World economy

Economic Consequences of the Special Military Operation and Western Economic Sanctions
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-259-282

The article considers the short-term, mid-term and long-term economic consequences of the special military operation by the Russian Federation in Ukraine and the impact of Western economic sanctions on the economic development of the Russian Federation from March till June 2022. Despite a short time passed since the beginning of the special operation and the introduction of economic sanctions against Russia, they have already made a serious impact on the Russian economy. There has been a rapid deterioration of many general and sectoral indicators. The slow-down in the investment sector is particularly dangerous in terms of mid-term consequences. The secrecy of much statistical and accounting data, imposed for the first time in the post-Soviet period, can be considered an indirect indicator of the severity of the economic crisis. While assessing the mid-term consequences of the current economic crisis, attention is drawn to the structural weaknesses of the Russian economy that have developed over the past 30 years and to the degradation of material and human capital during this period. The development of the country is compared to the movement of a ship. It is shown that with the current defects, the ship called ‘Russia’ in its current state is not able to withstand the storm caused by the military operation and economic sanctions. The economic, scientific and technical development of the USSR and the Russian Federation over the last 60 years is analyzed in detail. The analysis has shown that during this period almost all most important economic, scientific and technical indicators together with the intellectual potential demonstrated a continuous degradation. Thus, the Russian society and the state are facing the consequences of the mistakes and missed opportunities of the past 60 years. A lot of effort and time are required to overcome the consequences of these mistakes.

Creating a Stable Financial System to Strengthen the Aggregate Power of the State (On the example of China)
Jimin Chi,  Chongyang Zheng,  Haoxiang Tang
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-283-299

The authors have attempted to promote the conceptual views of Wang Yongli, a Chinese academic economist with extensive and authoritative practical experience, to the Russian audience of experts in the international monetary and financial sphere. The theoretical summary of the successful practice of China’s financial industry and the justification of the importance of urgent reform of the international monetary and financial system, presented in Wang Yongli’s book “China’s Choice in the Global Financial Turbulence” became the basis for this article. An informative translation of the book’s fragments dedicated to the reforms of the international monetary system highlights two areas, i.e. social positioning of monetary finance and reform of the international monetary system. The article analyzes the main issues identified as a result of China’s rapid financial development and determines possible ways to solve them. The purpose of financial development is to serve the real economy, and promote economic development for creating greater economic and social value through the examination of the relationship between the real economy and the virtual economy, the relationship between currency finance and real economy. The authors introduce a model of interaction of aggregate power and international influence of the country: the international influence of the country’s currency finances and its status in the international monetary and financial system. An appeal to various concepts explaining the global expansion of the US dollar leads to the conclusion that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) needs a deep reconstruction. A detailed analysis of the history of the formation, management and reform of the IMF is given, revealing its inconsistency with global development trends. The article shows the role of China after the 2008 financial crisis and the significance of the yuan in the currency basket. The study represents the author’s position on the transformation of special drawing rights (SDRs) into a super-sovereign world currency. By highlighting the issues Wang Yongli has foreseen many situations and events that are now taking place in the global monetary and financial system.

Development of Independent Financial Advice to Private Investors: Analysis of Russian and Foreign Experience
Ksenia Dekanova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-300-314

Attracting household finances to the country’s economy and competent management of personal finances are among the tasks of the state. The issues of rational financial planning and minimizing the risks of loss of personal wealth are acute for private investors. Independent Wealth Management Advisory is an intermediary activity between financial institutions and households. Independent advice to private investors is one of the tools in solving the problems of the state and investors’ issues. As a result of the analysis of the activities of an investment adviser in Russia and abroad, using the example of the United States and Great Britain, it was revealed that experience is adopted from other countries, but in Russia it is not fully implemented. In Russia, the main part of independent advisers is in the ‘gray zone’, their activities are not regulated at the level of law and self-regulatory organizations in the financial sector. Therefore, the author’s approach is to propose to separate the activities of investment advisers, which are enshrined in law and independent financial advisers, who currently operate without any regulation. The regulatory and training function for independent financial advisers should be entrusted to SROs. Firstly, separating the activities of independent financial advisors allows them to provide educational services to a wide range of people and the provision of consulting services in private without providing investment recommendations, but with the definition of the risk profile of the investor. Introduce licensing for various types of activities. Secondly, it is key to determine the principles for charging the services of independent financial advisors. The proposed steps will make the provision of independent household financial advisory services transparent and understandable to regulators, investors and those who operate or plan to choose as a future profession. This will serve to attract private capital to the financial market, reduce the risk of loss of wealth, move the existing advisers out of the ‘gray zone’, and make personal finance advisers an integral part of the financial market infrastructure.

