Geography of Rationality

On the Commensurability of the Incommensurable
Irina Gerasimova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-11-33

Today the world lives in a unique historical situation. There are transformations of earthly space and time on the way of collecting numerous tempo worlds of ethnic groups and cultures. The global crisis and environmental catastrophic risks are relentlessly forcing people to unite to solve common problems. Thoughtless attitude to the biosphere, waste of the planet's resources, pollution of the environment are menacing symptoms of the threat of self-destruction of mankind. Only the unification of peoples and an unshakable sense of geosolidarity can resist. The support in the confrontation between technologization and aggressive geopolitics is seen in traditionalism, in the spiritual origins of the traditions of different peoples. The study of non-Western philosophies, attempts to penetrate cultures with different ethnic codes form multiple new trends in the world intellectual space of philosophy. For epistemology, the dialogue of cultures has given rise to a number of methodological problems. What can be the criteria for comparative studies if incommensurable conceptual systems and different worldviews are compared? Science, focused on the knowledge of the external world, relies on intelligence or "embodied consciousness." The empirical mind as an analyzer of feelings in the Indian tradition is not considered independent. The article discusses correlations in the methodological strategies of spiritual thought in the Indian and Old Russian traditions, as well as correlations with the methodologies of non-classical science. The author shows that any abilities in hierarchical ontologies with extreme levels can be thought of only as a part of the whole. Integrity at the ultimate ontological level potentially contains the qualities of subsequent differentiation (emanates). The concept of the mind as dependent is characteristic of spiritual practices, which can be seen in the texts of the Explanatory Palaia and texts of Indian teachings. Comparative analysis of the problem of the nature of intelligence is of interest in connection with discussions on artificial intelligence. An obstacle to the perception of holistic methodologies is the dualistic language in the European tradition (opposition of matter and consciousness, matter and spirit, brain and consciousness). The criteria for the commensurability of different cultural-semiotic systems are developed in the course of the dialogue of cultures.

The Concept of Stratagem Truth in Traditional Chinese Thought
Andrey Krushinskiy
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-34-49

On the basis of early Chinese philosophical texts, the legitimacy of introducing the concept of stratagem truth is demonstrated; it explicates the archaic non-verbal fundamental principle of the correspondence theory of truth that dominates modern Western culture. Such an understanding of truth is the initial intuition for a number of great civilizations of antiquity (for example, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese). The fact is that truth, taken in its original preverbal context, is far from being exhausted exclusively by the semantic relation of a linguistic expression to the extralinguistic reality corresponding to it. Truth has here not an epistemological, but an ontological sense of “authenticity” (in particular, the “authenticity” of some being).

Thus, the category of Tao, which occupies a central place in Chinese philosophical thought, indicates, first of all, the true way of being of a particular entity, aimed at revealing the “truth” of this entity. Since such a truth unfolds in time, it comes out only historically, in the course of the interaction of forces that oppose or cooperate with each other. In traditional Chinese society, this rivalry/cooperation is by all means regulated by the corresponding rituals. In the system of such ritualized practices of discovering the truth, truthful speech is not just a simple statement of some fact - after all, it does not so much reveal what has already happened, but it starts the process of putting into practice what was said - the realization of the previously declared truth.

As the allegorical story of “Mr. He’s Jade”, which is a classic example of such a dynamic understanding of the statement of truth, shows, such an institution of truth can be a severe test for its founder. It may require the utmost effort from him, and sometimes expose him to serious risks. In addition, success in realizing the declared truth requires considerable ingenuity: due to the lack of a uniform method of “reinforcing words with deeds”, one has to take the risk of experimenting with different behavioral strategies each time.

Thus, essentialism, which distinguishes the “classical” for modern Western European thought concept of timeless truth independent of man, is opposed by the ancient procedural-event understanding of truth as a kind of “side effect” of following one or another specific Tao, where the emergence of truth has the ontological status of an occurring event, but not eternally abiding being. In the case of the human Tao, the effect of truth reveals itself in the climactic ‘moment of truth’ - the final point of success or failure of the chosen strategy/stratagem.

Chinese Epistemic Culture on the Example of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Natalya Pushkarskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-50-67

The article examines the main features of the epistemic culture of Ancient China and designates its place in the modern theory of knowledge. The author shows a close connection between the method of cognition and the holistic worldview expressed by the proto-categorical conceptual constructions yin - yang 阴阳 (two fundamental opposites), san cai 三才 (heaven - man - earth) and wu xing 五行 (five forces: water - fire - wood - metal - soil). The interrelation between the strategy of cognition and the general socio-cultural paradigm can be most clearly traced on the example of the phenomenon of traditional Chinese medicine.

