Social and Professional Well-Being of the Russian School Teachers During the Period of Reforms and Counter-Reforms
Maksim Golovchin,  T.S. Soloveva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-3.2-233-252

The article focuses on the changes, which have occurred in the staffing situation of the Russian schools at the time of educational reforms and counter-reforms, and a certain pull of the state and society exerted on teachers. Methodology and research methods. The research suggests a comprehensive methodological approach to studying the social and professional well-being of representatives of the teaching profession in the context, where a teacher is seen primarily from the perspective of his/her social well-being and economic status. This study is based on the monitoring data carried out among school teachers in the Vologda region. The monitoring was conducted in the three stages: a) 2011 – the beginning of modernization in the field of education; b) 2012 – the new round of educational modernization associated with the special attention to the teacher problems by the state; c) 2017 – disavowal of the modernization principles and retreat to the policy of “educational counter-reforms”. Results. The data collected during the monitoring allow to suggest that there are changes in the social well-being, patience, attitude to the state policy, job satisfaction and social activity of teachers. In conclusion, the authors suggest a number of mechanisms for overcoming the teacher problems at the federal, regional and local levels. The article puts forward an approach to the chronology of events of the state reforms in the Russian education system and foreign countries. In particular, it allows to reveal the multidimensionality and nonlinear nature of the reforms; presents a point of view on the retrospective of reforms as a historical cycle consisting of a phase change of partial innovations, modernization, modernization “breakup” and counter-reforms (a set of measures aimed at disavowing the reform experience, a return to pre-reform models). Practical significance. The presented results, discussions on the nature of changes in the social and material well-being of teachers, as well as some ways for improving their socio-economic status can be used in the development and adjustment of strategic measures for the development of the regional education system.

The McDonaldization of Higher Education
A.P. Nikitin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-3.2-221-232

Abstract The article deals with the manifestations of McDonaldization in higher education. The main problem is the possibility of transferring the functional principles of the fast food network to the activities of educational institutions. The purpose of the work is to characterize the process of McDonaldization of higher education: description of the features of McDonaldization, its causes and sociocultural consequences. The methodology of the research is based on the approach of M. Weber and G. Ritzer, who analyze the development of social institutions as a process of formal rationalization, as a constant increase in the calculability and control over the behavior of individuals. According to M. Weber, the predominance of formal rationality presupposes the priority of effective achievement of goals before the meaningful goals of social development. Relying on M. Weber's methodological project, J. Ritzer considers McDonaldization as a phenomenon of the process of rationalization of modern society. McDonaldization assumes the spread throughout the world of the management strategies on which the activities of McDonald's are based, and their transformation into fundamental guidelines for the process of social organizing. Results: 1) modern trends in the development of the institution of higher education can be described as a manifestation of the functional principles on which the activities of McDonald's are based – the desire for efficiency, calculability,  predictability and control; 2) the reasons for the McDonaldization of higher education are the transformation of education itself into an object of consumption and the use of the management model of a large corporation in higher education; 3) sociocultural consequences of this trend are the strengthening of simulation practices in the activities of universities, the growth of false interactions in the educational process, the substitution of the meaningful goals of education for formal goals.

I.V. Shapko,  I.E. Safronovich,  A.G. Kislov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-2.2-59-83

The subject of the research is to study methodological approaches of the participants of scientific discussions to find answers to the questions about the nature (origin), essence, mission and the future of the University as a specific social institution. The authors pay special attention to the recognized by the majority of Universities researchers their differentia specifica –institutional autonomy and academic freedoms of University/academic community members, that is, the academic/university corporation and the rights of free research, free participation in public polemics and free, including public criticism of all scholars (including authorities) recognized by the whole society. The research is based on a comparative analysis of the texts of the most representative participants of these discussions. As a result, significant differences were revealed both in the declared positions of the participants of the discussions and in their conceptual bases. The authors recognized as the most important ones - the dichotomy of essentialism and nominalism, as well as monogenetism and polygenetism. In spite of the fact that the most widespread point of view in the academic literature remains on the side of Europocentric monogenetism, university's researchers, more often testify to the existence of autonomy and academic freedoms in educational institutions, which were founded historically earlier than medieval West-European universities. In addition, researchers highlight the idea, that academic freedoms are being reduced in modern universities. Thus, monogenetic approach reveals the methodological boundaries, characteristic of essentialism, and encourages a serious attitude towards nominalism and polygenetism. In conclusion the authors of the paper have to admit the inevitability of diversity of methodological approaches to the notion of “university”, like many other notions, which exist and retain their heuristic character in other sciences.

