Economic theory

Resource Potential of the Republic of Karelia in the Context of the Development of Glamping as a New Type of Accommodation
Aleksandra Kartseva,  Ksenia Pasternak
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-235-253

The article is devoted to the actual and rapidly developing direction in ecological tourism - glamping in domestic and foreign practices. The authors have highlighted the key features of ecological tourism, namely, the implementation of recreational opportunities in the unique natural environment and its preservation. The paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of this type of tourist recreation in the unique natural environment. The theoretical foundations of glamping are noted, the history of the concept of ‘glamping’ is considered. Additionally, the paper pays attention to the types of glamping sites (a brief description of each type is formulated), the features of domestic glamping, the assessment of the present situation and future development. It is noted that the rich variety of natural locations in the Russian Federation makes it possible to create unique glamping sites. Attention is paid to the factors contributing to the development of glamping in Russia. The authors conclude that there are prospects for the development of this type of recreation in Russia, and highlight its high potential for domestic tourism.

The authors focus on the tourist potential of the Republic of Karelia, which accumulates on its territory a large number of important architectural, cultural and historical sites, the diversity of cultural heritage of local ethnic groups. The article investigates the main varieties of tourist activities in the Republic of Karelia: ethno-cultural, event, active, rural, countryside and ecological tourism. The authors stress the fact, that there is a high demand for glamping service among tourists, which ultimately contributes to the active recovery process of the tourism industry after Covid-19.

Geography of Rationality

Dialogue between Buddhism and Science: from the Hard Issues about Consciousness to the Study of the Phenomenon of Tukdam Postmortem Meditation
Vlada Belimova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-254-281

The analysis of the dialogue between the world’s philosophical cultures in recent years has been focused on the study of a special space “inter”, or “interspace”, which can be regarded as a metaphor of the “meeting place” of different cultures and approaches. Therefore, understanding the way this space is organized, its laws and principles is a precondition for the interaction of cultures and their mutual enrichment.

In particular, the concept of “interspace” is analysed by the Vienna school of intercultural philosophy (B. Saal, B. Boteva-Richter, N. Weidtmann). Such characteristics as openness (the inclusion into the philosophical knowledge any existing traditions of thought), anti-hierarchy (“Cognitive Modesty”) and dynamics have been revealed. The dynamics in the framework of philosophy manifests itself as philosophical talk in the forms of the fi rst-person monologue addressed to the audience, the dialogue in which the voice is given to more than one participant, as well as the polylogue – a special form of philosophical talk, which involves the cohabitation of multiple logics, rationalities, semantic positions, existences, and so on.

The nature of “interspace” is refl ected in the framework of the dialogues on consciousness between Tibetan Buddhism and Western science. The paper reviews a brief story of their interaction, including the conferences, hold be the “Mind and Life” Institute, the project “Fundamental Knowledge: Dialogues of Russian and Buddhist Scholars”, and the study of physiological aspects of Buddhist contemplative practices. A signifi cant point to overcome the challenges on the way to understand each other (for example, such as the problem of translation, intellectual colonialism, etc.) has become the articulation of the “hard problem” of consciousness, as well as the concept of “neurophenomenology” (F. Varela). The paper provides a case study: it examines the methodological approach of Russian scientists that combines fi rst- and third-person perspectives in the study of contemplative practices (including postmortem tukdam meditation), which they develop in laboratories located in Tantric monasteries in India. Based on this, it is suggested that an intercultural philosophy approach is promising for solving the “hard problem of consciousness”.

