Title and contents pages
From the Editor
Social ideal and social consciousness
Does Monday always begin on Saturday? Or myths and realities of the Siberian ‘New Atlatis’Vodichev Evgeny
The paper (the first one in the series of two) deals with comparative analysis of the most famous novel of the charismatic Soviet and Russian writers, the Strugatsky brothers, and mythological history of Akademgorodok, a science city near Novosibirsk in Siberia. According to the author’s views, the Strugatsky’s novel is one the most interesting literary utopias of the second half of the 20th century, and Akademgorodok is one of its prototypes. The research aims at identifying social sense, nature and content of a number of myths about history of Akademgorodok, which are still popular and widespread both in social milieu and in professional literature. These myths and legends based on memoirs, recollections, journalists’ publications and propaganda, which fed up official historiography of Akademgorodok, allow presenting it as one of the most interesting social utopias of the Soviet period of Russian history.
In the first article, the author shows and analyses correlations and cross-fertilization between the literary utopia and the mythology of Akademgorodok, which became effective tools of the Soviet propaganda. He articulates historical background of this mythology and explains the nature of their popularity
Images of the World: ideas of Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood and their transformations. Part 2Sassin Wolfgang
The triumphant scientific and technological development of humankind in the 19th century gave rise to the idea of continuous human progress. However, the tragic events of the 20th century and the understanding that the human world is directly confronted with global problems, the problem of energy supply in particular, require new approaches to the comprehension of the future. The article discusses the problem of the survival of society, based upon the ideal of the well-being of an individual, not the community. The ideology of this society is unable to cope with the demographic problems associated with mass migration, leading to the loss of ethno-cultural identity. Therefore, in the twentieth century the main direction of state politics is the transfer of responsibility from the individual to the collectivist state. The specific role in this is played by urban lifestyle, which separates a man from nature and replaces the natural environment by technosphere. Only the vanishingly small part of the population is aware of the problem of long-term survival of the urban civilization and is working on systemic issues arising from a complex interaction of technology, nature, population, and the agreements and values regulating this interaction. Thus, the ideology of the greens contains insoluble and, more importantly, unconscious contradiction between the struggle for global freedom of enterprise with the purpose of permanent exploitation of nature on the one hand, and urban isolation on the other. The article discusses the fact that the biggest flaw of a market economy is that it reduces a man to the level of trade and exchange relations. This, in turn, leads to the profound institutional conflict of interests between protection and the amount of ownership. Therefore, the European ideology based on the pursuit of peace among peoples, which requires payments of the growing debts, has met the same fate as liberalism and socialism. The stable coexistence of different social systems on our planet can only be achieved through the hierarchical division of the world into relatively autonomous regions developing their own forms of civilization
Notes on the article by W. Sassin “Images of the World: Ideas of Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood and their transformations”Flakh Sergey
Wolfgang Sassin’s article "Images of the World: Ideas of Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood and Their Transformation" (“Ideas and Ideals”, No. 4, 2017) forms the first part of his big article (part 2 is published in this volume of the journal). The ideas expressed in the article have evoked great interest of Russian researchers, yet some of his statements have raised serious questions and objections. The author presents a critical analysis of these controversial statements. The goal of this discussion is not just to express objection and the opposite point of view, but to deeper understand extremely important and interesting issues raised by W. Sassin. The idea of the primary atomicity of individuals and the deriving from it the original individual freedom seem to be quite controversial. W. Sassin tries to find the grounds for the key social concepts in the Bible, however he takes the ideas which are not essential for the Bible itself, but have been widely disseminated during the age of Enlightenment that took place under the slogan of struggle against Christianity. This refers to such slogans as "conquer nature" and "liberty, equality, and fraternity". The author's persuasion that the faith in One God makes all people equal before Him, would be fair only if the equality would be understood by him only in a personal sense, but the author imparts it with social meaning. The inference of these values not only from Christianity but also from monotheism in general looks unjustified.
Philosophy of the History
Conditions of the Solidarity between elites and non-elite groupsFilippov Sergey
The article deals with investigating into conditions of the solidarity between elites and nonelite groups of post-revolutionary states in the western part of the former Russian empire (1917-1920). A high level of the solidarity is shown through geopolitical successes (efficient defending and/or conquering) and internal stability of a state. The indicators of a low level of the solidarity are large scale civil conflicts (civil wars) leading to the loss of state independence.
