In the article the author differentiates the concepts of technique and technology. He identifies four stages of the technique’s development. The first stage is “experimental technique”, which is characterized by magical conceptualization, the second - engineering (rational conceptualization), the third - design, the fourth - technology. Technique is characterized by five features: 1) technique means artifacts, 2) it can be viewed as a “social body” of an individual or society; 3) technique is a method of using the forces of nature; 4) the form of awareness; and finally, 5) it is mediation in the form of tools, machines and material environment, which makes it possible to realize the plans of a man. The author states that conceptualization of technology is an essential characteristic of its concept. If, for example, scholars write about Neolithic technology or the era of construction of the Egyptian pyramids, then it is just a retrospective interpretation, from the point of view of modern understanding of technology. It has sense, for example, when it is necessary to clarify the prerequisites for the development of technology, but in terms of thinking creates problems and contradictions. The author claims that technology develops in the second half of the 18th century as a new reality that describes industrial activities in the language of operations and their conditions - the division of labor, management. Simultaneously, the technology is characterized by the quality, economy, and standardization directives; rational description of production processes, their optimization; and training of the new type specialists - technologists. The author considers three stages of technology development. He also points out the characteristic features and the main types of technology: production, engineering, large techno-social projects, and global technologies. In conclusion the author discusses the conditions for the development of new technologies and shares his opinion on the anthropogenic civilization crisis and the ways to overcome it.
The authors consider the hypothesis of attractiveness of the urban environment from the standpoint of the formation of comfortable living conditions of the population. As one of the versions of creation of comfortable living conditions in the city agglomeration the authors analyze the concept of consumer services development, including: the services of household character, public catering and retail trade noted by Novosibirsk population as necessary, generating a feeling of comfort. The growth of birthrates in synergy with social and economic projects of support of young families and mortgage lending in the Russian Federation have led to the development of construction industry, active building in the remote urban areas. The central parts of the city don’t have enough space for the construction of dwelling houses, that’s why they are built in the remote from the center of the city territories, where the demand of the population for consumer services is many times higher than the supply. Such disproportion provokes in the population, living far from the center of the city, the feeling of discomfort, forcing people to spend more time and money on searching and purchasing of necessary services. Businessmen don't want to invest into the cultural and community objects, situated in the remote territories. The reason for it is a loss of the expected profit. In different areas of the city, the economic conditions for doing business are approximately the same, but there is a significant difference in the income of the population and the traffic of customers. So, the authors come to the conclusion, that it is rather doubtful, that the project “Formation of the Comfortable Urban Environment” initiated by the Government of the Russian Federation, will be implemented to a full extent. The authors are convinced, that without the targeted support of businessmen there won’t be any growth of private service enterprises, which will allow the population to reach the level of the required comfort, when the comfort acts as a condition of attractiveness of the urban environment.
The author considers the problems of social and labor relations in modern Russia. Social and labor relations have been transforming for about 27 years in Russia. The paper presents the fundamentals of social partnership as a new system of the relationship between employees and employers, which gives an opportunity to stand for the interests of hired workers. The author points out the main reasons for labor conflicts, defines the forms of workers’ protests and their attitude to them, analyses the practice of labor protests. The level of salary and its delays are the main causes for conflicts in labor relations. At the same time, there are other problems: non-payment by employers to insurance funds (e.g. to the pension fund), "grey" salaries, “games” with a salary, the structure of which is not in favor of employees, increasing working time and the amount of work performed, excessive differentiation of salaries by categories and sectors, and still working people remain poor. Such a situation results in reducing the opportunities for reproduction of labor force, its qualifications, labor efficiency, there is also worsening of the position of an employee after the termination of employment activities. In the future, this can lead to problems for both workers and the state. The author considers possible ways of development of social and labor relations. Formation of adequate social and labor relations is social responsibility of social partnership. Employers are rather active in reaching their goals, pursuing their interests, even in a difficult economic situation in the country. Therefore workers should also get involved in social partnership more actively, defend their interests collectively and individually, use all opportunities, taking into account the latest changes in the Labor Code of the RF. In particular, the author stresses the fact, that the mechanism of control and responsibility of the employer for non-fulfillment of laws concerning labor relations has been strengthened. In conclusion, the author draws attention to the fact, that the issue of changes in social and economic policy has been actively discussed for a long time already, that should help to change the situation in the issues of social and labor relations and improve the living standards of wage workers, to make these relations fairer.