Philosophy of science

Narcissistic Culture and the Problem of Political Legitimation
Petr Orekhovsky,  Vladimir Razumov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-282-305

The work continues the rethinking by the authors of the phenomena of changes in education, science and the structure of power in the 21st century within the framework of the philosophy of culture. The concepts of “carnival” according to M.M. Bakhtin, “the soul of culture” according to O. Spengler, Dionysianism (and neo-paganism) by F. Nietzsche are used for this work. The central problem of this study is the legitimation of the political regime of liberal democracy in the context of a narcissistic culture. The latter, due to its internal characteristics, does not allow the existence of any internal authority, the approval of which would provide a moral sanction to the rule of certain political actors.  History provides several options for the ontology of the legitimation process. The fi rst of them are associated with the priesthood that existed in the conditions of the domination of pagan culture, the Abrahamic religions that replaced it developed their own sacred mechanisms for granting sanctions to power. The most important shift occurs during the Modern: mass culture is forming, the role of moral authority is shifting from priests to scientists. To achieve legitimacy, political actors must ensure the progress of society on the basis of new advances in science and technology. The legitimacy is also challenged with the help of scientifi c argumentation – the authorities are presented with claims of erroneous technical and economic decisions that have entailed negative socioeconomic and/or environmental consequences. An extreme but signifi cant case is the challenge of scientifi c foundations of politics, as was the case in the case of Soviet Marxism.

Expanded reproduction of science and education in the 20th century erodes the former exclusivity of the scientifi c elite and at the same time eliminates the scientist mechanism of political legitimation. The situation is reversed: now, in order to continue pursuing science and education, the former authorities must prove their usefulness to the authorities and society. But the same thing happens with the authorities themselves: offi cials and deputies turn into “servants of people” and explain their necessity to society with the help of representatives of the humanities. They do not rule anymore but produce public goods in exchange for taxes. Bakhtin’s carnival is triumphing.

The regime of liberal democracy that ensured the protection of rights of minorities is close to narcissistic culture, in the center of which is the need for freedom and self-realization of the individual. At the same time, however, any authority – political or scientifi c – has a conditional legitimacy here. The proportion of partisans is growing – actors who recognize the legality of the existing social order but deny its internal justice. Fragility and instability are inherent in liberal democracy. The longevity of such a political regime is ensured by the rise of neo-paganism. Unlike previous pagan cults there is no separate social group of sacrifi ces. Thus, the problem of legitimation is removed: what is already there automatically becomes legitimate. With the help of the liberal discourse, each individual political personality is instilled that it has all the full rights, and the state is left with only responsibilities for the service of this personality: this is the uncontested meaning of Fukuyama’s ‘last man’.

The Pythagorean Argument of the Intelligent Design of the Universe and Its Critique. Part II: Pythagorean Strategy of Physics
Alexey Burov,  Alexey Tsvelik
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-306-335

Since the time of Galileo and Newton, physics has been engineered as a mathematical discipline, seeking its axioms, laws of nature, by means of specially organized experiments. The motivation of specifi cally this mode of cognizing nature was explored in the fi rst paper of this series, in which Christian Platonism and the Pythagorean crede of the founding fathers of modernity’s physics were discussed. The present article aims to lay out the cognitive strategy of physics as revealed by refl ecting upon its seminal discoveries. One central inquiry concerning physics is how exactly it has mined its axioms. Merely pointing to experimentation is insuffi cient. Experiments are conceived and executed as verifi cation of an already-formulated hypothesis, without which it would be indeterminate what should be observed and what there is to do with those observations. A hypothesis for a law is not derived from an experiment; on the contrary, it defi nes the experiment in order to be rigorously scrutinized by it.

The objective of this article is to demonstrate on facts that the strategy for hypothesizing physical laws has invariably emanated from the same wellspring as the originating metaphysical credo. This Pythagorean strategy is founded on the belief in mathematical elegance, high precision, and the universality of the sought-after axioms of matter. The quest for hypotheses went along the pathways of universal mathematical symmetries, equivalencies, invariances, correspondences, and analogies–complex enough to account for a plethora of relevant phenomena, yet simple enough to facilitate scientifi c discovery.

We are not the fi rst to propound this Pythagorean understanding of physics. This concept, as well as the term ‘Pythagorean strategy,’ was a quarter-century ago formulated and developed by the American-Israeli philosopher Mark Steiner (1942–2020) in his monograph, “The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem.” The present article serves as a free contemplation in the footsteps of that brilliant and still largely unparalleled tome.

