The Game as a Cultural Form of Socialization and Inculturation of Russian Youth: History and Modernity (On the Example of Vladivostok)
Vasileva Ekaterina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-470-481
Abstract:

The article is devoted to the game as an important factor in the socialization and inculturation of children and youth. Game activity was considered a tool for the socialization of children in the 19th and 20th centuries. based on the analysis of historical sources, cultural-anthropological and sociological methods. Thanks to the works of such authors as Shangina I.I., Sleptsova I.S., and Bernshtam T.A., a conclusion is made about the role of the game as an important factor in the development of personal characteristics and values of young people of the past. Since ancient times, the game has been of great educational importance, reflecting the mentality, social system and worldview of the Russian people. In traditional Russian games and amusements, certain value orientations were manifested and formed, social ties were strengthened. Based on the historical method, an analysis of the problem of socialization and the transfer of cultural values to modern children and youth is presented in connection with socio-cultural transformations, changes in the forms and ways of transmitting culture. The characteristic features of modern young people are singled out: a tendency to refuse communication, preference for a virtual environment, problems of interaction with others. It also analyzes the environment that becomes the living space of young people, where they live, work, study and have fun, and where their worldview is formed. The purpose of the study was to analyze the significance of the game for today’s youth as a form that ensures the entry of a developing personality into society and culture. A sociological study was conducted among the youth of the city of Vladivostok. The survey involved 1174 people aged 14 to 35 years. On the basis of the conducted sociological research, a conclusion is made about the gaming preferences of today’s youth. The most interesting types of games according to the respondents were identified, the functions of games important for the respondents as a way of spending leisure time were identified. In conclusion, we see that although modern games are not similar to those that people played before, and the ways of socialization have changed, it is important to remember that these are not the main ways of communication and interaction of young people. Therefore, in order to avoid or at least minimize the impact of modern technologies on the process of socialization, it is necessary to increase the degree of attention of parents and educators at all levels of socialization and inculturation of the younger generation.

The Problem of the Perception of the “Tolerance” Concept in the Russian Cultural Space
Bardakov Andrey,  Lomanov Pavel
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-416-430
Abstract:

The article is devoted to the problem of perception of the concept of ‘tolerance’ in modern Russia. The authors point out that in recent years there has been a tradition of persistently ignoring the concept itself and non-acceptance of the basic concepts of tolerance. The authors discuss the relevance of the concept of ‘tolerance’ and the need to revise the established practices of its use. The article discusses 4 main aspects of criticism of the practices of using the concept. The first aspect is connected with the possibility (in conditions of a tolerant attitude to an alien value system) of replacing one’s values with others in culture. This can be destructive for the entire system of culture and society. The second aspect is related to the possible incompatibility of different value systems. The authors propose, within the framework of public discussion, to determine the boundaries and limits in the field of value systems, as well as the possibilities of acceptance and rejection of specific cultural phenomena. The third aspect of criticism is directed at the existing concepts of tolerance, in which it is understood as a purely external tolerant attitude to various manifestations of alien cultural attitudes. The authors emphasize that this approach to tolerance formed the basis of the policy of ‘multiculturalism’, and may have caused its crisis. The authors propose to develop a model of tolerance based on the concept of dialogue developed in Russian cultural thought. The dialogue is not limited only to external communications, but requires the desire to understand the partner in the communication process. The fourth aspect of the criticism of modern concepts of tolerance is aimed at the fact that in the modern communication space attention is paid only to some forms of tolerance (racial, medical, gender, sexual). They are connected, first of all, with individual manifestations of personality. But such forms as religious, intercultural, and political are practically ignored, based on features that represent attitudes learned within the framework of an individual’s social and cultural existence, characterizing them as a representative of a certain community (social, cultural, ethnic, religious).

Anthropological and Axiological Effects of the Spread of Screen Technologies in Culture
Grigoryev Sergey
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-453-469
Abstract:

The main purpose of the research is the analysis of personality and its value attitudes in modern screen culture, the description of the process and conditions of the formation of the anthropological type of “screen man” personality is considered from the standpoint of the existential approach in philosophy, as well as from the standpoint of humanistic psychology. In the study of personality, the author refers to the concept of A. Maslow, which allows us to understand the deep basic needs of the existence of personality in modern screen culture. A hermeneutical analysis of philosophical and anthropological views of A. Maslow and V. Frankl on the phenomenon of personality is undertaken. The author gives a critical assessment of the understanding of personality and its capabilities in modern screen culture. The practical application of philosophical and anthropological ideas of representatives of existentialism to the understanding of personality in modern screen culture is also shown. The research is based on historical-comparative, hermeneutical and dialectical methods.