The treatise “Huangdi Neijing” “The Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor” («黄帝内»), the earliest surviving text on ancient Chinese medicine, is used as the primary source. The content of this treatise is the origin of all medical theories and practices that exist in China.

Referring to the text “Huangdi Neijing”, the author demonstrates the influence of basic classifications on the theoretical and methodological foundation of traditional Chinese medicine. The binary classification, represented by the interaction and interdependence of the two opposites yin and yang, is the basis of the main principle of treatment in Chinese medical practice; the treatment with the opposite. The trinary classification, the unity of heaven, earth and man is reflected in the idea of the three levels of the human body (upper, middle and lower). The quinary classification expands the field of interaction of the binary conceptual construction, involving the five internal organs wu zang , functioning within the framework of the general processes of mutual overcoming of xiang ke 相克 and mutual generation of xiang sheng 生生.

Additionally, the article attempts to answer the question concerning the reason for the popularity of natural medicine in the modern world, and to identify the prospect of its use.

Philosophy: Tradition and Modernity

System’s Simulacrum and System Inversions
Dmitry Sevostyanov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-68-81

The article deals with one of the particular applications of the concept of simulacrum. The article also shows under which circumstances there was a need to use the concept of simulacrum. In this case, the simulacrum is presented as a form of simplified and distorted perception of system objects. The main form of a system organization is a hierarchy. Hierarchical systems have the property of forming inverse relationships. Inversion occurs when a subordinate element of the hierarchy acquires dominant properties in it, but does not move to a higher position. This relationship is possible because there are several organizational principles in the system, and these principles collide with each other. A distorted perception of hierarchical systems occurs when inverse relationships are ignored. As a result, an image of the system is formed that is distant from reality (simulacrum). Over time, this image becomes less realistic, as changes occur in the real system caused by the development of inversions. Inversions are the cause of intra-system dynamics; they can lead a system object to decay and destruction. They also, under certain circumstances, contribute to the self-development of the system. However, if we consider only the simulacrum of this system, this ability to self-destruct remains unnoticed. The system’s ability to develop itself remains unrecognized. This concept has become relevant as a result of inversion in the hierarchical system of human activity. The subordinate level of activity that is responsible for subject actions comes to the fore because of the increasingly technical aspects of human activity. The highest, symbolic level of activity moves to a subordinate position. The activity level responsible for subject actions also operates with signs and is responsible for using language as a sign system. Hence, there comes the need for the concept of simulacrum, which is the signifier without the signified.

On the Concept of Correlationism: Meillassoux Q., Harman G., Brassier R.
Igor Devaykin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-82-99

Speculative realism is often associated with a group of thinkers who have consciously united around the idea of fighting a common enemy – correlationism. The article substantiates the thesis that there is no agreement among speculative realists both about correlationism and the ways to overcome it. Based on the works of Meillassoux, Harman and Brassier, the author demonstrates that their interpretations of correlationism and programs for its refutation are incompatible. It is suggested that the result of such incongruence of the concept of correlationism is the conviction of the philosophers of this direction in correlationism of each other.

The author considers Meillassoux’s concept of the “Era of Correlation”. From the point of view of Brassier, Meillassoux fails to substantiate the anti-correlationist thesis that human thinking is capable of cognizing non-subjective being. Rather, on the contrary, Meillassoux once again subordinates this being to thinking, and therefore remains a correlationist. Harman also accuses Meillassoux of correlationism for anthropocentrism.

The author also clarifies Harman’s concept of the “philosophy of access”. It is established that the concepts of correlationism in the interpretation of Harman and Meillassoux cannot be completely compatible. It is revealed that Harman remains a philosopher of the era of correlation for Meillassoux, because, firstly, he illegitimately attributes human characteristics to non-human beings. Secondly, it does not accept the correlationist argument of the circle and preserves the Kantian metaphysical dichotomy of the noumenal/phenomenal. Brassier also considers Harman a correlationist, since he ontologically equates natural science knowledge and scientific rationality with other types of knowledge.

The paper reveals the main features of correlationism in the interpretation of Brassier. It is established that for Meillassoux, the Brassier approach is correlationist on the same basis as the Harman approach. Harman, in turn, considers Brassier as a correlationist, since the latter postulates various ontological taxonomies, the most obvious among which are the priority of scientific rationality and anthropocentrism. According to the results of the work done, it is once again emphasized that speculative realists are by no means united in their understanding of correlationism and ways to overthrow this philosophical program.