Economic theory

Institutional Transformations and Development Projects in the Arctic and the North: Expertise of Human Development Project Examination by Ethnosociologists of the Novosibirsk Scientific Center
Elena Erokhina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-315-336

The article is devoted to the scientific expertise of human development projects in the North in the late Soviet and early post-Soviet periods of the institutional transformation of Russian society. Despite the fact that its official goal was the further development of the Soviet project among the peoples of the North, in essence, the researchers, in alliance with the authorities, searched for a balance between the mobilization (planned) and market strategies for the development of the Arctic and the North. The purpose of the article is to introduce into wide scientific circulation the results of research in the circumpolar zone of the RSFSR, carried out by ethnosociologists of the Novosibirsk Scientific Center (NSC) from 1982 to 1991 and later.

The relevance of this work is brought to life by the desire of the state that emerged in 2010 to use market institutions in the implementation of plans for the development of the polar zone of the Russian Federation. This paper presents materials on the activities of the Regional Interdepartmental Commission for the Coordination of Comprehensive Socio-Economic, Medical, Biological and Linguistic Research on the Problems of the Development of the Peoples of the North, established in 1981 on the basis of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

The tasks and functions of the Commission are described in detail. Among the key issues of its activities were the problems of labor and employment of the peoples of Siberia, the preservation of the traditional economy and native language, mass education and access to social benefits, the development of transport infrastructure and quality housing. Although the focus of the Commission’s work remained the study of the situation of the indigenous peoples of the North and Siberia, these problems were considered in a wide range of issues of developing the national economy, gaining access to the social benefits of late socialism in the paradigm of ‘the flourishing and rapprochement of nations’.

With the liquidation of the Commission in the early post-Soviet period, researchers focused on studying the consequences of radical market reforms in the interethnic communities of the North of Siberia: the archaization of everyday practices, the decline in the living standards of the population, and the revitalization of ethnic self-organization structures. It is concluded that in future ‘northern’ projects, it is necessary to combine the mobilization and market strategies for the development of the Arctic.

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects and Applied Features of Strategic Planning of Regional Tourism Development
Alexander Kovalev,  Elena Tyunyukova,  Natalia Shchetinina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-337-350

The article presents some aspects of the implementation of regional policy in order to enhance the development of regions through the formation of strategies as tools for strategic management of the region. Special emphasis is placed on the specifics of strategic planning of tourism development in a regional context, which is based on a strategic analysis of the current socio-economic situation of the region using social and economic evaluation criteria. The groups are identified and the characteristics of the economic development indicators of the regions are given, the specific characteristics inherent in regional tourism in the context of its strategic planning process are determined. All of the above processes create a new configuration of the spatial development of the country, through the formation of zones of advanced economic growth, including using the sectoral specialization of the regions. At the same time, the competitive advantage of the regions of the South of Russia is determined by the tourist vector of their development as the most promising. The article describes the cycle of strategic planning of regional tourism development, which includes a number of stages: determining the goals of tourism development in the region; analysis of the external and internal environment of the development of the region; development of a concept and development strategy; development of an industry development plan; analysis of efficiency and effectiveness, adjustment of goals and methods to achieve them. The approaches to strategic planning of the development of socio-economic objects from foreign practice are presented, based on a system of indicators that allow an objective assessment of the development of its potential, which are understood as a set of characteristics formalizing the description of the main parameters that provide the choice of the optimal variant of the system functioning at different stages of the strategy implementation. In addition, the normative legal acts of various levels regulating modern socio-economic relations in the tourism sector of the regions are given; macro and micro tools for the development of regional tourism on the example of the Republic of Crimea are defined.