THE TERM AND THE CONCEPT OF “DEMOCRACY” IN THE POLITICAL LIFE OF CHINA IN THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XX CENTURYP.S. Kormich, I.V. Oleynikov
The paper examines the perception and designation of political terms in China in the first third of the twentieth century. It mainly focuses on the interpretation of the terms “democracy” (power of people), “freedom”, and “nation” in the understanding of the Great Chinese revolutionary Sun Yat-sen. Almost in all languages, the term “nation” means a certain union of people (sometimes the word has a specific meaning, as in the case of demos, sometimes an abstract one, as in the Russian language). However, at the same time, etymologically it is not associated with the word “man”. “Nation” is a certain, rather multiple abstraction, not associated with a specific unit “a person” although formally implies a person in the plural. In Chinese, it looks different. Therefore, the etymological context of political terminology in Chinese reality is very important. The term “democracy” (power of people) in Chinese has also an ambiguous origin; there were several designations and variants of writing, which had a number of distinctive features, all of them were in active use from the middle of the XIX century, and sometimes even the meanings of those variants opposed each other. As a result, Sun Yat-sen suggested his understanding of democracy as an opportunity to manage any united or organized group of people, basing on strength and power, to achieve the state’s freedom, with the obligatory sacrifice of individual freedom, but with the political equality for the nation. Mao Zedong proposed the theory of a “new democracy” which was a new stage in the development of Marxism, containing the most important provisions of Marxist theory. The new interpretation of the Marxist theory as a new stage in the development of Marxism was substantiated by the need of its “Sinification”. But in essence, it was not just about “Sinification” of Marxism (adaptation of Marx's general theory to the concrete conditions of China), but about the creation of “Chinese Marxism”, developed as the theoretical tool of leadership in anti-imperialist, anti-feudal revolutions in colonial and dependent countries. Chiang Kai-shek, not without reason, considered himself the follower of Sun Yat-sen’s cause, however, he partly opposed the ideological democracy credo (power of people) of the founder of the Kuomintang, he also denied the possibility of implementing democratic principles in China until the 1950s. Following Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek paid particular attention to the role of the state, opposing the interests of an individual and the state. Thus, the ideas put forward by Sun Yat-sen continue having a significant impact on the development of China's political theory and practice in the subsequent period of time. Of course, SunYat-sen's ideas are not always taken with approval, but even when his ideas are criticized, nevertheless, the ideological concept of his theory remains the basis for the subsequent revolutionaries of China.
The subject of the research is to study methodological approaches of the participants of scientific discussions to find answers to the questions about the nature (origin), essence, mission and the future of the University as a specific social institution. The authors pay special attention to the recognized by the majority of Universities researchers their differentia specifica –institutional autonomy and academic freedoms of University/academic community members, that is, the academic/university corporation and the rights of free research, free participation in public polemics and free, including public criticism of all scholars (including authorities) recognized by the whole society. The research is based on a comparative analysis of the texts of the most representative participants of these discussions. As a result, significant differences were revealed both in the declared positions of the participants of the discussions and in their conceptual bases. The authors recognized as the most important ones - the dichotomy of essentialism and nominalism, as well as monogenetism and polygenetism. In spite of the fact that the most widespread point of view in the academic literature remains on the side of Europocentric monogenetism, university's researchers, more often testify to the existence of autonomy and academic freedoms in educational institutions, which were founded historically earlier than medieval West-European universities. In addition, researchers highlight the idea, that academic freedoms are being reduced in modern universities. Thus, monogenetic approach reveals the methodological boundaries, characteristic of essentialism, and encourages a serious attitude towards nominalism and polygenetism. In conclusion the authors of the paper have to admit the inevitability of diversity of methodological approaches to the notion of “university”, like many other notions, which exist and retain their heuristic character in other sciences.
Enlightenment is a very diverse cultural phenomenon. If earlier the research of it assumed a creation of a common figure of this historical epoch without taking in account the specific features of different geographical regions, today such approach is regarded as inadequate. Nevertheless such simplified notion of Enlightenment can be sometimes meet in Russian researches for history of philosophy. This simplified notion is usually based on the features of Enlightenment in France, those are revolutionality, anticlericalism, antimetaphysicism, antisystematism. But these characteristics can not be related to the German Enlightenment as such. In the article the author tries to carry out a more detailed analyze of the specific features of German Enlightenment. Among these features can be ranged at first the seeking for self-reflection and self-determining. That can found his brightest expression in the late Enlightenment in the great number of working concerning the question about the nature and limits of Enlightenment. Another important features of German Enlightenment was outlining the necessity of independent thinking both of particular human being and of mankind. The independence of thinking was related with reaching majority. By the early enlighteners this feature coursed the eclectics, which was apprehended as independence from strange opinions and views. In the late period this idea got a political orientation and has been transformed to the appeal for revolution struggle against oppression of nation by power of church and state. A once more important feature was an orientation of German thinkers in the age of Enlightenment for the fight against the prejudices of different kind. But in contrast to the French enlighteners they exercised a great caution, especially if it dealt with prejudices in religion and morality. More detail research of the specific characteristics of German Enlightenment can help us to get a completer idea on Enlightenment as a cultural phenomenon as such.
