Economic theory

Methodological Analysis in the Specifics of the Ecosystem Approach
Tatyana Berezova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-275-290

The global trend towards digital transformation opens up new opportunities for every economic entity, intensifies the transformation of business processes in the system of accounting and analytical support, and is not limited to the introduction of new technologies. In the current situation, scientific approaches to the study of accounting and analytical systems, such as evolutionary, institutional, structural, etc., are applied in isolation from each other, and do not take into account all the interrelations and conditions of the functioning of economic entities. The ecosystem approach is proposed as a new theoretical and methodological basis. The ecosystem approach in scientific research involves the consideration of the object of study as an ecosystem. The purpose of this article is a methodological analysis of the subject field associated with the concept of ‘ecosystems’.

In the course of the research a mixed methodology was used, which included the method of content analysis of publications of foreign and Russian authors, in-depth bibliographic analysis, study and synthesis of theoretical material devoted to the research topic, as well as systematization and grouping of the obtained data.

The analysis identified four main research discourses of the ecosystem approach: entrepreneurial ecosystem, business ecosystem, innovation ecosystem and platform ecosystem. Their underlying aspects, key components and the focus of research on the concepts are identified. It is revealed that the term ‘ecosystem’ is applied to various ontological units (environment, stakeholders, platforms, business models, universities, etc.) and focuses on analysis (ecosystem strategy, value proposition, etc.). It is concluded that when using the ecosystem approach in scientific work, it is necessary to specify within which discourse the study is conducted and what the level of analysis is focused on.

Theory and history of culture

Reforming and Reformation in the System of Culture and Systems of Society
Larisa Logunova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-291-312

The article is devoted to the role of modern culture in the situation of permanent reforms. This is an understanding of the problem identified by Orekhovsky P. A. and Razumov V. I. in the journal “Ideas and Ideals” at the end of 2021. The author continues the discussion about the consequences of the spread of “narcissistic culture” in different areas of life. The author of the article studies the problem from the standpoint of a systematic approach. This methodology allows us to see the built-in social changes in the structure of the social system, the stabilizing role of culture as a “supersystem”. Such a methodological position excludes the possibility of criticizing the system from within, being one of its structures. Instead of critical analysis, a humanistic-semantic one is proposed, based on understanding, explanation, prognostication.

The methodological complex is built on the combinatorics of the humanistic-semantic, constructivist, systemic approach. The author proves the thesis of the all-penetrating nature and the stabilizing role of culture in modern managerial processes of updating the subsystems of society. The methods of the constructivist approach help to explain the distribution of new social roles. Society is differentiated into reformers (dominant actors) and those who are subject to reform (statistical actors). The theatrical terminology of the dramatic approach explains the playful meaning of social actions. The main game of the reformers is a “mousetrap”. It reveals the ‘pure’ qualities of the initiators of the reforms. The author studies the social roles and the specifics of their distribution in the processes of reformation.

The article considers the processes of reforming and reformation. Differences in the meanings, goals and tools of these processes are shown. Reforming is a social process based on the principles of humanism and justice. Reformation is a game which action takes place on the ‘fields of attraction’of discourses. Reformism is defined as a fashion for reform, for novelty, a trend for constant renewal of the structures of the society system. The goal is to receive benefits and advantages from the social position of the reformers. This is a game of dominant actors defending the right to change the rules of the game, access to resources. Reformation does not lead to the solution of social problems, exacerbates the course of socio-cultural processes. The risks from the consequences of reformation are anomie, social changes of a traumatic nature which all relevant actors feel, regardless of their dominance in the ‘fields of attraction’.

The system is brought into balance by culture with its system-forming functions that provide normative order. Using the techniques of integral sociology, the author shows the stabilizing role of the value core of culture in the life of the ‘society’ system.

Pragmatics of “Memoriality” through the Lens of Museum Criticism
Vyacheslav Kozmin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-313-324

The “ruins” of cultural institutions have become the subject of sustained academic interest today. Traditional ideas about the educational mission of museums, the principles of museum exhibits are a thing of the past, are essentially rethought, replaced by new formats. The article aims to analyze the trends that have emerged in museum practice in the last decade. One of them is the actualization of the principles of museum criticism as a developing interdisciplinary field.