Lyudmila Kryshtop
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-2.2-84-99

Enlightenment is a very diverse cultural phenomenon. If earlier the research of it assumed a creation of a common figure of this historical epoch without taking in account the specific features of different geographical regions, today such approach is regarded as inadequate.  Nevertheless such simplified notion of Enlightenment can be sometimes meet in Russian researches for history of philosophy. This simplified notion is usually based on the features of Enlightenment in France, those are revolutionality, anticlericalism, antimetaphysicism, antisystematism. But these characteristics can not be related to the German Enlightenment as such. In the article the author tries to carry out a more detailed analyze of the specific features of German Enlightenment. Among these features can be ranged at first the seeking for self-reflection and self-determining. That can found his brightest expression in the late Enlightenment in the great number of working concerning the question about the nature and limits of Enlightenment. Another important features of German Enlightenment was outlining the necessity of independent thinking both of particular human being and of mankind. The independence of thinking was related with reaching majority. By the early enlighteners this feature coursed the eclectics, which was apprehended as independence from strange opinions and views. In the late period this idea got a political orientation and has been transformed to the appeal for revolution struggle against oppression of nation by power of church and state.  A once more important feature was an orientation of German thinkers in the age of Enlightenment for the fight against the prejudices of different kind. But in contrast to the French enlighteners they exercised a great caution, especially if it dealt with prejudices in religion and morality. More detail research of the specific characteristics of German Enlightenment can help us to get a completer idea on Enlightenment as a cultural phenomenon as such.

N.A. Olshannikova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-2.2-100-112

The article analyzes the missions of modern universities, both foreign and domestic, from the position which are reflected in these missions. Both liberal and pragmatic concept for higher education are reflected in the missions of the modern universities that reflects the experience of the past and challenges of the present, represents the future trends of development. It has been revealed that modern classical universities prefer educational and research functions. This is a global trend that shows commitment to the traditions of classical University education. It is also shown that many universities are developing in the direction of a pragmatic approach of science by implementing the research function and focusing on cutting-edge research. The learning function has acquired pragmatic coloration also, and is direct at mastering of academic and professional knowledge and skills that is turning into professional. Because the modern labor market requires not only well-educated but also professionally trained specialist. This is reflected in many missions. The professional function comes to priority position confidently and is ahead of the socio-cultural function well and this is some deviation from the classical idea of the University. In the missions of universities the direction on the formation of educational policy in the region is most apparent and thereby solving the problem of its self-development. The educational function is expressed weakly and tends to the values of self-realization, is reflected in the Declaration but isn’t reflected in the mission more and more. Various approaches to University education which depend on historical, cultural and socio-economic development of countries have been considered. The main priorities of American, European and Russian universities have been identified.

V.E. Karastelev,  V.L. Danilova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-2.2-113-127

Periods of change require a person's ability to raise questions, readiness with respect and responsibility to share them with the others and to remain courageous enough to turn them into the sources of search and development. At the same time, humanity inherited such a culture in which asking a question is considered to be as something uncomfortable or inappropriate, and requires special rights to ask it. Recognition of this problem requires making this art of asking questions a special subject of studies. Ideally, it should be considered as one of the aspects of literacy necessary to a person of the 21st century. Asking questions is one of the prerequisites for collective thinking, translating the meaning from one situation to another, between different groups of people, generations, etc. It sets a semantic framework of collective thinking. Training the ability to raise questions and reasonably treat the questions of others is necessary in order to maintain his/her independence in conditions of sophisticated and massive manipulation and controlling of people’s consciousness. The authors introduce a distinction between asymmetric (dependent on social hierarchies) and symmetrical (equal in relation to problems) aspects of asking questions and believe that the latter proves to be the key one, since it provides effective cooperation in problem situations. The authors present the technique of positional process of asking questions in the context of public self-organization, and describe a scheme of practical work using this technique. There is also a map of questions, which may be used as a supplement to the mentioned above technique or it can be used independently. Drawing up this map makes it possible to identify the interests of various participants within the framework of a common topic (problem) and to coordinate the relationship between these interests.