The article analyzes the missions of modern universities, both foreign and domestic, from the position which are reflected in these missions. Both liberal and pragmatic concept for higher education are reflected in the missions of the modern universities that reflects the experience of the past and challenges of the present, represents the future trends of development. It has been revealed that modern classical universities prefer educational and research functions. This is a global trend that shows commitment to the traditions of classical University education. It is also shown that many universities are developing in the direction of a pragmatic approach of science by implementing the research function and focusing on cutting-edge research. The learning function has acquired pragmatic coloration also, and is direct at mastering of academic and professional knowledge and skills that is turning into professional. Because the modern labor market requires not only well-educated but also professionally trained specialist. This is reflected in many missions. The professional function comes to priority position confidently and is ahead of the socio-cultural function well and this is some deviation from the classical idea of the University. In the missions of universities the direction on the formation of educational policy in the region is most apparent and thereby solving the problem of its self-development. The educational function is expressed weakly and tends to the values of self-realization, is reflected in the Declaration but isn’t reflected in the mission more and more. Various approaches to University education which depend on historical, cultural and socio-economic development of countries have been considered. The main priorities of American, European and Russian universities have been identified.
Periods of change require a person's ability to raise questions, readiness with respect and responsibility to share them with the others and to remain courageous enough to turn them into the sources of search and development. At the same time, humanity inherited such a culture in which asking a question is considered to be as something uncomfortable or inappropriate, and requires special rights to ask it. Recognition of this problem requires making this art of asking questions a special subject of studies. Ideally, it should be considered as one of the aspects of literacy necessary to a person of the 21st century. Asking questions is one of the prerequisites for collective thinking, translating the meaning from one situation to another, between different groups of people, generations, etc. It sets a semantic framework of collective thinking. Training the ability to raise questions and reasonably treat the questions of others is necessary in order to maintain his/her independence in conditions of sophisticated and massive manipulation and controlling of people’s consciousness. The authors introduce a distinction between asymmetric (dependent on social hierarchies) and symmetrical (equal in relation to problems) aspects of asking questions and believe that the latter proves to be the key one, since it provides effective cooperation in problem situations. The authors present the technique of positional process of asking questions in the context of public self-organization, and describe a scheme of practical work using this technique. There is also a map of questions, which may be used as a supplement to the mentioned above technique or it can be used independently. Drawing up this map makes it possible to identify the interests of various participants within the framework of a common topic (problem) and to coordinate the relationship between these interests.
A prominent Melkite writer Theodore Abu Qurrah, Bishop of Harran (c. 750 – c. 830) was the first Orthodox Christian author who used Arabic for his treatises. He was generally reputed both as a theologian, and a scholar well versed in philosophy. Nevertheless, the philosophical premises of his Trinitarian doctrine and Christology still remain unexplored. The article discusses two kinds of philosophical premises of Theodore’s theology: logical and ontological. Theodore divides all scientific terms and academic concepts into two groups: 1) philosophical and 2) logical names. Names of the general type such as “living being”, “human”, “horse”, and particular nonlogical ones (proper names as Paul, Jacob, John) are defined as philosophical, while such terms as “kind”, “type”, “nature”, “hypostasis”, etc. are specified as logical. According to Theodore, the crucial difference between these two types resides in the following: for philosophical type of names, the properties and definitions of more general names (concepts) are inherited by particular names; which is not true for logical names. In terms of logic, Abu Qurrah believes that the category of quantity is applicable only to logical names. Striving for the utmost accuracy of statements, he defended the theory of reference, which occurs only in one of the authors who preceded Theodore, St. Gregory of Nyssa. In terms of ontology, Theodore proceeds from the belief that the general is completely, without division and multiplication, presented in a particular (individual). Here, bringing out the conceptual differences between the hypostasis and the nature, he, meanwhile, denies that accidental attributes are origins of the hypostasis. Furthermore, the existence of particular substances (natures) seems to Theodore both logically and ontologically impossible. The ontology of the hypostasis, the fundamental principle of Theodore Abu Qurrah’s theology, seems similar to Byzantine diphysite tradition of 4th – 8th centuries (St. Leontius of Byzantium, St. Maximus the Confessor, St. John of Damascus).