The gap between museum theory and practice has been considered and discussed many times. The 3rd issue of the journal “Ideas and Ideals” for 2021 published texts united in the heading “Museum in Contemporary Culture” and allowed to speak about the unity of views [3, 8, 16]. One cannot but agree with the opinion of the authors that museum criticism, along with criticism of art, literature, music (as, finally, restaurant or sports), predetermines various cultural priorities and extremely problematizes the sphere of taste preferences. In this regard, the need for critically informed practice takes on a pragmatic aspect. It is on this basis that a new idea is formulated about the possibilities of interaction between a professional museum worker and a modern visitor. The postulation of the significance of the “critical approach” in the professional self-determination of the museum is of fundamental importance. It is internal criticism as a necessary corrective factor that makes it possible to maintain the academic status of museology as an independent field of scientific activity.

Culturology “In a Draft, Whispered” (To the Anniversary of the “Literary-Centric” Culturology)
Vladimir Martynov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-325-350

The article reconstructs the framework of S.S. Averintsev’s culturology and outlines the contexts that make this theoretical model especially relevant today. The theory of the three stages of the word state, where, in addition to the poles in the traditional ‘sacred/reflexive (scientific, pluralistic)’ dichotomy is proclaimed an intermediate state, sacral-reflexive, and is interesting not only out of historical curiosity, it has significant heuristic potential. The current relevance of Averintsev’s culturology is ensured by the fact that his model is consistently and fundamentally realistic. A distinctive feature of this variant of culturology is the reliance on literary studies, on the typology of the word of M.M. Bakhtin. But this is culturology, the historical typology of culture, which leads to large-scale generalizations and universal models. In the late 1980s, Averintsev’s typology acquired the status of a historical model of types of rationality. This typology of culture turned out to be a ‘strong’ theory with many not only ontological implications, but also consequences important for epistemology and philosophy of science. Philosophers, art historians, historians and literary critics had reason thirty years ago to consider the challenges of such culturology provocative and nihilistic. It makes revolutionary demands on all humanities disciplines. But at the same time: the whole revolutionary nature of Averintsev’s theory remained precisely in the implications. The theory, which was ‘loud’ by the scale of universal claims, was pronounced in the published texts more than ‘quietly’, almost ‘in a whisper’. Perhaps, this antinomy is fundamental.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

Spiritual Indifference as a Result of the Ideology and Practice of the Consumer Society
Elena Erofeeva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-351-373

The article presents an analysis of the development of the consumer society and its main features of manifestation at the present time. It is noted that the formation of consumer relations is due to the development of the ideas and practices of capitalism, which led, firstly, to economic and technical development, manifested in the growth of incomes of the population; blurring of boundaries between social classes; individualization and a sharp increase in the diversity of consumption. Secondly, the development of the desire to increase capital, social privileges, improve one’s own social status through the consumed products of production. Thirdly, the formation of a culture of behavior based on individual tastes, desires and values of people.

The consumer society is analyzed from the standpoint of psychological, sociological and philosophical approaches, since the process of consumption of a modern person goes far beyond the purely economic framework and reflects not just the satisfaction of physical and physiological needs, but determines the psychological and socio-moral aspects of human life. It is shown that the traditions of the modern consumer society influence the formation of people’s spiritual indifference to each other. Under the influence of the ideology and practices of the consumer society, there is a shift in the hierarchy of human needs, which leads to a corresponding deformation of value systems. A person, striving to meet new social standards, ideals, patterns of consumer behavior, loses the traditional worldview, focused on society. Through consumed things, a person seeks to find self-expression, self-realization, gain social status and prestige. Such human qualities as compassion, kindness, respect, spirituality are deformed. This loss causes a spiritual and moral crisis, leading to the formation of spiritual indifference of a person to a person. Indifference, in turn, leads to social detachment, which contributes to the formation of a sense of disunity between people, to the alienation of people from each other and from oneself as a social being.