Dreaming Man in the Phenomenology of Madness by Michel Foucault
Olga Tsvetkova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-100-116

The article analyzes the development of the ideas of Ludwig Binswanger in the early works of Michel Foucault. The transformation of the basic concepts of Dasein-analysis by M. Foucault leads him to the idea of ​​a human as a dreamer being, and a dream as a way of understanding the ontological foundations of human existence. The article reveals M. Foucault’s idea of ​​the predominance of dreaming activity over conscious, rational and reasonable human activity. The article analyzes ​​M. Foucaults idea about the essence of madness, presented in his early phenomenological works. He notes the inadequacy of interpreting the meaning of dream images, as psychoanalysis does, it is necessary to consider a dream as a pure potentiality of being, which is constructed into normal or pathological worlds. The article considers the influence of the works of L. Binswanger and S. Freud on the ideas of M. Foucault. Z. Freud was one of the first to open a dialogue with madness. He drew attention to the fact that dreams have meaning and reflect an unconscious part of a person’s mental life. Following him, the Swiss psychiatrist Ludwig Binswanger proposed the Dasein-analysis method for understanding the pathological world of the mentally ill, based on the ideas of M. Heidegger’s ontology, E. Husserl’s phenomenology and Z. Freud’s psychoanalysis. From this moment, madness becomes the subject of research in existential psychology, phenomenological psychiatry and philosophical anthropology. In modern philosophy, madness is often viewed as a trait that distinguishes humans from animals, the problem of madness is compared with the problem of reality. The article notes the inadequacy of a positivist psychiatric approach for understanding madness. The article also highlights the importance of studying the problem of madness for a more holistic understanding of the human phenomenon, socio-cultural processes, where it often becomes difficult to draw a line of demarcation between norm and pathology. The article shows how L. Binswanger’s ideas about dreams developed by M. Foucault are continued in the works of modern Russian philosophers who study the phenomenon of madness.

Two Theories оf Open Rationality
Alexandra Elbakyan
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-117-129

 Rationality is one of the key and most controversial topics of modern philosophy that gave rise to many different approaches. In this article I explore two original approaches to rationality, which are based on the connection between rationality and openness. I analyze key differences and similarities between two theories. The approach taken by Vladimir Shvyrev in his work “Rationality as a Cultural Value” differentiates between open and closed rationality. Open rationality is able to reconsider and to creatively develop its own presuppositions, while closed rationality always works within a fixed predefined scheme. But only in the case of openness rationality is exercised to its full extent, while closedness in its absolute form leads to the destruction of rationality. This approach is contrasted to Adin Steinsaltz’s theory of open and closed knowledge, presented in his work “Sociology of Ignorance”. According to this approach, rational or open knowledge is also based upon continuous examination of its own criteria. Both authors understand ‘open’ and ‘closed’ as ideal types that do not exist in reality in their pure form. They both agree that rationality or openness was first developed in ancient Greek culture, but blossomed only in the Enlightenment; openness is also connected to the development of trade. However Steinsaltz argues that the ideal of open knowledge was also developed in the ancient Hebrew culture in parallel to ancient Greek. The key difference between the two approaches is that they conceive openness very differently: according to Shvyrev, openness is a continuous change and development of knowledge, while Steinsaltz understands openness as open access to knowledge for every person. Despite such a stark difference, the two approaches are very similar in other respects. Theories of open rationality today are especially relevant because of the development of open science.

Social philosophy

The Russian State We Have Not Built (Structural and Industrial Analysis)
Grigory Govorukhin,  Viktoriya Kim,  Olga Dudchenko
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-130-148

The article considers the state as a social institution, historical formation and political system. The crisis of modern states that have to deal with the problem of the pandemic, building up a new system of social relations between the state and the society is a starting point for the current analysis. The authors focus on Russia before and after the pandemic. Social and political processes of the post-Soviet state are in the center of investigation too. The authors also touch upon the question of a political entity created on the territory of post-Soviet Russia, which is the state nominally but not objectively. The authors use a comparative-historical analysis appealing to the history of the West European states of the period of the Roman Empire disintegration as well as barbarian kingdoms creation. Analyzing post-Soviet Russia the authors draw some parallels with Kiev Russ. They also suggest a structural and industrial model of the state formation in order to analyze the modern Russian state: one of the social structures of the former state became a determinant and dominating factor, and that is not territory, though it is more customary to think so. The super union appeared on the post-Soviet territory as the result of some political processes. One more aspect of the analysis is the investigation of the elite, i. e. clientele, its purposes and opportunities, as well as the correlation of the elite and bureaucracy in the Russian society. The investigation of the state management mechanisms is completed with the social reaction analysis, feedback on the social changes performed. The authors present the results of sociological investigations of the Khabarovskiy Kray population. In the conclusion, the authors say that the pandemic revealed and made stronger some social tendencies in building a structural and industrial state manifesting social conflicts between power and society.

