classical Christian framework tended to find consolation rather God’s impassibility. Considering shift in view on impassibility of God as an integral part of historical-philosophical development, the author highlights possible incompatibility of the frameworks of Antiquity and modernity and does not find grounds for critique of the concept of Antiquity from the perspective of modern metaphysical sensitivities.

The World Died Again. Long Live the World!
Aleksander Shevtsov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-133-154

Philosophy (as the world-view) was not the first way to create a description of the world. Before that there was a whole sequence of other descriptions.It is very important that the epos gradually displaced the myth, and logos displaced epos.By the 5 century BC, the truth was sought philosophically, and it is the Logos that becomes the language of philosophy and the new worldview.The author analyzes the words of Plato from the fourth book of “The Republic”, in which he talks about the subtle power structure of a person. We are talking about those forces - dunamis - which determine to which part of the society this or that person belongs. Those who rule must develop the logisticon - the power of the mind or, more precisely, the reason; defenders and guards - the power of thumos (spirit). But the rest of the free citizens of the city-state live on the force, called epithumia, that is, desire. The article discusses the movement back: from the change of worldview and revolutions to the very first coup - the battle of the Titans and Gods. Why philosophers, who in general do not recognize the gods, were on their side? The particular outrage of the Greek philosophers was caused by the way of thinking, used by the people of manual labor. The insignificance of manual labor is a serious ideological attitude, manifested through the public opinion of the ruling class, because it is manual labor that is a sign of the majority of society: farmers, artisans and merchants. In other words, we can interpret the revolution that took place in the world of the gods and raised Olympus over the Earth as the struggle of the previous cults with the new, with the cult of gods of the military aristocracy. But the author is convinced that the struggle for Olympus is not over yet. If you listen, you will hear that there is a battle for the Mind, changing the nature of man. Because we have made the choice: to be with the gods, to be their creation – Homo sapiens.

On Constructive Criticism of the Ideology of the Competence Model of Education and the Program of Its Reforming
Svyatoslav Shachin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-95-110

The author puts forward proposals for reforming domestic education on the eve of global changes in the global social system. The paper does not give concrete practical recommendations, but rather the methodology of such reforms, criticizing the competence-based approach. The author was guided by the idea that the new does not arise by the eradication or destruction of the old, but next to the old, gradually expanding and displacing the old. The article consists of three parts. In the first part, the author shares his thoughts on the transformation of the competence-based approach in order to bring it in line with the domestic theory and practice of education, which will combine the best achievements of the national tradition with Western experience. The second part is devoted to the guidelines of the reforming of education process. In the context of global transformations of the entire socio-cultural system, a new version of the cultural revolution in Russian society can become a reference point, which will prepare new industrialization, which is possible, however, only in favorable conditions. At the present time, it is necessary to at least keep all the best that we have in the educational system from further destruction. The third part of the article is devoted to the reflection on the reformation of the system of postgraduate education. The idea is to stimulate the process of networking between scientists from central and provincial universities, resulting in a mutual reinforcement effect: provincial scientists and educators will have access to the latest achievements of science, and scientists from capitals will get new opportunities to influence civil society in Russia.

Theology and Theory of Evolution: the Conflict which did not Exist
Aleksandr Khramov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.2-307-326

The present paper critically examines the conflict thesis, which can be traced to the authors of the second half of the 19th century, like Thomas Huxley, John Draper and Andrew White, and which was actively exploited during the Soviet time. This thesis, which states that there is an inevitable conflict between religion and science, is shown to be inapplicable to the history of biology and evolution theory in the 19th century. Instead of conflicting with contemporary science, in that time religious leaders often sought ways of reconciling scientific discoveries and the Christian faith, and sometimes they were even personally engaged in geological and paleontological researches. In this respect the case of William Backland, an Anglican priest and geologist, is of a special interest, because at the beginning of his career he followed the biblical deluge narrative in his geological pursuits, but later abandoned this idea in the face of new facts. Because of the professionalization of science the role, which clergy had played in performing researches, gradually diminished. Nevertheless, religious ideas continued to have a considerable influence on the scientific activity of professional paleontologists and evolutionary biologists. In particular, the concept of creation through evolution, aimed at reconciling scientific worldview and the Christian belief, had been formulated before Darwin published his evolutionary theory, and afterwards it was endorsed by determined Darwinists like American botanist Asa Gray and British naturalist Alfred Wallace. Therefore, it would be a mistake to draw a conclusion about the incompatibility of science and religion in general from the isolated cases of religiously motivated hostility toward the theory of evolution and other scientific ideas.