O.R. Kayumov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-95-104

The reforms carried out over the past fifteen years in the RF education system are not related to the discoveries in pedagogy, but to the changes in social orientations, which are imposed by external "Bologna commitments". The forcefully introduced "competence approach" to the planning of education in higher education gave rise to many difficulties, because it was actually incompatible with the Russian educational tradition. The development of "competence" rhetoric at the reporting level had almost no effect on the methodology of teaching in domestic universities, but the goals and ideals of education have radically changed. Now they are formulated not by the society and the state, but by perspective "employers", transnational corporations are usually meant by them. Instead of "comprehensive harmonious development of the personality," the competence approach actually involves preparing a person for the labor market with the subsequent sale of human qualities. Expanding of the buying and selling sphere is the result of the globalization processes, today only state sovereignties can prevent this expansion, and within traditional societies only "family and school" have to stop this expansion. The author considers this gradual transformation of traditional pedagogy into "market pedagogy" from the point of view of modern inter-civilizational confrontation. The triumphant "economic dominant" is not a universal "innovation", but the result of the expansion of Western civilization. The author substantiates the idea that introducing this competence approach, borrowing the goals and ideals from alien cultures hamper the natural development of our national educational system.

N.A. Olshannikova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.1-105-112

The article examines theoretical development of the idea of a Russian University in the XVIII-XIX centuries. The author considers the ideas of outstanding scientists and thinkers of the time. She also analyzes the charters of Russian universities and their role in the development of University education and considers the attitudes and influence of society on the development of universities. It is highlighted in the article that relations between the state, society and universities are well-defined in the University statutes. Four University Charters were adopted in Russia in the XIX century: 1804, 1835, 1863, and 1884. If the first Charter granted relative autonomy to the universities, the Charter of 1835 strengthened the power of Trustees, thereby limiting the previously given autonomy. The third Charter of 1863 restored the universities in their rights granting them broad autonomy, while the Charter of 1884 abolished them altogether. The author studies both points of view: the Russian and the foreign ones on the topic of University autonomy from the government. The article shows that Russian universities couldn’t even think about any autonomy, because they were created by the state with the aim to strengthen and preserve the monarchy. The author presents a comparison of missions of the first University and the already reformed University. While the mission of the first university was training of officials for the state service, the reformed universities focused on the development of science within its walls. The article considers development of the Russian University within one hundred years frame from the utilitarian to the classical one.

Radiy Ibragimov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-136-147

The existence of the fictitious and hidden competences in the structure of educational standards is the problem of the Higher Education Reform implementation. The object of research is reconstruction of a number of the competences which are absent in the regulating documents, but they are important for subjects in professional socialization and they are really incorporated into it. During methodological study of the project of reconstruction of the young specialist model we assumed that the existence of the hidden competences is not a secret for students; and also – that many competences, declared in educational programs, have a fictitious character for them. This assumption became a basic hypothesis for the empirical research "Professional Socialization in the Conditions of Competence-Based Reconstruction". Readiness to use official position for personal enrichment, ability to join false conventions, to manipulate interlocutors, to strike up useful acquaintances and to derive benefit from them (in P. Bourdieu's terminology – to create and use social capital), ability and readiness to use gaps and contradictions in the legislation are referred to the hidden competences. The research has revealed that these competences are real and pressing for all levels and social subjects comprising the system of higher education.

Vladimir Diev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-128-135

Globalization has seriously influenced the system of higher education. As a result the concept of the university role has also changed. Such concepts as “Entrepreneurial Universities” by Clark B., “A Triple Helix” by Etzkowitz H., “The Third Generation University” by Wissema J. came into being. All these concepts change our traditional understanding of the impact universities have on the social and economic development of our society. The term “academic capitalism” appeared at the end of the 1990-ies. Slaughter S. and Leslie L. define it as the market activities of the research and educational institutions as well as the staff aimed at attracting the money from outwards. University becomes the subject of the market economy with all the consequences. Russian universities today mostly have a hierarchical management structure, modeled on a big corporation. In the conditions of academic capitalism, which is not only highly competitive but also dynamic and volatile, the management system must be able to quickly respond to emerging challenges that the bureaucratic structure cannot always meet. The article shows that the network methodology of management decision-making has many advantages, as well as a number of restrictions.