Economic theory

Economic Сonsulting
Vladimir Klistorin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-251-266

The article discusses the reasons and motivations behind the demand for consulting services. Particular attention is paid to the motivation of managers ofenterprises, organizations and government agencies who resort to the services of external consultants when they have a large number of their own specialists and advisors. On the basis of the analysis of scientic literature and our own modest experience we draw conclusions that economic consulting is associated with a number of threats and risks both for the consulted organization and for the consultant himself. For enterprises of organizations and state structures the main threat is that, following standard models and schemes, one can miss spe­cic features of the external environment and internal organization of the ob­ject. In addition, recommendations may be implemented incompletely, formal­ly or partially, which may lead to undesirable results. For a consultant, the main threats are conicts of interest and allegations of corruption and insider trading of information. Innovative solutions are the most effective, but at the same time the most risk. Choosing the right consultant and ensuring their competence andindependence is a particular challenge. Therefore, the relationship between the consultant and the client is no less important than the tools and technology ofhis work in the process of making recommendations. Consulting of state struc­tures has a number of peculiarities, the main of which are the hierarchical nature of construction, latent doctrines of departments, motivation of managers and planning horizon of the manager. Economic counseling allows the researcher to get a unique experience that can be used in further work.

Economy of the USSR during the initial period of the Great Patriotic War
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-267-290

The article analyzes the economic history of the USSR, covering an impor­tant period of the history of Stalin’s economic model – the initial period of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1942). The main feature of the Soviet economy during the war was that already in the first months the USSR lost control over the most developed industrial areas. This situation required fundamental reorganization ofthe structure of the economy, when its main production capabilities were used to produce military equipment at the expense of reducing the output of civilian products. The losses of the USSR economy from the occupation of part of the territory are considered and it is shown that the USSR in 1941–1942 fought Ger­many and its allies, having halved mobilization and economic potential. The arti­cle analyzes the process of transferring the economy to the war economy, which required an increase in the length of the working day and the abolition of vaca­tions, the introduction of the card system, and the relocation of plants to other territories. The structure of state administration bodies, changes in the organiza­tion of management and the position of its individual participants in it are stud­ied separately. Tables are given and analyzed, giving an idea of the volume and dynamics of production of means of production in this period, the production of non-ferrous metals, the production of consumer goods, military equipment. It is shown that due to the low quality of military production in the Red Army a huge proportion of non-combat losses, which was primarily due to unrealistic plans. The situation in agriculture is examined, where the decline in producti­vity was due to a number of reasons, including the predominant mobilization of the population from rural areas with a minimum of reservations, the almost complete cessation of supplies of mineral fertilizers and agricultural machin­ery and, consequently, a sharp decline in the mechanization of work. The situ­ation in the construction industry, in the work of railroad transport is studied. The calculation of the dynamics of national income for 1940–1942 years is given. Thus, in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War revealed the strengths of the Stalinist economic model and created in the 30-ies military-economic potential, high qualifications of the country’s leaders promoted in the last pre-war years. The greatest achievements of the Soviet economy in this period are associated with the record-breaking rapid transfer of the entire economy on military rails.

Regional Income and Consumer Expenditure Specifics of the Canadian Population
Igor Mitroshin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-291-308

In the confrontation between the global West and the global South, Russia found itself directly on the fault line. The confrontation leads to changes in the world economy, which, of course, have an impact on the standard of living ofthe population. It becomes relevant to study this influence, both in Russia and in countries that impose economic sanctions against it. This study provides a briefanalysis of household income and consumption expenditure in Canada for 2000­2022 across the provinces of the country. Based on the data obtained, a high de­gree of social support for Canadian citizens from the state was revealed, espe­cially in areas densely populated by indigenous peoples. The conditional division of the country according to the standard of living of the population into four geographical sectors is determined: northern, western, central and eastern. It has been established that throughout the entire period under review, the indicators of the standard of living of citizens in the northern provinces are the highest, and in the eastern provinces the lowest in Canada. At the same time, about two-thirds of the total population of Canada live in the eastern provinces, and the Northern provinces are very sparsely populated (less than 1% of the total popu­lation). It has been recorded that relatively high incomes and savings of the pop­ulation are not a determining factor in the country for choosing a place of resi­dence. Much depends on other indicators of the quality of life of people, as well as on the local mentality, traditions and culture.