International Scientific Conference in Memory of B. G. Yudin “Living in the World of Neurotechnologies: Social and Ethical Problems”
Tatyana Sidorova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.2-296-306

The paper presents an overview of the international scientific conference “Living in the World of Neurotechnologies: Social and Ethical Problems”. This is one of the first interdisciplinary forums where the issues arising in the context of the development of neuroscience were discussed by philosophers, ethics and medical specialists. The conference opened a research area for humanitarian studies. Conference participants often recalled the name of B. G. Yudin, because his ideas have been recently in great demand in developing new approaches. B.G. Yudin is considered to be one of the founders of bioethics in Russia. This conference laid the foundation for the study of ethical, anthropological and social problems in neuroscience and neurotechnology - an area that goes beyond biomedicine and declares itself as the most current trend of modern research. The tasks of neuroethics include defining, assessing and managing the social and humanitarian risks of various scientific fields with the prefix of neuro- arising in the light of the latest brain research. Neuroethics has already established the status of an interdisciplinary direction abroad, but in our country it is taking the first steps. The international scientific conference held in Moscow was one of the first significant events in its formation. The author presents the main theses of the most significant speeches of the participants of this conference.

The Discrimination Issue in the Context of Neuroethics
Lyudmila Sandakova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.2-274-295

The development of bio- and neurotechnology is significantly changing human reality and perceptions of humans themselves. This results not only in the new opportunities, but threats as well. In such conditions, the problem of discrimination gains topicality, and specialized legal or psychological considerations of this issue are no longer sufficient. This article discusses the potential of neuroethics in research and prevention of discrimination associated with the development of neuroscience and neurotechnology. In the scientific sources, there are various interpretations of neuroethics. Therefore, the problem of discrimination is considered in the scope of different understanding of the subject and methods of neuro-ethics. The research methodology is based on two key principles. 1) Transdisciplinarity is understood as the realization of the philosophical methodology of thinking in post-scientific reality. 2) Any issues of the moral and legal field should have a humanitarian dimension. At the same time, a human is viewed as a specific creature uniquely combining in his being opposite characteristics: biological and social, natural vs. artificial, individual vs. collective, and subjective vs. objective. Therefore, the dialectic methodology of thinking seems to be effective. The empirical basis of the study comprises domestic and foreign publications that raise issues of discrimination in connection with the development of neuroscience and neurotechnology. The author suggests that the complex nature of the phenomenon of discrimination is due to 1) the heterogeneity of social reality; 2) the contradictory biosocial nature of a human, suggesting interaction in terms of "competition vs. cooperation"; 3) ideological attitudes and ideas that justify and reinforce in culture the significance of certain differences and the specific attitude towards them. Our regulatory capabilities are connected with the outlook and cultural mechanisms of the regulation of social life. Therefore, it becomes important how the problem of discrimination is raised and solved. The article analyzes the prospects of political, ideological, ethical, scientific and bioethical statement of the problem. It is shown that the bioethical statement of the problem is most consistent with the current socio-cultural processes. The transdisciplinary nature of bioethics helps to maintain a multidimensional vision of the problem, and preserves and reproduces the contradictory human nature in the conditions of modern technological culture. Neuroethics, interpreted as a new ethic of the neurofuture, generates high risks of discrimination. This is due to the loss of the basis of ethical regulation, i.e. a human with his/her specific nature. Serious risks also arise when ethical phenomena are reduced to neurophysiological processes. Neuroethics, understood as the ethics of neuroscience and neuro-interference, has a low potential for preventing discrimination. It can be found in the accumulation of precedents and problematic situations, which are caused by new opportunities and new needs for the development of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Neuroethics as a part of bioethical discourse on the problem field of neuroscience provides a theoretical and methodological opportunity to estimate and prevent possible risks of discrimination.

Social Construction of the Normality in Psychiatry and Science Fiction
Elena Kosilova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-34-44

The problem of normality in psychiatry has not been solved yet. Therefore, a philosophical understanding of the notion of the norm and abnormality becomes particularly important. These two concepts should be discussed together. To solve the problem the author uses the method of analysis of norm and abnormality in psychiatry and fiction. In psychiatry there are only disorders. Their classification was historically developed by means of social construction. The conceptions of normality are different in three kinds of psychiatry. In the state psychiatry it is the absence of social complaints to the person, in commercial psychiatry it is the patient’s mental comfort, in the scientific psychiatry the statistical criterion takes place. Science fiction is a kind of literature where the normality is specially questioned. The author shows that the statistical criterion does not work in defining the norm. We can distinguish the following criteria of normality: 1) normality as a possibility of communication. In the psychiatric situation the communication of the doctor and the patient is also possible. For this, the psychiatrist must carefully and delicately grasp the biased vector of patient’s senses. When the patient turns off, the doctor’s task is to carefully go round and avoid the defense, without breaking it. 2) Normality as a possibility of mutual interaction. For a patient, the interaction with the members of the family is important, as well as with the big society in the process of inclusion. 3) Normality as an adequacy. It is an adequate person who has a non-rigid personal basis, which allows him/her to open himself/herself to a new experience. The psychiatrist must constantly increase the patient’s adequacy with the same accurate ways, as in communication with him. The novelty of the approach is, first of all, to exclude the statistical criterion of the norm and to introduce the criterion of mutual understanding and interaction. The notion of adequacy is also introduced, based on the attitude to the world, openness to it and willingness to interact with it. Fantastic worlds are a model of abnormality, and the subjects of fantastic works are a mental laboratory for understanding and overcoming the mutual abnormality of different cultures and minds.