Cost Minimization: Philosophical and Methodological Analysis
Evgeniy Korolkov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-351-368

In modern economic literature, as well as regulatory documents, the concepts of ‘inputs’, ‘expenses’ and ‘costs’ are often used as identical to each other. At the same time, there are differences between them and their incorrect interpretation can lead to incorrect analytical conclusions and, as a result, erroneous conclusions and subsequent losses in the financial and economic activities of a commercial organization.

The problem of the theme in relation to ‘credit costs’ is also reflected in the fact that currently special regulatory documents regulating banking activities, such as     Federal Law “About the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)” and Federal Law “About Banks and Bank Activities” do not contain a decoding of the mentioned concepts of ‘expenses’ or ‘costs’. Moreover, another document that could clarify this issue – the Accounting Regulations “Expenses of the Organization” № 10/99 in paragraph 1 we read: ‘1. This Regulation establishes the rules for the formation in accounting of information on expenses of commercial organizations (except credit and insurance organizations) that are legal entities under the legislation of the Russian Federation.’

In the paper, the author aims to differentiate the concepts of ‘expenses’ and ‘costs’, as well as to clarify and formulate such a concept as ‘credit costs’.

The subjects raised by the author could be interesting for external investors, specialists of internal services of a commercial bank analyzing the effectiveness of a credit institution and, of course, the top management of the bank, most interested in both the profitability of its own investments and the formation of further policy of the bank led by them.

The theoretical significance of the study lies in the consideration of different approaches to the concept of ‘costs’, the definition of banking instruments that affect the amount of credit costs, their systematization and the allocation of those that, according to the author, can be optimized without reducing the profitability of the credit organization. The concept of ‘credit costs’ is systematized.

Theory and history of culture

In Search of the Limits of Music: What Is the Invariant of Musical Art?
Konstantin Kurlenya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-369-385

The article discusses the methods of constructing an invariant in musical art. The problem of the invariant in its final form is formulated as the problem of the limits of music. The answer to the question “what is music?” requires the formulation of its invariable properties, which are preserved in any form of acoustic realization of a musical concept. The comparison of three influential models of the invariant of music presented in the works of E. Kurt, G. Schenker and Yu.N. Kholopov allows us to draw a conclusion about a unified method for constructing the invariant of music. It is based on the idea of ​​primary energy, which reveals itself in the course of the embodiment of an artistic conception and appears to us through the acoustic realization of a piece of music. Invariant properties permeate the structure of the musical fabric and then ascend to the most important principles of musical expressiveness, which allow the very possibility of perceiving music as a meaningful sound, in contrast to acoustic phenomena of a different origin. Therefore, the construction of the invariant of musical art requires taking into account its features at hierarchically correlated large-scale levels of organization of musical creativity, perception and thinking. This requirement remains the most general and conventional, uniting strategies for finding an invariant even in those cases when they try to search for the area of ​​limiting invariant properties in various existential and conceptual spheres.

The Culture of Peter the Great’s Era in Terms of Concept Art
Nikita Venkov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-386-400

The era of Peter the Great was a time of fundamental changes. New reforms and orders were very unfamiliar to Russians, which is why the new Russian state required comprehensive means of glorification of new cultural and political reforms. Planning of new architecture, urban space and composition in pieces of fine art were based on a system of concepts: the concept of glorification of battles and wars won by the Russian army and navy, introducing European traditions in fine arts, introducing the Table of Ranks for service, and bringing European science to Russia. In other words, the creation of art, architecture and country residences was not random. The glorification of new reforms in Russia was the basis for new art. Conceptuality as a basic element of creative culture was founded in the beginning of the XVIII century. It determined the evolution of fine arts for the next several centuries. This is the reason why analysis of architecture and fine arts in the culture of Peter the Great’s era in terms of conceptual art is important. In conceptual art the conception is crucial, not the form.