Event-Based Ontological Model of Economic Relations
Alexei Kovalev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-309-332

The paper examines the issue of the development of ontologies in the eco­nomic domain. The essential role of ontologies in the digitalization of the econ­omy is determined. The author considers the origin of ontologies in philos­ophy and the transition of ontologies from philosophy to computer science. The paper shows the growth of semantic content and the range of applications of ontologies as they develop. Ontologies in computer science have grown from the tasks of forming a thesaurus to the issues of forming semantic models ofsubject areas, which makes them close, in terms of generality and depth of ap­proach, to philosophical ontologies. Currently, there are a sufficient number of successful examples of the use of information ontologies, nevertheless, these achievements are disproportionately less than the potential inherent in ontolo­gies. In addition, there is a decrease in interest in ontologies and the number ofstudies. To determine the reasons for this, the concepts underlying the formation of ontologies are considered. The most promising set of concepts for the forma­tion of ontology in the economic subject field is proposed. It is determined that one of the reasons for the insufficient development of ontologies is the insuffi­cient elaboration of the concepts of ‘economic cell’ and ‘event’ as the basis for reflecting economic processes. The concept of ‘events’ is formulated, which cor­responds to the dynamic approach in the formation of ontologies. It is proposed to consider an event in the subject area of economic relations as a change in the values of observed attributes (OMECVA). According to the OMECVA concept, events are primary in cognition and in reflecting the subject area. The informa­tional reflection of objects is considered as a cluster of signs and their meanings in structure, space and time. Three types of events are distinguished: events in the subject area, events of cognition of changes in the subject area and events that change the model of cognition. As a starting point for the development ofa promising ontology of economic processes, it is proposed to use accounting as a widespread information system that forms the bulk of economic informa­tion. It is proposed to consider a triplet as an economic cell: an economic entity, a type of economic and legal relations, an economic object. Each of these ele­ments is an economic category and a feature in the context of which economic events are characterized.

Modeling the Functioning of the Production and Economic Chain
Sofia Lyubyashhenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-333-350

Restoration and design of efficiently functioning production and technologi­cal chains of complex structure, consisting of a set of firms with vertical and horizontal interconnections, is an important task of the modern economy in Russia. The implementation of the ‘new industrialization’ program is possible on the basis of large integrated structures capable of implementing innovations and modernization of production.  The dynamics of business processes caused by crisis trends leads to the need to find the most effective forms of interaction be­tween participants within hierarchical structures, allowing them to increase their competitiveness in the markets.  In this regard, the methodology of analyzing such production systems for making optimal management decisions needs fur­ther improvement. Classical micro and macroeconomic models are not fully ca­pable of describing real business processes in industry markets in conditions ofincreasing concentration. A comprehensive approach to the study of modern large firms and supply chains is needed. The synthesis of the theory of indus­trial organization and neoclassical economic theory is used as a methodological basis in the work.

A system with horizontal and vertical interaction of firms operating in the market is economically interested in achieving higher performance results and, above all, through more efficient use of resources. The relevance of this prob­lem requires modeling the parameters of companies’ activities under various be­havioral strategies.  In the article, an approach based on matrix modeling is pro­posed to describe the functioning of such systems, in which the main tool is a technological matrix developed taking into account the requirements for an in­put-output matrix. It is shown that the use of the methodology makes it pos­sible to adequately describe the interaction of firms, display material fl ows, de­termine important indicators of the system and fi rms (fi nal and gross products, volumes of resources, costs) and analyze at a qualitative level. An economic and mathematical model is proposed, which is used both to calculate the economic characteristics of the system and fi rms, and to design the structure of the tech­nological chain.

Modeling Sovereign Credit Risk with Environmental Efficiency in Mind
Tamara Popova,  Anastasiya Yastrebova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-351-369

This study contributes to the evaluation of the role of the eco-effi ciency fac­tor in explaining sovereign credit risk. The purpose of the study is to develop a model of sovereign credit risk taking into account the environmental efficiencyfactor. The sample includes the following countries: Argentina, Belgium, China, China, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Nigeria, Pakistan, Portugal, Spain. 58 % of the world’s countries are categorized as investment grade, indicating that more than half of the countries have high and very high solvency.