The analysis is based on comparing two contrastive cases – the Polish Szlachta and the Baltic-German nobility in their interactions with the Imperial government as well as local population in the period from the 17th to beginning of the 20th century. Both elites are similar regarding some important aspects such as an intensive interaction with each other and the historical dynamics of their states (independence – losing territories – the lost of independence). Nevertheless, both elite groups differ in the level of the solidarity with the local nonelit population which was relatively high among the Poles and relatively low between the Baltic-Germans on the one hand and the Estonians as well as the Latvians on the other hand. As theoretical basis are applied such approaches as the theory of cultural similarity, the geopolitical approach and structural-demographic theory. As main research method is used the macro-historical approach that allows to provide an explanation of historical phenomena through the synthesis of different theoretical approaches as well as levels of analysis.
The analysis has shown that the Russian revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1917 in Russia legitimized social groups including elites that had been opposed to the Tsarist government and delegitimized social groups that had remained loyal to the “old regime”. “Revolutionary” attitude and image of the Polish elite (Szlachta) was a source of a high level of national solidarity among the Polish people. “Revolutionary” attitude and image of the Polish elite as the base of the solidarity among the Poles results from the strategies of elites socialization oriented on local patron-client networks that were established under conditions of a weak state power in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Besides, the opposition character of the Szlachta was conditioned on social deprivation measures of the Imperial government caused by a large number of the Polish elite.
A high loyalty of the Baltic-Germans to the Imperial government was a condition of a low level of the solidarity and was due to the strategies of elites socialization oriented on a career in the military or civil service outside the Baltic provinces
Philosophy: Tradition and Modernity
Plato`s philosophical AnthropologyIvonin Yury
Plato considers the nature of a man in three different aspects: as a retrospective description of the achieved in the past and the lost state of a man; as the goal of his improvement, the acquisition by the empirical person of the completeness of his eidos, i.e. the merging of a real and eidetic person; as mass, stereotypical, wrong variants of soul and body connection. For the Plato’s philosophical anthropology, the thesis of a person’s existential insufficiency is essential. Plato considers this problem alongside with the problem of human integrity and includes constitutive as well as regulative judgments. Relationships of the sacred and profane, mental and somatic were the main themes in the anthropology of Plato. It has characteristics of radical pneumatology. Man is his soul. The soul determines the hierarchy of anthropological composition; the soul changes the state of the body, and the state of the body is an indicator of the state of the soul. Within this tradition, the somatic is devoid of subjectivity.
The philosopher develops pneumatology within the framework of essentialist and voluntaristic traditions. The first assumes that the correct hierarchy of the soul and body is predetermined by the very order of the universe. The "beginnings" of the soul, i.e. psychophysiological potentials, are created to realize a chain, which is responsible for control and submission of intellect-will-feelings. This chain will be completed if the potentials reach the limit of their perfection - the state of virtue. The hierarchy of the "beginnings" of the soul is established together with the attainment of virtue, and virtue is certified by recognition of the priority of thinking.
In the voluntaristic tradition, the essence of man is also represented by the soul, but the soul is not determined by the intellect, but by the will. In this line of Platonic reasoning, intellect is an optional factor of action. Knowing good does not mean choosing it as a guide to behavior. This means that there is not only an erring, but also a vicious (evil) will. The thinker substantiated evil: it is not a lack of good, but something that exists independently. Evil is connected with the soul. Evil in the human soul is like a cosmic situation. For the philosopher it is obvious that egoism can be combined with the rational organization of consciousness.
The recognition of good and evil creates the effect of pseudorational behavior. The instruments of consciousness are used to imitate virtue while preserving the intemperance of desires, and good is not associated with a highly developed intellect. To identify the good, neither intellect nor virtue are needed, there is enough to have intuition and life experience
Thematization of abilities in Nietzsche’s heritageBoyko Vladimir
The theme of abilities was constantly in Nietzsche’s focus of attention, the meaning transformations of which in many respects define the depth of his mythopoetic discourse. The opposition of aesthetic ability, which is realized in a Dionysian Dithyramb and an Appollonian dream - and abilities to argue logically - is the basis of Nietzsche’s analysis of the basic tendencies of cultural development in Ancient Greece. The German thinker understood harmonization of life as the process of tightening all abilities into one center, the main ability. However, harmonization of human life demands not only its deepening, but also the life’s expansion beyond the sphere of individual existence. This deepening and life expansion should be connected with a current state of affairs which is achievable here and now. Hence, Nietzsche’s interest in the problem of historical experience comes from, as well as the problem of differentiation between the historical and unhistorical. Free Spirit is, first of all, the ability for versatility and integrity, width and completeness. The thinker constantly points to the superindividual character of abilities, in its historical digressions the subject of abilities is mankind. Nietzsche’s thematization of abilities shows incompatibility of its creativity with the individualistic outlook. In a certain sense the "philosophy" of Nietzsche is a conceptually verified strategy of application the metaphor of ability to designate the limiting bases of creative life.
