L.G. Sandakova,  C.V. Zhigmytov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.2-80-92

The development of society is presented as a type of its complicacy. The complicacy is shown to have two major quality parameters – the direction and nature – unified by the concept of cognature. The direction of development is determined by the hierarchy of the problems society chooses and gradates, and the nature of development is given by the methods of problem solving typical for the society. The problems, in turn, are created by the needs of a subject (an actor) and the typical methods of problem solving by its dispositions. This theory is shown to be related to classical theories of Karl Marx, Max Weber and synergetic paradigms as well. The relevance of the theory is stipulated by the growing complexity of the global situation and the multiplicity of factors influencing it. The basic problematic level of the social cognitive science is identified. It consists of relations between cognitive constructs and social phenomena. The main task of clarifying how the interaction of made decisions created by cognature of a society assembles the social reality is worded. Practical application of social cognitive science is the methodology elaboration of appraisals of the decisions to be made, the projects to be implemented at all levels, starting with the individual level up to the global one taking into account the complicacy change. The fundamental principal underlying such appraisals is not diminishing the complicacy; every decision should be both adequate to reality and not diminish its complicacy because there are reasons to suppose that simplifying reality decisions work only till the definite point, after which entropy starts growing and it ends in catastrophe.

Natalya Martishina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.2-51-61

The article proves the thesis that the philosophy of company is one of the forms of existence of practical philosophy. The author considers the existing ways to formulate the philosophy of company and to define the main components in its composition, with examples from the practice of operating companies. The article argues the thesis about the existence of philosophical knowledge at different levels, determines the place of practical philosophy in the system of philosophical knowledge and reveals its main characteristics. It is shown that practical philosophy performs the basic function of philosophy and can exist as an individual philosophy, a philosophy of the collective subject and macro-groups. The fundamental needs of person and society, which necessitate the existence of practical philosophy, are identified; and the philosophy of company is described as the way to meet these needs at the level of the collective subject. The author concludes that the form and content of the company's philosophy as a whole exactly correspond to the format of the practical philosophy. On the basis of general philosophical ideas about the nature and methods of the philosophical knowledge (recourse to the ultimate ground of being, systematization, unity of different topics, appeal to the due) recommendations to the construction of the company's philosophy are offered.

A.P. Nikitin,  M.V. Kashirina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.2-93-101

In this work the approach interpreting money circulation as a kind of social interaction is presented. The prominent features of social interaction in their relation to money circulation are considered. It is shown that money functionality is provided with direct or indirect convention. The origin of convention is connected to the ingrained exchange practice and social communication. Money circulation is realized due to the collective intentionality acts, defined in the objects of money. At the same time, currency circulation can happen without material money usage. It is possible only in the case if the function of money obtains objectless existence in the form of a pure symbol. Money degenerates in its function being formed as the satisfaction of household and political needs, that is to say functionally, at the same time passing the step of its objective certainty. In such a way, the evolution of money circulation demonstrates the tendency of social interactions symbolization. This tendency raises a question concerning general process of social life from the real interaction to the reality simulation. Social interactions in such society acquire speculative character and they are directed to the support of themselves. Money circulation is a private case of symbolic content of social interaction. It is aimed not to the economic good, but to the social image of financial success maintenance.

Evgeny Zhernov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.2-102-113

The aim of the study is to introduce the essential anthroposocial foundations (identified and analysed in the article) of the professional knowledge sharing in the space of collective work culture of the Russian firm. Interrelated anthropic origin and microsocial order are given as such foundations. The main theme of the article is the anthroposocial foundations in the system of socio-cultural labour relations regarding the professional knowledge sharing in the firm. The study is a theoretical analysis of the socio-economic nature of professional knowledge sharing at the microlevel. The contribution of the author is an introduction of the concept of “anthroposociality of knowledge sharing” into scientific use. Anthroposociality of knowledge sharing is defined as a complex socio-cultural and socio-economic phenomenon, the origin, the centre and the result of which is a human-employee (anthropic foundation) who shares personal knowledge with the other members of the intra-firm professional community in the process of joint work in accordance with microsocial order (social foundation). From a scientific perspective such an understanding will give the economists the opportunity to take into account the personality of an employee in relation to the microsocial order established in the firm in the development of proposals to improve knowledge sharing efficiency. In practice, it will allow to minimize the problems associated with the reluctance of employees to share personal knowledge.

A.Yu. Ogorodnikov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.2-62-71

The aim of the article is to reveal the roots of intrapersonal conflicts, the sources of which are the contradictions in the process of self-actualization of a person. Immature "self-concept" and incomplete image of personality hinder the inclusion of the individual in social relations as a subject who is capable of making decisions, forecasting and planning social processes, evaluating his/her actions in the social environment. As a result the structure of personal values is destroyed, the contradictions of values appear; a person demonstrates doubts towards the internalized values and rejects their externalization in social life. All these lead to social apathy, indifference to social changes, disappointment in self-importance and social environment as well, alienation from the institutional environment. The stability of reproduction of social order is broken. The author defines the opportunities of overcoming the contradictions of values with the help of deep interiorization of absolute values. The article introduces methods of social guidance of values in order to create the conditions to restore the structural unity of the values system of a person and to deeply internalize absolute values that will lead to the successful integration of a person into important social processes. The author identifies the possibilities of the socio-cultural environment organization, which enables the integration of the personal activities into the process of constructing social reality.