Using the multiple regression method, the factors affecting the sovereign credit rating are identified: GDP per capita, annual change in infl ation, interna­tional reserves, private sector credit, total public debt, and environmental perfor­mance. The results show a strong positive relationship between credit rating and GDP per capita, private sector lending volume, indicating that countries with better GDP per capita have lower credit risk.

To prove the relationship between environmental and credit risk, two mul­tiple regression models were constructed: without and with the environmental factor. The results show that including the environmental factor in modeling a country’s credit rating is appropriate because it improves the quality of the mod­el. According to the two comparison criteria, the model including the environ­mental factor had better results; the coefficient of determination was larger and the approximation error was smaller.

Countries have different environmental situations and different degrees ofenvironmental policy management. There is a relationship between environmen­tal and credit risk of countries, but the environmental situation of a country is not the only determinant factor affecting credit risk. If a country has a high en­vironmental performance index value, it may have an average sovereign rating and vice versa.

The scientific usefulness of the study lies in the fact that the constructed model can be used by investors, creditors, rating objects to calculate their own values of sovereign credit ratings.

Philosophy of science

The Pythagorean Argument of the Intelligent Design of the Universe and Its Critique. Part III: Philosophers’ Оbjections
Alexey Burov,  Alexey Tsvelik
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-370-397

The article is devoted to a critique of the Pythagorean argument, explicit and implicit, offered by philosophers of different epochs.

We begin with Kant’s “critique of the physicotheological argument”, findingnot a refutation of the argument, but a mixture of support and fair remarks re­moved by the further development of physics.

We next assess objections to the Pythagorean argument which may be called “downplaying” emphasizing the incompleteness of physical conceptions of the world. We note that, despite this incompleteness, the cosmic scope and incred­ible precision of knowledge of modern physics require an explanation of why this turned out to be possible. Another variant of the downplay is connected with the negative attitude to the fruits of the “Pythagorean faith”, with the pos­sibility of rejecting it according to the pragmatic criterion. We noted that, as far as we know, none of the adherents of this retrograde position have answered the question about the reason for the effectiveness of mathematics in cognition ofthe universe, whether the fruits of this cognition are good or not. A number ofattempts to explain this efficiency are associated with a sort of omnipotence at­tributed to an aspect of cognition. Karl Popper suggested that the effectiveness of the language of mathematics is not surprising, because languages are general­ly effective in describing reality. Anatoly Akhutin explained the success of math­ematical physics by the fact that mathematized methodology was originally in­corporated into physics, ‘what we put in, we get out’. Ivor Grattan-Guinness and Andrei Rodin deduced the success of physics from the general way of progress. Noting the inadequacy of such explanations, we tried to respond to them cor­rectly.

One more direction of criticism of the Pythagorean argument is connected with ethical, political and politically-correct requirements of strict observance ofthe boundary between the ‘magisteria’ of science and religion, inadmissibility ofits crossing. Our response consists in pointing out the incompatibility of such a ‘Chinese wall’ with the task of philosophical reflection of scientifi c cognition and developing a meaningful worldview.

The article then moves on to a series of remarks that may seem relevant without actually being so. Finally, the role of irrational motivations in solving metaphysical problems is considered.

Semiotic Diagnostics of Philosophy Teaching Goals in Pedagogical Educat
Vladimir Babich,  Vadim Zyubanov,  Maria Gorbuleva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-398-414

Modernization of domestic education and global diversification of peda­gogical education make it relevant to analyze the role and place of the subject‘Philosophy’ in order to diagnose new goals for teaching this discipline. Basedon the methodological innovation of the semiotic approach proposed by