The Role of a Person in the Formation of the Networks Social Capital
Zayakina Raisa
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.3.1-246-259
Abstract:

When the theory of social capital develops in conjunction with the network approach, it expands ways of understanding the nature of social ties and the principles of social organization. At the same time, it gives rise to many related theoretical and methodological questions. One of them is the role of a person in the formation of social capital. Since social capital is generated within the structure of the relations of subjects and cannot personally belong to any of them, the fundamentals of the theory are the primacy of the group over the individual. Meanwhile, the characteristics of people involved in network relations play a specific role. As favorable conditions for social capital, the article examines a person’s deliberate choice of network behavior, expectations from network contacts, and the measured pace of network life.

Conscious use of strategies aimed at joining social capital involves the selection of ways of networking. The criterion is the replenishment of common resources through cooperation, exchanges, investments in collective assets. Motivated participants in social communication establish mutually beneficial relationships, work with information, and look for opportunities for self-realization in social situations. Personal characteristics can improve the network position, affecting access to resource channels. By determining their usefulness, people focus on common needs, understanding of social contexts, and the increment of the collective good.

Certain expectations from relationships give rise to connections that are filled with appropriate resources. Depending on expectations, ideas about the significance of other people are formed, the circle of contacts is determined, a person is looking for his place in the social network. To get what you expect, you need to remain visible and recognizable. In this way, looking at other people triggers the alignment of network communications, coordinating the flows of social capital. In addition, since it takes time for people to evaluate potential contacts and establish trust, the pace of network processes should maintain network stability, in other words, be moderate.

Theoretical Discourse on the Problem of Socio-Cultural Adaptation of Migrants in the Modern World
Dumnova Elnara,  Mukha Viktoria
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.2.2-380-394
Abstract:

The article presents an analysis of the modern theoretical disputes on the problem of socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the host society. The main trends in the development of both foreign and domestic discourse are considered. In modern humanitaristics, two main trajectories of sociocultural adaptation of migrants have emerged: assimilation and transnationalism, which served as a criterion for structuring the most significant concepts.

 Sociocultural adaptation is a complex multidimensional process and has a singular character, which is reflected in the plurality of its possible scenarios. This is the reason for the research methodology presented by the synergistic and systemic approaches that allow studying various adaptation models of migrants in relation to a “fluid” social environment. The plasticity of modern society caused the nonlinearity of the adaptation process, which makes it difficult to identify patterns and fixed mechanisms of its course. In this regard, the synergetic approach made it possible to study the factors of choosing an adaptation model and the peculiarities of its implementation from the point of view of social consequences explicated at different levels of social organization.

A number of concepts are analyzed to identify exogenous and endogenous factors of the determinants of the adaptation model. These include motivation, type of migration, social expectations of the host community, and the involvement of a migrant in migrant social networks.

The comprehension of sociocultural adaptation is presented in the context of its influence on the process of transformation of the identity of migrants and the formation of new types of identity in the conditions of the recipient society.

The following possible trajectories of the formation of the identity of migrants are distinguished, depending on the choice of the adaptation model:

- firstly, the replacement of the object of identification while maintaining the existing type of identity as a result of the implementation of the assimilation strategy of adaptation. The result of this process is the identification of the migrant with the new culture and society, the feeling of being a part of them;

- secondly, in the case of plans for a short stay in a foreign cultural environment, there is a preservation of the existing identity;

- thirdly, there is a transformation of existing types of identity and the construction of new ones, replacing the previous ones, which reflects the transnational strategy of adaptation.

Religious Extremism as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon: The Problem of the Ontological Boundary
Dolin Vyacheslav
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.2.2-395-410
Abstract:

The subject of the article is the problem of the ontological boundary of religious extremism as a socio-cultural phenomenon. The methodological basis of the research is the non-classical linguistic semantics of Frege – Russell. Within its framework, meaning, concept and sign are distinguished for the subject of thought. This methodology complements the predominance of the activity approach in the research of religious extremism. Such methodological unilateralism creates the illusion of the scholastic nature of the investigated problem, when the scientific result is expected to comment, clarify and systematize the known knowledge about religious extremism. As a result, religious extremism is considered metaphysically as an unchanging phenomenon that has no spatial and temporal boundaries. This research was conducted in two stages. The first one highlights the essential signs of religious extremism. The traditional triad of signs “subjects, sphere of activity, implementation methods” is supplemented by the fourth: “the purpose of activity”. Based on the analysis, religious extremism is defined as extreme actions of religious elements in the political life of society, aimed against the structural elements and ideology of secular society. The article rejects the provisions on uncritical identification with religious extremism of the following social phenomena: violation of national legislation on freedom of conscience and religious associations; religious fanaticism; religious sectarianism; nationalism. At the second stage of the research, the spatial and temporal boundaries of religious extremism are comprehended. Spatially religious extremism is typical for both post-industrial and traditional societies of the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. The article puts forward historical-religious arguments and an argument against the thesis of the timeless nature of the existence of religious extremism. Based on the formation of a secular society on the economic basis of an industrial society since the second half of the XIX century, four factors of the emergence of religious extremism have been identified: secularization of public consciousness; desacralization of power; inversion of violence; limited support. As a result of the conducted research, the metaphysical consideration of religious extremism as an unchangeable phenomenon has been overcome and its conceptual understanding has been deepened.

Life Prospects, Values, and Goals of Siberian Youth (According to Research in the Siberian Federal District)
Skosyreva Nina,  Zinich Alla,  Pomogaev Vitaly,  Razumov Vladimir,  Revyakina Yuliya,  Vasyukova Marina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.2.2-411-428
Abstract:

The article presents the results of a sociological study of the problems of professional and life self-determination of young people in the context of digitalization, one of the goals of which was to identify the ideas of modern youth about life prospects, goals and values. In the course of the study, a survey of young people aged 14–35 years was conducted in ten subjects of the Siberian Federal District. The survey was conducted in October-November 2021.The sample totaled 5,092 males and females representing various social groups: schoolchildren, students of primary vocational education institutions, secondary vocational education institutions, higher educational institutions and working youth. The article provides a comparative analysis of the views of various groups of young people regarding future prospects, goals and values. In the course of studying the issue of future planning horizons, the authors came to the conclusion that modern youth, regardless of which group they belong to, for the most part plan their future from several days to 5 years away. As a result of the study, it was found that the achievement of material well-being and the creation of a family are the most important life goals of students and working youth, while schoolchildren chose education and future professional success as priority goals. Respondents of almost all groups of young people named a high level of intelligence and moral support of relatives as the main factors contributing to the achievement of their goals. The availability of start-up capital is noted as an important success factor by representatives of working youth. The results of the study allow us to conclude that for different social groups of young people, meaningful life values are formed on the basis of different semantic structures, which are based on different combinations of patriotism, nepotism, economic well-being and creative, spiritual realization. The article analyzes the degree of satisfaction with various aspects of the life of modern youth. A high degree of dissatisfaction with certain aspects of life among the category of working youth was noted. A positive trend marked the growing importance of patriotic values and a growing understanding of the importance of developing intellectual abilities, education, and continuous self-development. The study of life prospects in the context of values, goals and meanings is important, as it allows one to assess the direction, motivation and trends of the choices of modern youth.

Reformation: a changing Perception of Marriage
Makarova Nina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.1.2-377-389
Abstract:

The article analyzes the ideas of the great reformers of the 16th century Martin Luther and John Calvin about marriage as the most important social institution. Luther's doctrine of the "earthly institution" of marriage and Calvin's doctrine of the marriage covenant had been shaped under the influence of their criticism of the Roman Catholic Church's position on marriage. Catholics considered marriage to be inferior to celibacy. The Church forbade marriage for monks and priests, and also prevented many lay people from getting married on the basis of prohibitions regarding religion, consanguinity, and guardianship. Since the Church considered marriage to be one of the seven sacraments that imparted grace to spouses and symbolized the mystical union of God and the Church, the marriage union was considered indissoluble. If the spouses were unhappy in their marriage, then they could get permission only for a separate living, but not for divorce. The reformers shifted the emphasis from the sacramentality of marriage to its social significance. They emphasized that marriage is the first institution in terms of importance in comparison with the Church and the state. The institution of matrimony is able to provide an example of relationships based on love, trust and mutual assistance, and the family is not only a means of population reproduction, it educates future citizens and members of the Church. The views of Martin Luther and John Calvin have had a decisive influence on Western European views on marriage, family and parenting.
The article analyzes the ideas of the great reformers of the 16th century Martin Luther and John Calvin about marriage as the most important social institution. Luther's doctrine of the "earthly institution" of marriage and Calvin's doctrine of the marriage covenant had been shaped under the influence of their criticism of the Roman Catholic Church's position on marriage. Catholics considered marriage to be inferior to celibacy. The Church forbade marriage for monks and priests, and also prevented many lay people from getting married on the basis of prohibitions regarding religion, consanguinity, and guardianship. Since the Church considered marriage to be one of the seven sacraments that imparted grace to spouses and symbolized the mystical union of God and the Church, the marriage union was considered indissoluble. If the spouses were unhappy in their marriage, then they could get permission only for a separate living, but not for divorce. The reformers shifted the emphasis from the sacramentality of marriage to its social significance. They emphasized that marriage is the first institution in terms of importance in comparison with the Church and the state. The institution of matrimony is able to provide an example of relationships based on love, trust and mutual assistance, and the family is not only a means of population reproduction, it educates future citizens and members of the Church. The views of Martin Luther and John Calvin have had a decisive influence on Western European views on marriage, family and parenting.