Many prints were made in the first quarter of the XVIII century, dedicated to military victories and the new flourishing city: Saint-Petersburg. These prints were created by invited artists from Europe (A. Schoonebeek, P. Picart) and their Russian apprentices (A. Zubov and I. Zubov). J. Tannauer, L. Caravaque and G. Gzel created conceptual paintings dedicated to Peter the Great’s deeds. The “Petrine Baroque” style of architecture and regular urban planning has determined the evolution of Saint-Petersburg as a European city.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

Narcissism: Variations on a Theme (To the Results of the Discussion)
Petr Orekhovsky,  Vladimir Razumov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-401-415

The article is an attempt to generalize the results of the discussion that was held on the pages of this journal after the publication of the article [9] on its pages. In total, 11 authors participated in the discussion, published in the journal “Ideas and Ideals”. Summing up the discussion, we note that narcissism is interesting as a topic of interdisciplinary research and discussions. The available materials allow us to conclude that either the phenomenon of narcissism itself or its reflection by specialists are at the initial stage of formation. The published articles allow us to conclude that different groups of authors interpret both culture itself and the modern phenomenon of narcissism in different ways. The understanding of culture as a set of practices used by P.A. Orekhovsky and V.I. Razumov, is shared by N.I. Martishina, V.A. Skorev, Yu.Yu. Pershin, G.A. Illarionov, V.I. Kudashov. The approach to culture as a metasystem is typical for the works of A.G. Teslinova and L.Yu. Logunova. A variant of culture as a feature of cognition was proposed by O.V. Khlebnikova (“conceptual” and “clip” thinking), a variant of distinguishing socialist and capitalist (“necrophilic”) culture is used by S.M. Zhuravleva. Thus, narcissism is considered in very different contexts, which makes it difficult to understand it and makes, in fact, impossible to develop a conventional attitude towards practices implemented in politics, science, and education. It is appropriate to refer to the following discussions of the theory and practice of narcissism with the topic of the relationship of narcissism with religiosity. From a prognostic perspective, it is interesting to look at the prospects for links between narcissism and the future of postmodernism and the mass consumer society. According to P.A. Orekhovsky and V.I. Razumov, if we consider the discussion that took place as an experiment in the indication of scientific rhetoric, then its results convincingly testify both to the fruitfulness of the concept of narcissism and to the legitimacy of concern for the preservation of the universe of previous practices and conventions. The lack of clarity in the understanding of narcissism indicates that this phenomenon is just beginning to attract the attention of specialists.

Philosophical analysis of the Language

On Reference of Proper Names: Descriptive and Causal Approaches
Elizaveta Speshilova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-416-430

The article considers the semantics of proper names in the context of analytical philosophy. The author classifies and analyzes the existing approaches to the issue of proper names reference (the descriptive theory of reference and the direct reference theory) and also reveals the points of their mutual intersection. After briefly defining the main theses of descriptive theory, the author proposes to distinguish its strong version from the weak one. According to the strong version, presented primarily by the works of G. Frege and B. Russell, the name, in fact, is a disguised description (or conjunction of descriptions), while, according to the weak version, dating back to the works of J. Searle, a name is associated with a complex disjunction of descriptions. In both the first and second cases, it is the descriptions that specify the denotation of the name; in other words, the name indicates the object only indirectly. However, this approach, at least, does not take into account the possibility of naming an object using a ‘false’ description, that is, a description that specifies the characteristic(s) to which the object does not correspond. The semantics of proper names is interpreted in a fundamentally different way in direct reference theory, according to which names are labels for objects. The reference of the name in this case is determined either with the help of a causal chain of communication (S. Kripke), or with the help of a historical explanation of the relationship between the one who uses the name and the singular object that is designated by that name (K. Donnellan). The name itself is understood as a rigid designator, directly and strictly pointing to the same object in any factual or counterfactual situation. This approach allows us to show how, for example, it is possible to use an incorrect description to refer to a certain subject. The comparative study of these theories made it possible to discover the presence of causal aspects in the descriptive theory of reference and the significance of descriptive characteristics in the direct reference theory, and thereby more accurately describe the semantics of proper names.