Confucius against Covid (Some Aspects of Chinese Experience in Dealing with a Pandemic)
Sergey Komissarov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-149-162

From the end of 2019 to the present day, the world lives in a constant confrontation with the epidemic caused by coronavirus infection. The first country to experience COVID-19 attack was China. The data on the number of cases and deaths from this disease are tens, and sometimes hundreds of times less than in most developed countries, especially if we take into account the huge population of the PRC. During 2021, mortality caused by coronavirus remains practically zero, and the number of cases per day varies from a few persons to two dozen, and they always came from abroad. To achieve this, it required mobilization of all medical and administrative resources on the part of the authorities, as well as the observance of discipline and complete loyalty to the activities carried out on the part of the population. Many observers – journalists and then scientists – suggested that moral values articulated within the framework of Confucian ideology should be singled out among the factors that contributed to the establishment of control over the epidemic. Not all specialists agree with this approach. But it seems to us quite justified, since a similar picture can be observed in those countries of East and Southeast Asia, whose civilization was formed under the strong influence of Confucianism. Among the socio-cultural factors contributing to the successful fight against COVID-19 and its consequences, one can also name the active use of the methods of traditional Chinese medicine, especially Qigong and Taijiquan complexes. We suppose the Chinese experience in this sphere could be useful for other nations.

Shadow Campaigning in American Politics
Irina Zhezhko-Braun
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-163-193

Participants in the shadow 2020 presidential campaign openly admitted to forming a secret conspiracy alliance against candidate Trump and funding actions that violate existing electoral laws. The author analyzes the term «shadow campaign«, as well as the real goals of the shadow campaign of 2020. The article shows that the Democratic Party is gradually losing significant segments of its social base and is taking extraordinary measures to win the support of new population groups, in particular «the new American majority«. A third political force, distinct from the two leading parties, has realized that the Democrats can win elections only by seizing control over the electoral process and reformatting their electorate. A third political force has assumed a mandate to correct the electoral system under the pretext of saving democracy. In the context of the epidemic, the shadow campaign of 2020 with money from private business has imposed new rules and methods of work in the election campaign with money from private capital. There was actually an act of privatization of elections by big business. The article analyzes, using the example of the state of Wisconsin, a number of actions of the shadow campaign that went beyond the framework of the current electoral laws. The Wisconsin case study shows that left-wing organizations have carried out a historically unprecedented takeover of county election commissions by activists from nominally non-partisan but overtly ideological organizations in key counties amid the chaos caused by the abrupt shift to absentee voting. The mechanism of the destructive influence of oligarchs and activists on the institution of elections in Wisconsin is described: the issuance of grants under the conditions of changing the rules of elections, party bias in the issuance of private grants, the weakening of the system of control over the quality of voting, the infiltration of election commissions by political activists, the admission to vote of persons who do not have the right to vote. The shadow campaign was operating to seize control over the elections, but this has nothing to do with saving democracy.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

Narcissistic Culture and Where to Find It
Natalya Martishina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-194-213

The article contains a response to the previously published (Ideas and Ideals, 2021, vol. 13, iss. 3, pt. 1, pp. 84–102.) article by P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov “The Onset of Narcissistic Culture: Consequences for Education, Science and Politics”. The author considers that the definition of culture as a narcissistic is an effective metaphor that allows to conceptualize a general tendency that now manifests itself in a number of outwardly disparate phenomena. The ethos of modern culture is the self-centeredness of its representatives, the organization and assessment of reality in relation to this center as a natural attitude. The article suggests some of the possible directions for the development of the concept. The foundations of narcissistic culture go back to the demassification of production and devaluation of objective knowledge in information dynamics. The author traces the connection between the spirit of narcissistic culture and the development of subject-practical knowledge (systematized and didactically formalized experience) as a special epistemic type and a kind of alternative to classical scientific knowledge. The article indicates the problems associated with the parallel functioning of two types of knowledge in the educational system. Another natural consequence of the onset of narcissistic culture is radical formalization of the education system, since demonstration and positioning in this type of culture are more important in comparison with the real content. In this regard, the author notes an increasing gap between the circulation of information in communication flows and the achievement of the knowledge by their participants. The generic sign of knowledge is consistency, which, among other things, involves the establishment of meaningful relationships between areas of knowledge that form both the general and professional picture of the world. Constant transformation of the organizational framework of education, controlled by formal signs, destroys, firstly, these relationships. In addition, the author evaluates pseudo-scientific knowledge as one of the manifestations of narcissistic culture. The traditional foundation of the pseudo-science is an intermediate level of education, which connects a reverence towards science with an inability to assess the content of scientific ideas. This foundation is complemented in a narcissistic culture by a general belief in the justification of any views and the sufficiency of one’s own opinion in any case. At the same time, the narcissistic culture has its own resources for growth, and the author sees the opportunity to use them, including the educational practice.

