Social and Professional Well-Being of the Russian School Teachers During the Period of Reforms and Counter-ReformsMaksim Golovchin, T.S. Soloveva
The article focuses on the changes, which have occurred in the staffing situation of the Russian schools at the time of educational reforms and counter-reforms, and a certain pull of the state and society exerted on teachers. Methodology and research methods. The research suggests a comprehensive methodological approach to studying the social and professional well-being of representatives of the teaching profession in the context, where a teacher is seen primarily from the perspective of his/her social well-being and economic status. This study is based on the monitoring data carried out among school teachers in the Vologda region. The monitoring was conducted in the three stages: a) 2011 – the beginning of modernization in the field of education; b) 2012 – the new round of educational modernization associated with the special attention to the teacher problems by the state; c) 2017 – disavowal of the modernization principles and retreat to the policy of “educational counter-reforms”. Results. The data collected during the monitoring allow to suggest that there are changes in the social well-being, patience, attitude to the state policy, job satisfaction and social activity of teachers. In conclusion, the authors suggest a number of mechanisms for overcoming the teacher problems at the federal, regional and local levels. The article puts forward an approach to the chronology of events of the state reforms in the Russian education system and foreign countries. In particular, it allows to reveal the multidimensionality and nonlinear nature of the reforms; presents a point of view on the retrospective of reforms as a historical cycle consisting of a phase change of partial innovations, modernization, modernization “breakup” and counter-reforms (a set of measures aimed at disavowing the reform experience, a return to pre-reform models). Practical significance. The presented results, discussions on the nature of changes in the social and material well-being of teachers, as well as some ways for improving their socio-economic status can be used in the development and adjustment of strategic measures for the development of the regional education system.