The Problem of the Perception of the “Tolerance” Concept in the Russian Cultural Space
Andrey Bardakov,  Pavel Lomanov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-431-452

The article is devoted to the problem of perception of the concept of ‘tolerance’ in modern Russia. The authors point out that in recent years there has been a tradition of persistently ignoring the concept itself and non-acceptance of the basic concepts of tolerance. The authors discuss the relevance of the concept of ‘tolerance’ and the need to revise the established practices of its use. The article discusses 4 main aspects of criticism of the practices of using the concept. The first aspect is connected with the possibility (in conditions of a tolerant attitude to an alien value system) of replacing one’s values with others in culture. This can be destructive for the entire system of culture and society. The second aspect is related to the possible incompatibility of different value systems. The authors propose, within the framework of public discussion, to determine the boundaries and limits in the field of value systems, as well as the possibilities of acceptance and rejection of specific cultural phenomena. The third aspect of criticism is directed at the existing concepts of tolerance, in which it is understood as a purely external tolerant attitude to various manifestations of alien cultural attitudes. The authors emphasize that this approach to tolerance formed the basis of the policy of ‘multiculturalism’, and may have caused its crisis. The authors propose to develop a model of tolerance based on the concept of dialogue developed in Russian cultural thought. The dialogue is not limited only to external communications, but requires the desire to understand the partner in the communication process. The fourth aspect of the criticism of modern concepts of tolerance is aimed at the fact that in the modern communication space attention is paid only to some forms of tolerance (racial, medical, gender, sexual). They are connected, first of all, with individual manifestations of personality. But such forms as religious, intercultural, and political are practically ignored, based on features that represent attitudes learned within the framework of an individual’s social and cultural existence, characterizing them as a representative of a certain community (social, cultural, ethnic, religious).

Anthropological and Axiological Effects of the Spread of Screen Technologies in Culture
Sergey Grigoryev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-453-469

The main purpose of the research is the analysis of personality and its value attitudes in modern screen culture, the description of the process and conditions of the formation of the anthropological type of “screen man” personality is considered from the standpoint of the existential approach in philosophy, as well as from the standpoint of humanistic psychology. In the study of personality, the author refers to the concept of A. Maslow, which allows us to understand the deep basic needs of the existence of personality in modern screen culture. A hermeneutical analysis of philosophical and anthropological views of A. Maslow and V. Frankl on the phenomenon of personality is undertaken. The author gives a critical assessment of the understanding of personality and its capabilities in modern screen culture. The practical application of philosophical and anthropological ideas of representatives of existentialism to the understanding of personality in modern screen culture is also shown. The research is based on historical-comparative, hermeneutical and dialectical methods.

The Game as a Cultural Form of Socialization and Inculturation of Russian Youth: History and Modernity (On the Example of Vladivostok)
Ekaterina Vasileva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.4.2-470-481

The article is devoted to the game as an important factor in the socialization and inculturation of children and youth. Game activity was considered a tool for the socialization of children in the 19th and 20th centuries. based on the analysis of historical sources, cultural-anthropological and sociological methods. Thanks to the works of such authors as Shangina I.I., Sleptsova I.S., and Bernshtam T.A., a conclusion is made about the role of the game as an important factor in the development of personal characteristics and values of young people of the past. Since ancient times, the game has been of great educational importance, reflecting the mentality, social system and worldview of the Russian people. In traditional Russian games and amusements, certain value orientations were manifested and formed, social ties were strengthened. Based on the historical method, an analysis of the problem of socialization and the transfer of cultural values to modern children and youth is presented in connection with socio-cultural transformations, changes in the forms and ways of transmitting culture. The characteristic features of modern young people are singled out: a tendency to refuse communication, preference for a virtual environment, problems of interaction with others. It also analyzes the environment that becomes the living space of young people, where they live, work, study and have fun, and where their worldview is formed. The purpose of the study was to analyze the significance of the game for today’s youth as a form that ensures the entry of a developing personality into society and culture. A sociological study was conducted among the youth of the city of Vladivostok. The survey involved 1174 people aged 14 to 35 years. On the basis of the conducted sociological research, a conclusion is made about the gaming preferences of today’s youth. The most interesting types of games according to the respondents were identified, the functions of games important for the respondents as a way of spending leisure time were identified. In conclusion, we see that although modern games are not similar to those that people played before, and the ways of socialization have changed, it is important to remember that these are not the main ways of communication and interaction of young people. Therefore, in order to avoid or at least minimize the impact of modern technologies on the process of socialization, it is necessary to increase the degree of attention of parents and educators at all levels of socialization and inculturation of the younger generation.