Narcissistic Culture in Action: Power, Society, Security, Self-Determination
Vasily Skorev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-214-229

A response to the article by P.A. Orekhovsky and V.I. Razumov “The Onset of Narcissistic Culture: Consequences for Education, Science and Politics” is proposed. Agreeing with the theses of this article, the author offers a look at the problems posed from the standpoint of institutional and communication approaches. This approach seems methodologically justified and no less relevant, since the problems posed require a deeper explanation. It is shown that narcissism as a special cultural phenomenon is not only a factor external to the subjects, but is also a factor affecting class and group interests. Narcissistic culture should not be recognized as an object of manipulation, since it decisively affects state institutions, as well as social, economic, political and spiritual spheres. The ability of any cultural phenomenon to orient the state towards a person and his spiritual development is also expressed in the possibility of disorientation. It is proposed to consider narcissistic culture as a result of the influence of the theory of separation of powers introduced into the domestic state-building, which does not always contribute to the preservation of the state’s right to identity, dissimilarity and originality. The choice of such a principle of state development can be explained by the aesthetic ideal and the desire for beauty and perfection. At the same time, ignoring the influence of narcissistic culture on the relations of executive, legislative and judicial functions of state power, it is impossible to determine the state of group and class interests and the ways of further development of the state, security of its citizens. The influence of narcissistic culture on the activities of state institutions and authorities does not contribute to their consolidation and unification to solve current problems and ensure the real public interests of modern society and each of its members. The culture of narcissism, being a complex social phenomenon, has affected almost all spheres of human existence; from the psychological foundations of intimate relationships to the philosophical understanding of the structure of society. Personalization, narcissism, and the experience of inner emptiness are accompanied by depression, cruelty, indifference, lack of mercy and reverence for the world around them. The connection between narcissism and the materialization of thinking, the influence of the philosophy of science and technology on interference in human nature and its habitat is substantiated. The ways of getting out of narcissistic captivity and filling the deficit of a favorable attitude to oneself are proposed. The author concludes that youth, one of the properties of narcissistic culture, is a strong external factor capable of restoring the ability to live objectively here and now.

Narcissism оr Necrophilia?
Svetlana Zhuravleva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.1-230-244


The subject of this article is the concepts, method and cultural theses contained in the article by Orekhovsky P.A., Razumov V.I. “The Onset of Narcissistic Culture: Consequences for Education, Science, Politics”, published in the 13th volume of the journal “Ideas and Ideals” (No. 3, Part 1, 2021). The authors’ arbitrary use of the basic concepts of ‘high’ culture and ‘narcissistic’ culture is shown. The philosophical methodology in the article is basically absent and replaced by a kind of ‘cultural method’, the essence of which is similar to a postmodern game of concepts, where everything is connected with everything and can be explained as the author pleases.

The main statements of the authors are subjected to critical analysis, namely:

1) the criterion of ‘high’ culture is recognition by the majority of humanity;

2) the mass culture of the twentieth century, contrary to the criticism of philosophers, is a high culture;

3) organization of life and leisure in an industrial capitalist society is an example of a rational organization of life;

4) the service of the spiritual production institutions to the people is an ordinary, banal factor of mass culture in general (including Western);

5) in modern culture there has been an ‘epochal shift’ towards social narcissism;

6) individualism in entrepreneurship, the destruction of classical standards of hierarchy and discipline in education, the transformation of politics into a theater with the support of the ‘silent majority’ and the absence of protest moods, the popularity of a healthy lifestyle are signs of an inevitably narcissistic culture;

7) ‘cultural (or social) narcissism’ can be ‘healthy’.

In conclusion, the thesis is substantiated that a more accurate psychoanalytic definition of the social trends of modern culture will not be narcissism, but necrophilia, which manifests itself in the preference of the dead, soulless and mechanistic, orderly - to all living, rampantly growing, disordered and uncontrolled.