Social and Home Reclusion: A Review of Foreign Research
Denis Litvintsev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-374-384

In recent years, researchers around the world are increasingly turning to the problem of social alienation, which is caused not only by the coronavirus infection epidemic, but also by numerous other social and institutional processes. This article presents an overview and sociological analysis of foreign approaches to the study of social reclusion as a form of social alienation in religious, socio-philosophical, psychological, recreational, historical-cultural, spatial-geographical and economic-political discourses. Social reclusion is demonstrated both on well-known historical (reclusive poetess Emily Dickinson and others) and on modern cases. It was revealed that social reclusion can occur in relation to the whole society, certain social groups (for example, family) or institutions, as well as territories. Special attention is paid to home reclusion (solitude within the walls of your home) and green reclusion (solitude in nature). The author draws attention to the opposition of researchers of social reclusion and social exclusion, isolation, cultural participation and freedom. It is emphasized that social isolation is not identical with social reclusion, but can accompany it in conditions of limited social contacts, which confirms the phenomenon of A. Hansen’s reclusive openness. It has been established that the determinants of home reclusion can be the place of residence, moral and psychological state of a person, limited health opportunities in older people, visible physiological deficiencies or dependence on the screen (mainly among young people, which in Japan is called “hikikomori”). Guided by the dialectical idea of ​​the functionality of social reclusion, both its negative and positive aspects are shown, for example, the promotion of reintegration into society.

Road as an Object of Conceptual Reflexivity
Elena Maltseva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-385-402

This article is dedicated to making sense of the cultural term “road” in research literature. Also, the author makes a disclosure of different “road” term interpretations in various scientific articles. The necessity of this analysis is contingent on terminological variety, which leads to problems while using terms even in one and the same article. In this article we are trying to highlight a dominant term for different fields of knowledge for the word “road”.

It turns out that in ethnologist articles specialists describe the road as an archetype, a mythologeme. The archetype of the road as a sort of spatial archetype appeared in the collective mind and outspoken in ethnic texts; traditions and rituals play an important role in the world view of different nations. Describing a road as a mythologeme allows to give it a sacral meaning, a road as a way to the “other world”, the borderland between ‘us’ and ‘them’, a dark place. In literary articles the road is viewed as chronotopos, assembling spatial and time relationship in literary texts.

A number of researchers highlight that the “road” chronotopos as a storyline creator and organizer is reflected in Russian literature of XIX-XXI centuries and act independently in the texts of different periods and different authors.

The analysis of the road as a metaphor can also be found in linguistic research. Authors suggest different ways of metaphorization, such as “way of life/way of death”, “way of perception”, “way of work”, “way of salvation/way of sin”, “way of creation/way of destruction”. The culturological method permits the authors to look at the road as a concept and divine the terms “road” and “way”. Within philosophy of culture a “road” had a meaning of a cultural universal relevant to different cultures, world models: mythological, religious, philosophical, artistical. Art science makes an accent on characteristic art’s image of the road.

The article concludes about the importance of the phenomenon of the road as an integral part of culture at all stages of its development, as well as a fairly thorough study of the road as a cultural phenomenon, the formation of various conceptual schemes for its description in the domestic research literature.

Representation of the Army and War in Video Games: The Current State and Prospects of the Genre Shift
Igor Mishchenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-403-418