I.V. Melik-Gaykazyan, the correspondence between the semantics of universalcompetencies and the pragmatics of the formation of individual trajectories forthe training of future teachers is established. This correspondence captures thenavigational role of philosophy, firstly, in the development of basic academicdisciplines, and, secondly, in understanding the continuity of their curricula.The implementation of this role will not happen naturally, since the domestictradition of university philosophy has its own characteristics, which are retro­spectively indicated in the article. The retrospection emphasizes the context inwhich S.I. Gessen formulated his well-known thesis that pedagogy is an ap­plied philosophy. This thesis is of essential importance for determining therole and place of teaching philosophy for the future teacher training, and alsoremains relevant in the situation of modern diversification of the goals of ped­agogical education. The purpose of teaching philosophy is the propaedeuticsof the development of special courses devoted to modern theories and the ac­tual practice of education. At the same time, the actual practice of educationtakes place in social conditions that transform behavioral and ethical norms,therefore, the goals of teaching philosophy in the context of pedagogical edu­cation include explaining intellectual traditions and the limits of their effective­ness in order to find ways to solve situational problems generated by moderncommunication tools and systems. These situational problems are formed un­der the infl uence of multiple factors, and therefore, to solve them, it is neces­sary to understand the essence of transdisciplinarity. The simultaneous multi­plicity of communications and the variability of their formats in specifi c psy­chological and pedagogical conditions make the modern understanding of theessence of the mediatization phenomenon relevant. Modern requirements foreducation to ensure the training of unique specialists fixes the need for the for­mation of tolerance, which is a condition for the implementation of inclusiveeducation. The listed principles of modern philosophical anthropology andpost-non-classical methodology – tolerance, mediatization, transdisciplinarity,multidimensionality – coincide with those competencies which formation canbe led by the teaching of philosophy.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

Number Three in the Semiotics of Ch.S. Pierse. On the Issue of Triplicity
Sergey Proskurin,  Anna Proskurina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-415-428

The number three refers to an important factor in the construction of the semiotics of Ch. S. Peirce. The number three is a kind of leitmotif of the theory.The whole construction of knowledge rests on primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary, secondary and tertiary are reduced to the three sides of Gottlob Frege’s triangle and appear in a different terminology as representative, object and in­terpretant. These ternary coordinates of thought are its space and embody, in the words of Yu. S. Stepanova, three-dimensional measurement of language.According to Ch. S. Pierce, these coordinates have a teleological meaning. The very concept of Ch. S. Pierce appears as the sum of three trichotomies, which allows twenty-seven combinations of signs, of which seventeen combina­tions are prohibited. Only ten combinations are allowed. The idea of trinity in­volves 310 sign complexes. Some of them are forbidden from the standpoint oflogic. Thus, the index cannot serve as an argument. In the article, this is shown by the seating of subjects at a round table. The subject opposite appears to be on the right, but is actually opposite.

The universality of the trinity appears as a reasoned code of semiotic con­struction. The triadic nature of the concept serves as the basis for constructing the laws of semiosis. Primary is iconic, secondary is indexical, and tertiary is sym­bolic. Questions of trinity arise as implementation of the narrative, when the first is the beginning, the second is the end, and the third is the middle. The concept of three as the middle goes back to ancient art. The paper proposes an individual measurement of the middle as the third element. The counting tradition of the Indo-European peoples and the number of signs of the formula “faith, hope, love” are taken as the basis. The rearrangement of the elements of the formula, when the third in a row − love − occupies the middle second position, goes back to the earliest uses of this formula. This is the original approach to proving the middleness of the third in the tradition of the Indo-European peoples.

Lars von Trier’s Apocalyptic Consciousness in the Anthropology of the House That Jack Did Not Build
Vyacheslav Kon
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-429-454

The subject of the study is the concept of the historical hero as a victor ofthe gods and his role in contemporary Western cultural heritage, with a focus on the reinterpretation of Scandinavian culture in the works of Lars von Trier. The research methodology is based on the analysis of Hollywood’s reception ofneo-European rationalism and the ideas of individualism and free will in Euro­pean culture. The author examines the influence of the implementation of free­dom without morality on the exploration of the idea of the Übermensch (super­man) and discusses unresolved questions in this context. The research findingshighlight the importance of the themes of personal responsibility and freedom in Western culture, as well as the legacy of Scandinavian culture as a source ofthe manifestation of truths. The conclusions of the study emphasize the rele­vance and significance of the discussed issues in the contemporary cultural con­text. The main goal of the research is to identify the consistent stages of Lars von Trier’s apocalyptic consciousness, particularly in the context of resistance to the colonization of art by ontological philosophy and the dominance of Hol­lywood clichés and political sentiments in the film market. This work conducts a methodological investigation into how Lars von Trier applies the philosophy ofimages through cinematography as a tool to separate false and immaculate repre­sentations of the world, with a focus on the problem of sin in his composition. This work methodologically explores this process and analyzes how it interacts with contemporary culture and cinema. In the context of the scientifi c novel­ty of the research, a question arises about Lars von Trier describing himself as a ‘sadistic doctor’ who saves lives but remains, in the eyes of those saved, an an­tichrist and a criminal in the humanistic world and humanity’s defense of a world different from the existing one. The results of this research can be used to study philosophical anthropology in the fi eld of film studies and visual arts, as well as in related social and humanitarian disciplines, to analyze how this theme interacts with culture and society.