Government and society

The Judiciary in Russia: Choice of Profession, Career Opportunities and Limitations
Marina Salamatova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-336-358

The article analyzes results of a study of the judiciary conducted in 2021–2022 in the Novosibirsk region, materials are summarized on the sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the judiciary, their infl uence on the motivation for choosing a profession and career advancement of judges. The interdisciplinary nature of the research led to the use of sociological (questionnaires and in-depth interviews) and legal methods of research (historicallegal, formal-legal, comparative-legal). As a result of the study, the author highlights the deepening of the processes of feminization and rejuvenation, which were recorded earlier. The overwhelming majority of judges are young women aged 30–45 years. The demographic composition of the judiciary is determined by the sources of its formation, the professional experience of most judges is limited to work in the court apparatus, in which graduates of law faculties of universities are employed, and after obtaining the necessary skills and experience in the court apparatus, they become judges. The main reasons for the apparatusbureaucratic way of forming the judiciary were the content of the work and the requirements for the professional qualities of a judge – the ability to consider a large volume of cases in the shortest possible time, correctly fi ll out documents and control procedural deadlines. The sources of replenishment of the judiciary determine the motivation for choosing a profession and career expectations for judges. For young women coming from the court staff, the main factors in choosing a profession were the desire for professional and social self-realization, combined with material rewards and social guarantees. When choosing a professional trajectory, most judges attributed the acquisition of power and high social status to insignifi cant factors. In such a situation, low or indefi nite career aspirations of a signifi cant part of judges are natural. At the same time, the unexpressed ambitions of the majority of the judiciary coincide with the capabilities of the judiciary itself, judges are a profession with low vertical mobility, only a small part has a real chance to get promoted and become the head of a district court or become a judge of a regional court.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

“The Diamond Arm” by Leonid Gaidai: Damned Thoughts behind the Veil of Humor
Konstantin Kurlenya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-359-391

The article deals with the genre features of L.I. Gaidai “The Diamond Arm”. It is noted that in this fi lm, in addition to a satirical denunciation of various shortcomings of Soviet reality, L.I. Gaidai gives a parody on numerous foreign and domestic fi lms, primarily fi lms about James Bond, foreign parodies of Bond and other spies, detective and crime comedies and individual comedy roles. The connection in the fi lm of numerous echoes with parodied prototypes required the director to turn to a special genre – the mockumentary fi lm, which began to actively develop in those years in Western cinema. Perhaps Gaidai’s “The Diamond Arm” turned out to be the fi rst domestic example of this genre. It is based on the technique of bricolage, which is expressed in a special combination of many borrowed plot situations and actors’ characters. The result is a believable story with easily recognizable intrigues and plot moves, made in the manner of realistic fi lming, without exact quoting of material borrowed from other fi lms, but with a recognizable reliance on it. Thanks to the layering of parodied plot details embedded in everyday situations that were widespread in the Soviet reality of those years, the director creates a story that is outwardly simple and understandable to the general public, unfolding in the frame. Thus, Gaidai managed to form a script, consisting entirely of parodied borrowings. The director offers not only to laugh at the so-called ‘individual shortcomings’, but also draws attention to conceptual criticism of the vulnerable aspects of the Soviet mass consciousness of the 1960s – over the main value priorities of the many-sided domestic bourgeoisie, focused on the life for ‘personal benefi t’. Accordingly, he criticizes precisely this ideal of false self-assertion, both by direct satirical denunciations of the negative aspects of Soviet reality, and by parodying models of acquisitiveness and personal comfort borrowed from the West, to which Soviet seekers of an easy life were committed.

Art of Forgery as a Phenomenon of Culture
Tatyana Sholomova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-392-407

The article deals with the problem of falsifi cation of works of art (forgery) and attitudes towards falsifi ed works: falsifi cation as a cultural phenomenon; the meaning of falsifi cation in different types of art; falsifi cation through the eyes of an art connoisseur, philosopher, forger; falsifi cation as an aesthetic and ethical phenomenon; the signifi cance of falsifi cation for modern aesthetic theory and for the art market. The relevance of the topic is justifi ed by a large number of falsifi cations both in the modern art market and in the artistic fi eld. The article defi nes falsifi cation; reveals the problem of distinguishing a fake from legal ‘secondary works’. Particular attention is paid to the lack of clear criteria for identifying falsifi cation: as a rule, this is the intention to bring a secondary work to the market or to the artistic sphere.