The subject of research in this article is the study of the genre areas of representation of the army as a socio-cultural institution in video games. To solve the research problems, methods such as classification were used to determine the main options for the representation of the army in video games, a structural-functional method to identify the media characteristics of games, forecasting to identify the prospects for a genre and ideological shift in military video games. As a result of the study, it was found that modern personalized war games are shifting from the era of the Second World War deeper into the past - for example, to the First World War or the Middle Ages, and their ideological content and content are also changing - from the linear fulfillment of a tactical task to a detailed narrative that reveals tragedy and heroism of military conflicts. According to the author, an important aspect of the success of military-patriotic education and the pragmatics of video games in the context of modern Russian culture is not just setting the task of creating games that glorify our military past, but also regulating the image of the Russian army today. A tool for this can be simulators of everyday activities, adventure games about the everyday life of border guards, signalmen, submariners on a campaign, managers of a military unit. Their potential is able to demonstrate the army as an institution for maintaining peace and ensuring security. The author assumes that such a genre experiment in military video games will make it possible to popularize Russian military video games on the market. In the conclusions of the study, 4 genres of army representation in video games are presented, in which the ideological paradigm is built around personal heroism or team genius, as well as personal exclusivity in extreme circumstances of military operations. The latter is formed by the very genre nature of video games, genre is message. The author revealed that the dominant genre is the action shooter, due to which the connection between the army and the categories of peace and security is lost and the categorical picture of the world created by the games of the military genre is distorted. The identified genre shift is destructive in nature, as it is aimed at destroying the socio-cultural institutions of the army.

The Embodiment of the “Strong Woman” Concept in Alexander McQueen’s Travesty Costume
Anastasia Toropova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-419-430

This article presents the results of a hermeneutic analysis of the work of British designer Alexander McQueen. Corporeality is a system of signs applied to the human body. Clothing is the most important part of corporeality constructed by designers. An outfit is an ensemble of clothing elements that is an artistic statement. McQueen was aware of the overload of the body with symbolic meanings. His task as a designer was to construct a fashionable corporeality, which means controlling body parts with vestimental tools - silhouette, material, colour, fit, etc. McQueen’s aesthetic program is problematized through the image of the “strong woman”. The author analyzes the meaning put into the concept by the designer. The conceptual heroines of McQueen’s work inhabit the extremes of logocentric society: prostitutes, saints, aristocrats, the mentally ill and others.

The analysis is produced in the context of other concepts of the “strong woman” created by European, American and Japanese designers. It is noted and emphasized that the conceptual heroines of McQueen’s work inhabit the extremes of logocentric society: prostitutes, saints, aristocrats, the mentally ill and others. One exists in the lower zone (vampires, witches, criminals, etc.), while others, like Joan of Arc and Catherine the Great, find themselves at the very peak of the male order, contradicting its structure by their existence. The loneliness of Alexander McQueen’s women, settled on social points of extremity, correlates little with the usual images of strong women broadcast by contemporary culture.

The author hypothesizes that McQueen creates the image of a strong woman through the construction of a “doomed” and “prominent” corporeality, which is most precisely expressed in the concept of “martyr”. By constructing images of strong heroines, McQueen invented a woman who does not undermine the logocentric order, but strengthens it thanks to her flexibility and adaptability to any circumstances. A woman is thus a “substitute man”, solving those problems that men fail to cope with.

The Instances of Delineation in Rock-Culture Discourse
Sergey Dyukin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-431-447

The main concepts of the article are discourse and instances of delineation. This is a set of social institutions that can form the structure of discourse, identify its main and secondary segments. The aim of the research is identification of the instances of delineation in the discourse of rock-culture. The methods of this research included narrative interviews with agents of rock-culture and discourse-analysis. Agents of rock-culture are musicians, their close friends, collector of discs, fans. The research allows us to draw the following conclusions. In the discourse of rock-culture the role of such institutions is fulfilled by a friend, a senior member of family, media and music shops. The friend that structures the discourse should have authority and prestige. They define aesthetic positions, give assessments and exert informational impact. A friend can influence both temporarily and permanently. A senior member of the family affects the discourse in the same way. Other instances of delineation are media and music shops. Media has the effect in rock-discourse of setting the agenda. Methods of forming the agenda are nomination of facts and rankings. A music shop organizes conversation between different agents of rock-culture. A shop operates like media. It provides positive nomination segments of discourse: the demanded goods create a certain verbal series influencing a visitor of the shop. A visitor enters a certain context that leads them to perceive themselves as a referent product that can further the thesaurus of the subject. The structure of the discourse formation is determined by the institutions that act both in the public and in the private field of cultural being. The public instances of delineation are media and musical shops (or market in the reality of Soviet culture). So the discourse of rock performs a double function. It introduces the subject into the sphere of social and cultural innovations. At the same time rock that has a private character returns one to cultural traditions.