Soviet Woman as an Agent of Government in a Family in the Period of Anti-Alcohol Policy
Bolotova Elena
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.2.2-418-433
Abstract:

The article is devoted to the image of a woman constructed by the government discourse in the early Soviet period. The government’s propaganda imposed the social role of a woman as a social controller in addition to the social role of a worker, a social activist and a mother. In particular, this study is dedicated to the transformation of a female image in the anti-alcohol policy. The author uses content analysis investigating this complex image and the ways of its reflection in the mass literature. The sources of the study were articles showing the editorial Board ideas and “the reader’s letters” published in the “Rabotnitsa” magazine dated from 1925 to 1936, the articles from “Revolution and Culture” magazine dated from 1928 to 1930 and the propaganda brochures.

The study showed that soviet propaganda began to change their messages recipients during realization of “cultural alcohol-drinking program”. This anti-alcohol propaganda turned its attention from the men’s to the women’s audience. The anti-alcohol articles’ characters appeared as innocent victims of their alcoholic husbands. But at the same time the propaganda stressed the idea that women had great potential to fight against alcoholism. Gradually, the woman’s image began to acquire more and more positive features. Often female fates stories evoked compassion and pity or even admiration. Along with this tendency their husbands’ images turned more and more pathetic, helpless and infantile.

The governmental discourse of the 30-s strived to transfer the family responsibility and social control to women considering them to be a reliable support for the propaganda projects implementation. Consequently, the constructed working and mothering woman’s image was enriched with socio-educational and socio-regulating functions. Thus, anti-alcohol propaganda caused the change of the previously existing gender order when a man played a dominant role in a family and put a woman to the priority position implying that she is more conscious than a man.

The Right to Be Let Alone as a Condition for Formalizing Privacy Experience
Chesnokova Lesya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.2.2-434-451
Abstract:

The article discusses the individual’s right to privacy in his/her private space. The right to privacy does not imply complete loneliness and lack of social contacts, but the ability to independently regulate the degree of intimacy and distance in relations with other people. A person as a social being needs both communication and rest from other people in his private space, which provides an opportunity for leisure and personal self-development. One’s own home is closed from the objectivizing gaze of the Other; there is no need to wear a social mask, take into account the opinions of others, be subjected to someone’s assessments. The need for privacy is also due to the bodily nature of man, because according to public regulations, many actions related to body care should be closed to the public.

The degree of need to be outside of society varies in different times and cultures. In the traditional society of the Middle Ages, being alone was regarded as a state of danger, an experience of failure, which was caused by the weakness of state structures that did not provide the individual with protection. With the growth of individualism associated with the strengthening of the state, as well as an increase in the well-being and literacy of the population, the life of the individual becomes more complicated and the need for privacy increases. In modern times, there is a differentiation of home space: there are such types of rooms as a library, a study, a room where a person could indulge in relaxation, thought, or reading alone. For a long time, only wealthy people could afford private space. However, from the second half of the 20th century, such an opportunity arises for the majority of the population of developed countries.

For a modern person, the presence of his private space is a psychological need, the absence of which causes a state of deprivation, anxiety and irritation. Violation of private space is characteristic of totalitarian regimes seeking to exercise total observation and control over an individual. The right to privacy is constitutive of human dignity and is fundamental to the modern concept of personality, its freedom and autonomy.