The idea of Transfiguration in Russian literature of the 20th century
Irina Kosheleva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-455-468

The article presents the idea of Transfiguration expressed and fixed in the semantic potential of language, sign and symbol as the initial, fundamental idea of Russian literature. The tasks solved in this article were formed under the in­fluence of research in the field of the semantic potential of language, which is revealed to its speakers in specific historical and cultural realities. In particular, the connection between the peculiarities of national consciousness and the lexi­cal meanings of such words that have no direct analogues in other languages (“svet”, “mir”, “pravda”, “volya”), i.e. create very specific meanings that speakers of other languages cannot recognize as such. These meanings form the spiritual foundation of the national character. The analysis of the contextual meanings ofthese words forms the basis of the presented work and leads to the conclusion that they form a semantic unity, including at the level of the idea of the Transfig­uration of man and the world, which is central to Russian culture and literature.

The analysis of the idea of spiritual transformation of man in Russian litera­ture of the XX century is carried out on the basis of representation of seman­tic-semantic models of the artistic worlds of works by I. Shmelev, V. Shukshin,

A. and B. Strugatsky works, including the concepts of the idea of Transfigura­tion. The writers lead their characters through different paths to inner transfor­mation, and the transforming components are always personified. In I. Shmelev’s work, the vector of transformation is formed by the concepts “soul – faith – mir­acle – heart / heart’s look – peace – truth – freedom – light / light / to shine”. In the work of V. Shukshin – “soul – conscience – peace – peacefulness – humil­ity – truth / justice – clarity – light / bright / shine – will / freedom”. In the work of A. and B. Strugatsky – “light / shines / dawn – miracle / miracles – will / will barrier – world / world – hope – truth / half-truth – gift – happiness / happy –soul”. The degree of the hero’s approach to the world, light, truth is different, it is set, among other things, through the quantitative saturation of conceptually significant words in the work and through their correlation with the concepts-antagonists. Thus, an individual vector of movement of the human soul, aspir­ing to the acquisition of new higher meanings, is formed. At the same time, the unifying component for them is the intense inner work, which is continuously conducted by writers and their characters.


Ethnic Identity of Tajik Teenagers Studying in Novosibirsk Schools and Its Relation to Self-Esteem
Marina Chukhrova,  Nikolay Zolotykh
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.1.2-469-481

The article deals with the problem of ethnic identity of Tajik teenagers studying in high schools in Novosibirsk. Special attention is paid to the relation­ship between ethnic identity and self-esteem of Tajik adolescents. Self-esteem can indirectly influence adaptation in society. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time the fusion of ethnic identity with self-esteem was shown in Tajik adolescents, which explains the difficulties of inculturation among them and the tendency to stay closer to their fellow tribesmen.

The study involved Tajik teenagers, citizens of the Russian Federation who speak Russian, aged 15-17 years, high school students of secondary schools in Novosibirsk, (76 people). There are 40 girls and 36 boys among the subjects. To study self-esteem, the “Self-Confidence Test” by G. Romek and the “Self-Confidence Scale” by S. Reizas “RAS” were used. To study ethnic identity, the methodology “Types of Ethnic Identity” by G.U. Soldatova was used, as well as the methodology “Structure of Ethnic Identity” by J. Finney.

It is shown that Tajik teenagers who tend to adequately perceive their ethnic identity, as well as those who tend to place excessive emphasis on ethnic identity, have higher self-confi dence indicators. The ethnic identity of the studied group is quite harmonious. There were direct moderate links between ethno-fanaticism, ethno-isolationism and self-confidence, and ethno-nihilism correlated with self-doubt. It is concluded that the self-confidence and self-esteem of Tajik teenagers is associated with their ethnic identity, which gives them a sense of belonging to ‘their own group’. Their self-confidence depends on being included in a group offellow tribesmen, being an integral part of collectivism. The titular ethnic group, Russians, are not perceived as ‘their own group’. The practical signifi cance is seen in the possibility of using the results obtained in psychocorrective work with Ta­jik adolescents who experience difficulties in psychosocial adaptation in Russia.