The article deals with the problem of studying the functioning of new religious movements in modern society.Traditionally, the functions of new religious movements were identified with the functions of religions and, depending on the methodological approach, their essential features were revealed. A significant influence on the study of the functions of the new religious movements was provided by the anti-cult approach which viewed them as destructive influence on society. The author notes that in modern society the functionality of the new religious movements has other essential features than in traditional religions. Comparing the functionality of the new religious movements and religions, their main essential differences are distinguished and new options for NRM are offered. It is noted that the new functions are derived from the existing functions of religions. Four main functions of the new religious movements were distinguished. The function of the pseudo-scientific adaptation of ideas marks the tendency in the teachings of new religious movements to synthesize with scientific ideas. The ideas received in the course of this synthesis in new religious movements by scientists are often treated as pseudo-scientific or quasi-scientific. In the teachings of the new religious movements the function of affirmation marks the intention to redirect the life of an individual (success, health, wealth) from the inner (meaning of life, spirituality) to external aspects through a variety of spiritual techniques often borrowed from various Indian religions and adapted to a modern man. The holistic function implies to overcome existing cultural, religious, social boundaries and to unite states and nations on the basis of the ideas of universalism and syncretism.The culturally adaptive function reveals the mechanism for adapting alien cultural and religious code (for example, oriental religio-philosophical ideas) in modern society. It is noted that these functions of the new religious movements are the result of the correlation of the socio-cultural environment of society and new religious movements.As a result of this correlation in modern society there is a mixture of the most diverse religious, scientific, cultural and other elements.
The article describes the urgency of creating a scientific anthology dedicated to the Russian Old Believers. Russian Old Believers can be called one of the most important spiritual, social, economic and cultural phenomena in the history of Russia. Attention to the Old Believers intellectual heritage is relevant for clarifying the course of Russia's development in the world community of civilizations. Over the centuries of coexistence with the Russian Empire, the Old Believers developed their own counteractions to the Western path. Nowadays the Old Believers are an arsenal of spiritual, intellectual and cultural methods of resistance to Westernization, information capitalism and one-dimensional globalization The Old Believers developed mental mechanisms for sustainable development in the context of multipolar globalization, for the construction of a social state based on sovereign democracy. The anthology should include both basic Old Believer texts, as well as significant research and philosophical works about the Old Believers. A selection of Old Believer texts should illustrate the various trends of Old Believer thought in different epochs, to see the Old Believers as ideology, as a world view, as a mentality, as a way of life. The collection of texts on the Old Believership should give an objective picture of the place of the Ancient Orthodoxy in the history and present time of Russia. Editorial work should be based on a special methodology, so as not to perceive the Old Believers in an ethnographic or historical-museum format. Old Believers should be presented to the reader in the light of their current opportunities for building a new great culture.
SOVIET POLITICAL JOURNALISM AND POPULAR SCIENCE LITERATURE AS A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION OF THE WEST SIBERIAN COUNTERCULTUREA.V. Kuznetsov
The article examines the issue of obtaining information about contemporary art by representatives of Soviet youth who later became active participants in the West Siberian counterculture of the 1980s and 1990s. The author sets a task to trace the genesis of radical ideas for the reorganization of society, examines in detail such aspects of the topic as sources of information on the counterculture, including foreign and domestic media, popular science publications, rumors and conjectures. In the course of the study, the author conducted surveys and interviews of the direct participants of the Siberian punk movement and also used the expert assessments. The author puts forward the hypothesis that the presence of information on the counterculture in the Soviet press shows a sympathetic attitude towards it in general. Growing immediacy of information in the 1970s and 1980s thanks to the enthusiasts among journalists and scientists, allowed young people in the USSR to monitor what was happening in the countercultural environment in the West. One of the main conclusions of the study is that, replicating fashionable stereotypes, young people in the Soviet Union felt themselves as a part of the actual artistic processes. Despite unoriginal nature of the national counterculture samples, it was an avant-garde phenomenon for our country.
The article is devoted to the research of designers professional culture in Russia. Focused interviews with Perm designers of different types of design serve as a source of research. The author identifies and examine the specifics of the functioning of the professional community of Russian designers that based on the empirical data analysis. The research showed that the organization of the design community occurs around some nucleus of a new institutional system or institution in the making. The dominance of the individual, that is the authoritative representative of the profession, is inherent in such institutions. This individual is a high-level specialist who is able to influence the overall process of design development. One of the tendencies of the community organization around certain professional landmarks is their existence in a special mythological time, which allows us to identify the significance of the figures of different historical periods within the framework of a single cultural chronotope. This feature of mythmaking is an indicator of the existence of professional mythology along with a specific "pantheon of the Titans". In addition, the research found that the perceptions existing in the Russian design community, form a certain single ideal type. This construction is a sociocultural portrait of a Russian designer that, on the one hand, has the features of a mythological titan, and, on the other hand, the archetype of a trickster. Depending on the prevailing characteristics, this ideal type has two modifications - the designer as the organizing center and the designer as the ordinary member of the profession - which allows using these constructions as tools for further research of the community.