Problems of national discourse

Problems of Preservation of National and Cultural Identity in the Context of Cultural Policy of Transnistria
Natalia Golub
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-448-467

This article analyzes the historical prerequisites that influence the formation of the identity of the population of Transnistria, based on the common language, history, culture and statehood in the conditions of polyethnicity and multiculturalism of the republic with a “deferred legal status”. Among the array of basic identities, the national-cultural one is viewed through the prism of regulatory, legislative, socio-cultural and linguistic policies aimed at protecting the cultural, educational and linguistic rights and freedoms of the Pridnestrovian people, strengthening the statehood of Transnistria with existing educational and cultural imbalances, as well as progressive reverse processes.

When considering the current state of interethnic consolidation, attention is focused on the problems of preserving national and cultural identity, its markers are singled out, transformational processes are identified due to historical, political and ethno-cultural interactions, the dynamics of the ethnic composition of the population of Transnistria is analyzed. It is noted that in the ethnic structure over the past 30 years, the Moldovan ethnos (initially being the backbone of the statehood of the newly formed country) has given way to the Russian one, because the share of Russian citizens is already more than a third of the population (33.8%). At the same time, a part of the Transnistrians already self-identify as the “Pridnestrovian people”. Thus, on the basis of the ideology of “Transnistrian internationalism”, which allows representatives of more than 70 ethnic groups to coexist peacefully, a new community is being formed, which makes it possible to observe the transformation processes taking place in the study area in dynamics. Focusing on “Russian culture”, the author focuses on the need to activate the mechanisms of creative bilingualism, the development of the ethno-festival movement, ethnographic event tourism of various ethnicities of the multinational Transnistria, which should be reflected in the ongoing State cultural policy.

The author presents the directions of activity for the preservation of the national and cultural identity of the Transnistrian people in the key of ethno-cultural, communication and infrastructural processes.

Social practices

Socio-Cultural Potential of Rural Lifestyle from the Perspective of New Civilizational Relations: A View from Siberia
Tatyana Artamonova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-468-485

The research interest in the rural lifestyle is due to several trends. On the one hand, it is the deepening depopulation of rural areas and the growth of crisis phenomena. On the other hand, there is a trend of deurbanization, which it is legitimate to consider not only as a temporary consequence of the pandemic situation, but as an aspect of the formation of fundamentally new civilizational relations, the need for which is stated both internationally and at the Russian level. Thus, the reports of the Club of Rome argue for the inevitability of the transition to a new paradigm of development. In the Russian scientific and philosophical literature, one of the alternative civilizational models has been called noospheric or spiritual-ecological, which should replace the prevailing technogenic-consumer model today. At the same time, the values and attitudes that dominate today are criticized first of all, and a return to a number of basic traditional values, preserved, in particular, in the rural way of life, is asserted at a new level.

The purpose of the study is divided into three main ones: to isolate the basic values and socio-cultural traditions of the Russian and, above all, the Siberian peasantry, which correspond to the spiritual and ecological civilizational relations; to identify the degree of prevalence of these values in the modern youth environment of Siberia; to give a general assessment of what is happening and offer their recommendations. As a result of the conducted survey of students of agricultural universities in Siberia, it was noted that the key socio-cultural attitudes and values of the rural lifestyle, namely: nature centrism, hard work, the dominance of direct human communication and mutual assistance, nepotism and the continuity of generations have largely been preserved. The rural way of life still retains its deep potential for the reproduction of the cultural, social and family way of life. But at the same time, it is actively undergoing destruction and transformation, which requires the adoption of appropriate socio-economic measures and infrastructural transformations, taking into account global trends in the development of a “smart village”. A significant role in realizing this potential is assigned to young people, namely graduates of agricultural universities as future professionals in the field of agriculture.

The methodology of the research was based theoretically, firstly, on a detailed and multidimensional critique of modern civilization, presented in the works of many authors (the Frankfurt School, E. Fromm, the works of the Club of Rome, etc.); secondly, on studies of the state of modern rural areas, in particular in Siberia. Sociological methods such as questionnaires and express surveys were used as empirical methods.