The different meaning of falsifi cation in different types of art is associated not only with different opportunities to be the subject of investment, but also with the specifi cs of the types of art. In accordance with the theory of N. Goodman, for ‘autographic’ (‘visual’) types of art, the history of creation of a single unique copy has exceptional value; for ‘allographic’ ones such as cinema and literature, each reproduction is original (but works of these arts are not the subject of investment). T. Kulka, a prominent representative of modern aesthetics, explains why the “correct” aesthetic perception of an original or a fake without a hint from the outside is impossible and always requires knowledge of the context. This is a very important point for understanding the attitude towards falsifi cation: it is not built into the history of art and therefore cannot claim the same reverent attitude towards itself that the originals deserve.

The ethical problem of the existence of falsifi cation is shown on the example of E. Hebborn’s “The Art Forger’s Handbook”, which explains how to shift responsibility for establishing the status of a work to art critics, using the peculiarities of their professional psychology.

In general, the article recognizes the important role of falsifi cation in the modern art market: the fi rst unsuccessful acquisition of a novice collector becomes a kind of act of initiation and strength testing.

The Role of the Russian Language in the Formation and Promotion of Russia's Traditional Values
Elena Vranchan
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.4.2-427-442

The article considers the role of the Russian language in the formation and promotion of traditional Russian spiritual and moral values of the nation. The object of the study is the linguocultural potential of the Russian language. The subject of the study is the building of value links between language and the elements that form the model of worldview pentabasis: ‘man’, ‘family’, ‘society’, ‘state’, ‘country’. The study reveals that for a person, language acts as an instructor, giving instructions on how to choose the verbal code of communication that will be most appropriate in specifi c circumstances of communication. For the family, the native language is a guide to culture, providing a link between generations through family traditions, folklore and stories of world literature. For society, the Russian language acts as an indicator of its state, because it quickly reacts to changes and easily adapts to the new reality. For the state, the Russian language is an instrument of ‘soft’ power, contributing to strengthening the unity of the multinational Russian people and enhancing Russia’s cultural presence in the world. For the country, the native language is an effective means of civic and patriotic education for young people. The analysis of sources on the topic of the study allows us to conclude that in the context of modern globalization processes, the Russian language and the languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation are subject to negative infl uence. Among the negative factors affecting the development of Russian languages are the following: the targeted penetration of English into all spheres of activity, a decline in the general level of language profi ciency, and following the global language trends. To neutralize the infl uence of negative factors on the language, an effective language policy is being developed. It is aimed at supporting the growth of interest in the native language and culture, as well as at preserving, protecting and revitalizing the languages of smallnumbered peoples of Russia. For example, the Russian-language platforms for online learning are spreading, a new trend – linguistic (language) ecology – is developing, and scientifi c centers for the preservation and revival of Russian languages are now operating.

Round table

Ideological Factors of Interstate Relations in Central Asia

On May 14, 2023, the fourth international round table “Ideological Factors of Interstate Relations in Central Asia” was held at the Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management as a part of international research project “Factors of Interstate Cooperation in Central Asia. ‘The Great Game’ Index”. The expert meeting was devoted to a non-trivial issue for modern expert political discourse – ideology. It was understood by the speakers in a very broad context: everything that creates meanings and motivations in interstate interaction. Participants examined through the prism of multi-vector policy of countries of the region quantitative and qualitative indicators of the main non-regional actors in ideological sphere. Particular attention was paid to such value-dependent areas as cultural and educational cooperation, public activism, history and the media. In conclusion, a discussion was held on the prospects of the neo-republican system in the context of interstate relations in Central Asia.