Ontological foundations of NegativityKovalevsky A.A.
The article investigates the ontological foundations of negativity. It shows dialectical relationship of nothingness and negativity. Negativity is understood as the being of nothingness, as a special process, unfolding in the deepest substrate of destruction and changing. The article considers a problematic and ambiguous interpretation of the category of nothingness in the history of philosophy. The article substantiates the thesis that various philosophical directions giving different definitions of nothingness, nevertheless, allow us to describe the negativity through the set of manifested characteristics of nothingness. The author reveals the natural-philosophical and anthropological approaches to the interpretation of negativity. As a result, the author criticizes the natural-philosophical concept of negativity and justifies the anthropological concept of negativity. Negativity is not able to come into existence without reflection. And reflection is carried out only by a man. The main bearer of negativity as such is a person who is aware of his mortality and finiteness
Philosophical analysis of the Language
Antirealism as method of interpretation and understanding of the Language in the late philosophy of L. Wittgenstein and N. GoodmanGrigorenko Ekaterina
The article analyzes the concept of antirealism in the framework of philosophy of L. Wittgenstein and H. Goodman. Based antirealists concept - the idea that the research object is based on the multiple interpretations of its values. The paper argues that this direction gives the person a greater degree of freedom for interpretation and understanding of the object. In the second stage of his work of L. Wittgenstein introduced the concept antirealists through «language games». «Language game» is characterized by the idea of meaning as use according to the time and place of the events. The concept of the thinker, the concept of «game» is impossible to define and therefore set its rules are possible within the process. The main thesis of «Philosophical research» is that the formation of the meaning of the word is really only in the case of individual interpretation and understanding of each subject. Language comprehension seems to be a philosopher by interpreting and using every subject words, expressions and sentences.
N. Goodman in work «Ways of creating the worlds» analyses the specifics of the language, based on its formation and change in science, artistic creativity, noting that true knowledge is formed and changed depending on the system in which it exists and asserts the relativity of truth. It is the recognition of the multiplicity of worlds and of interpretations of the truth gives a person the chance to see an interesting problem. Interpretation and understanding of language in the philosophy of N. Goodman is based on the representation and formation of true knowledge, they characterize the system, which correspond. Also the truth value is expressed through its correspondence to its subject matter. In this case, the concept of correctness only exists in relation to any particular system.
Thus, antirealists the concept of interpretation and understanding of values is based on the ideas of language use and depend on the level of knowledge of the situation and criteria that represents each subject
Language reflection of the World in philosophy of Ludwig WittgensteinAstakhov O.Yu., Rtishheva O.V.
The article analyses the philosophical ideas of L. Wittgenstein connected with understanding the language as the principle for the world reflection. Considering his “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” devoted to identification of the logical analysis specifics, the authors note that according to L. Wittgenstein silence becomes the highest form of manifestation of the language reflection of the world. Considering the language in the aspect of expressing the inexpressible, the scholar comes to the “meta-philosophical” perspective connected with creating a new ontology of the world which is ideally designed to provide “the right understanding of the world”. In his later work “Philosophical Investigations” L. Wittgenstein considers the practical content of the world language reflection regarding life as it is. Thus, the author comes to the conclusion about the language games existence, practical implementation of which provides the discovery of a great number of meanings, and their connections are not always obvious. Such diversity of language games resists any structural analysis. L. Wittgenstein perceives them as the activity components or the forms of life, no less diverse, than life experience. Therefore, the language reflection of the world, according to L. Wittgenstein, demands establishing the real life connections. The scholar tries to solve this task, analyzing the functional and game characteristic of a language. Trying to establish original connection between the language and the world in their existential contents, the author aims to reach the principles of clear thinking, free from different language illusions
Methodology of personality and human life study: Statement of the problemLogunova Larisa
Sociological methodology has accumulated a rich arsenal of methods for the study of reality. However, the study of human life requires specific methodological constructs and updated research strategies. Despite the fact that there is a demand for a comprehensive study of man, sociology has not formed a research approach adequate to modern human problems. The very problem of studying a person looks far from his actual needs and does not answer his vital questions. The author, analyzing the possibilities of the objectivistic paradigm, comes to the conclusion about its limitations in questions of the study of human life. At the same time, the interpretive paradigm looks half-hearted and can not comprehend the depth of the social being of the individual. The author believes that sociology can answer the actual questions of a person, studying it in the context of cultural centrism and human-centrism. This methodology is based on the principles of interdisciplinary approach and hybridization, combining the methodological potential of micro- and macro-approaches. The main research strategies are: “to listen and understand", to use a processual approach, without losing sight of the uniqueness as well as the related reference points, which under certain circumstances can significantly influence social processes. The task of modern sociology is to be closer to a human. This means that science should answer his/her questions and protect his/her "life worlds" from the false goals imposed on people by institutions, and integrate the elements of social consulting into research models
Problems of national discourse
"The beauteous country, Japan; the beauteous country, Russian": the paradoxes of the formation and perception of the enemy "Pattern image"Vorobyeva E.A.