Revisiting the Use of the Writer’s Image in Advertising Discourse
Evgenia Parsheva,  Ekaterina Egorova,  Natalya Bedina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-486-496

The article’s purpose is to identify the functional aspects of the use of а writer’s image in advertising discourse and to raise the ethical issues that arise in this case. Being at a junction of masscult and elitism, а writer’s image is exploited in advertising and becomes a brand, a stamp, a label. It becomes the part of what implements both functions of attracting attention and self-presentation. The ‘pleasure of recognition’ and the feeling of satisfaction from the involvement in cultural integrity are those positive emotions that advertising marketing focuses on. For this the advertising of consumer goods, catering establishments, shops, medical services, etc., uses literary classics texts. In this way, advertising refers to cultural memory as collective reconstructions of our common past image. The transfer of the classical text specific element into the advertising genre as into another semiotic system automatically simplifies and schematizes the meanings of the source text. At the same time, the range of images used in advertising as in a utilitarian genre demonstrates what fills the collective cultural memory, what is considered as necessary for its preservation.

The analysis of advertising texts against the ethical permissibility-inadmissibility, the acceptability-redundancy (being extreme/over the line) gives grounds to draw the following conclusions:

- advertising using а writer’s image, being only a small part of the general advertising discourse, creates a visual noise situation, ‘simplifying’ the classical text understanding impoverishes the process of its interpretation;

- advertising built on the basis of the writer’s images desemantization and deformation, works towards the deformation and perception of the author, forms false meanings;

- advertising, based on linguistic turns of phrase, like any joke, has the potential to cross the border of what is permissible when the writer’s image (name, text) as a result of carnivalization acquires additional vulgar and taboo meanings.

The mechanisms that determine the flexibility of language matter also since its instability and aesthetic choice turns out to be inextricably linked with a moral choice.

History of the scientific life in USSR-Russia in the memoirs of contemporaries

Memories of Boris Pavlovich Orlov
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.2-497-504

Memories of Novosibirsk economist Boris Pavlovich Orlov consist of three episodes. The first analyzes his work “Development of Transport in the USSR”. The author analyzes the fundamental nature of the work, the use of archival data and the truthfulness of the analysis. An objective coverage of the history of Soviet transport is noted, especially during the periods of the first five-year plan and the Soviet-Finnish war. The author gives a qualified analysis of the reasons for the orientation in railway transport towards the development of track facilities and the expansion and renewal of rolling stock instead of new railway construction. The second episode is connected with the defense of Ph.D. thesis of the author, in which Boris Pavlovich was the first opponent. Despite the seditiousness of many of its provisions for that time, Orlov supported it and highly appreciated it. The third episode is connected with the author’s leadership of the student scientific society at the Faculty of Economics of the Novosibirsk State University, of which Orlov was then the dean. The scientific work of this society, which boldly explored the acute problems of the socialist economy, was subjected to political persecution. Boris Pavlovich did not take any part in this company, at the risk of his administrative position.

    In conclusion, the high level of Boris Pavlovich Orlov’s qualifications, his honesty, civic courage and decency are discussed in the article.

Round table

Round Table "Science and Education"

Participants of the round table discuss some key problems of the current crisis situation in the Russian science and education, caused by thoughtless reforming of these spheres of domestic culture during the last decades. The situation is aggravated by the fact that there is a significant underfunding of science and, especially, education, if compared with developed countries. In addition, there is a negative reorientation of both spheres toward utilitarian goals. Another peculiarity of these decades is that the ongoing transformation is not based on a serious analysis of the current situation, but only on the proclaimed groundless future benefits, such as the European recognition of diplomas, or the wide mobility of teachers, etc. Such features of a present situation in a science and education are also discussed as orientation to the decisions of standard problems and thoughtless application of testing, value of ideology of making money instead of serious scientific career, situation when the official is not responsible for not absolutely correct indicators have been established, appreciable fall of level of the entrants entering high schools as result Uniform State Exam, etc.