Tatyana Zaytseva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.2-72-79

The starting point for writing this article was a wide circulation of ideas about the identity of such notions as sobornost and collectivism not only at the level of mass consciousness, but also in the research literature. The purpose of the article is to show the fallacy of such beliefs. The original author's position is that sobornost and collectivism constitute two different traditions - if sobornost, being of a religious origin, is related to the Orthodox spiritual experience, collectivism originated from social and political experience. The author draws attention to the fact that this erroneous assertion is based on misunderstanding that sobornost refers to the metaphysical reality, not the social one. The article outlines the key points of the concept ‘sobornost’ in the interpretation of A. Khomyakov, and the development of this idea in the writings of S. L. Frank. If collectivism, absolutizing unity, makes a personality ‘smaller’, thereby destroying it, sobornost, on the contrary, makes a personality “bigger’, allowing him/her to fully develop. It is sobornost that helps self-actualizing of a person. It is emphasized that moving towards sobornost as the highest stage of human development is performed through strengthening of individuality. The author draws a conclusion that such a radical convergence of two concepts: sobornost and collectivism entails various scenarios for Russia's future.

A.V. Mironov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.2-43-50

The article considers the problem of citizen participation in the political process associated with social communication difficulties. An individual is moving away from the social system, due to the obtained negative experiences after the confrontation with the latent component of political participation. The author analyzes the historical characteristics of the personal identity and public opinion ratio. He also highlights the relationship of political participation and family traditions. State pressure on the individual consciousness turns into a hidden form of social loneliness. The more radical a political doctrine is the more negative attitude to social loneliness it demonstrates. Enforcement of social lifestyle, active participation in mutual social activities form settled fear before the State, a group, possessing the right to coercion, the world view regulation, and to the invasion of privacy. Political changes transform the kinds of social participation, values and meanings of social activities. Social distance may be considered as a potential prerequisite of a conflict between an individual and a society. We can speak about a new phenomenon, hidden social loneliness, i.e. a gap between intrinsic beliefs and demonstrated behavior. The feeling of hidden social loneliness transforms a person into an ostentatious performer; it makes a person feel forced publicity. A political system in some cases can hinder the development of social communication.

A.A. Lisenkova,  G.L. Tulchinsky
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.2-38-42

The article examines the impact of the development of the Internet technologies on the ways of communication and social interaction in a society. The increasing of information flows and the speed of information exchange stimulate people to search for new forms of self-organization. Among these forms, there are some significant ones like virtual communities in social networks. This process intensifies different effects for all users of the network groups. Users in search of a circle of "friends" and personal identification resort to various methods of self-categorization experiencing the affect of different methods of influence and manipulation (both positive and negative). To maintain the balance of interests it is necessary to increase media literacy, mastering critical perception and analysis.

R.V. Shamolin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-14-21

The article tells about a base anthropological conflict between properly human indefinite and free integral part and his/her biological animal nature. The conflict is the fact, that having anxiety and fear of excess of their anthropogenic freedom, people create corporate culture for recovering their biological balance broken by freedom. In this context, culture is a try of reviving of animal natural state harmony. A great number of symbols and ideas sacralized by culture serve to this purpose. But freedom cannot exist with the normative construction. All unpredictable dynamics of human history is based on the continuing process of the conflict.

N.L. Lopatina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-3-13

The author considers the degradation of peasant labour culture in the Soviet kolkhozes, which still affects the modern village. Peasantry is presented as the community of rural inhabitants occupied with crop growing and cattle breeding who possess socio-cultural legacy of ancestors. The author highlights the idea, that traditional culture of peasant labour in Russia was very high. To prove the fact, the examples from the research work of classical writers of the Russian history, ethnographers’, foreigners’ evidence about Russia and the Russian folklore are given in the article. According to the author the policy of collectivization led to the socio-cultural degradation of the traditional labour culture of peasants. The absence of private property, material and moral interests as well as super-exploitation of peasants by the state, low-paid work, cultural revolution and "equal rights" for everybody were the main factors, which led to degradation. And as the result, such phenomena as low productivity of labour, economic indifference, imitation of labour were formed and all the previously mentioned factors led to moral degradation. The author supports the formulated conclusions with the testimonies of former peasants which have been collected in the new scientific genre "oral history". In the opinion of eyewitnesses of collectivization and the author of the article for the modern village recovery it is necessary to give peasants private property and freedom of creativity.