This article is devoted to the problem of formation and perception of the "enemy perception pattern" and, in broader frame, of national stereotypes as they are (basing on the example of relations between Japan and Russia). The author explores the process of forming of a cultural stereotype in relation to Japan and the Japanese and notes its duality. By the middle of the XIX century, the perceptory stereotype of the Japanese as "fierce Asians" had developed, but also the idea of them as hardworking, educated, modest, polite, intelligent, etc. people (thanks to the notes of Captain V.M. Golovnin). Further contacts between Japan and Russia (the Treaty of Shimoda signification, the Russian consulate in Hakodate foundation, etc.) made the image of Japan in Russia even more ambiguous. Japan appeared in the eyes of Russian society as a beautiful, "fairy land of samurai and geisha" with an industrious, intelligent and educated people, and simultaneously as an underdeveloped, archaic country with curious customs and traditions (and the Japanese - as narrow-minded, hypocritical and cowardly people). The change in the geopolitical situation in the early 20th century led to an active preparation for war on both sides, accompanied by massive propaganda aimed at creating an "enemy perception pattern" The author examines the issues on the basis of which the "pattern of the enemy" was formed on the eve of and during the Japanese-Russian War of 1904-1905, what was perceived from this pattern and why, as well as under the influence of what factors this pattern was transformed, including the question of kind of transformation that Japan perception pattern underwent in the Russian media. Attention is drawn to the fact that the key to the formation of the "enemy pattern" against the Japanese was the exaggeration of the Japanese representation as "Asians", pagans, savages on the one hand, and the theme of "yellow danger" on the other. However, despite all the efforts of the authorities and propaganda, both the perception of the Japanese in Russia and the perception of the Russians in Japan were not unambiguously negative and hostile. In the course of the direct collision of the sides, the mutual "pattern of the enemy" underwent a significant transformation (especially the perception of the enemy army and navy), and the enemy was treated with respect and even admiration. By the end of the war, the main enemy for Russian society was not the Japanese, but the Russian autocracy. Finally, the author examines the question of the post-war perception of the Japanese in Russian society and the "limits of rigidity" of national stereotypes. It is noted that the idea of the Japanese as barbarians of lower race has been removed from the cultural stereotype, but the idea of a "yellow danger" (largely due to the position of the authorities in inciting spy mania and xenophobia towards the Japanese) has been preserved. At the same time, Russian society retained sympathy for the Japanese, especially in the Far Eastern regions
"Without intelligence, without education we have no way forward. "Kryukov Valery
The subject of the interview is modern economic education in Russia which is characterized by the enforcement of Western standards and approaches of economic education into the Russian system of education. As a result, the soviet tradition of close relationship between economy, education and acquisition of knowledge has been disrupted. Now there is an objective need for another type education, which is correlated with Economics and the economy of the country. The process of education should correlate with the creative process of investigations and generation of knowledge. At the same time in the modern world, not only the raw material basis of the economy is changing, but also the mining and utilization conditions, and as the result the development conditions and the role of regions change as well. Everything is becoming more dynamic, flexible and intellectually loaded. This process has to be analyzed and assessed, and so the significance of intellect, and therefore, of education is definitely growing.
The interview tackles the problems and prospects of the Siberian economy, and in particular the need for the devolution of responsibility. This approach does not necessarily mean the territorial and administrative-political independence. Above all it means the delegation of powerful responsibilities to the regional level (in this case Siberia, or subjects of the Federation on its territory), gradual implementation of the “two keys” principle. It is necessary to develop co-management and cooperation in the use of Siberian natural resources. The interviewee gives different detailed examples to support his position. The Chinese initiative "One Belt, One Road" (OBOR) is also discussed. The integration of Siberia into the global economic space still remains an open question. Yet it is clear, that in order to fit into the international cooperation, Siberia should be considered in the frame of a broader transcontinental (or megacontinental) approach. It is necessary to start with the maximum development and promotion of internal rather than international integration. And it is vital to react quickly to the current state of affairs and market conditions