Financial market

Development of Modern Forms and Technologies of Banking Services
Susanna Abramyan,  Irina Gazizulina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-247-260

The article reveals the problem of effective interaction of bank employees with customers, as well as the technological and innovative component of these relations. Currently, banks are focusing on the needs of the client and their satisfaction, on expanding the customer base and market share, which push the increase in profits into the background. It is this fact that forces credit institutions to invest in new projects to serve customers, while not causing inconvenience in the provision of services. The authors consider the possibility of improving existing forms of banking services by introducing new technologies and using biometrics technologies, which significantly reduce the time spent by client managers on departure and costs. To implement projects, the bank needs to attract partners in the face of IT companies and developers, as well as invest in the development of biometric technologies. The interaction of client managers of large, medium and small businesses, other clients – legal entities and individual entrepreneurs was chosen as the object of the study.

The article analyzes the main forms of banking services and presents the classification of the remote form. The authors analyze the number of accounts with remote access for the period 2015-2020. Using the formula of the total cost of service, the authors reveal the effectiveness of the introduction of remote technologies by banks over the traditional form of service. The article also highlights focusing of modern banks on offering ecosystem products to customers, and analyzes the profitability of these activities. Based on the report on financial results, calculations were made and a forecast of the profitability of the implemented project was made using indicators of the present net income and the rate of return. Statistical data from the official websites of banks and the Federal State Statistics Service, as well as articles, other information materials of printed publications and Internet resources were used as an information base. In the course of the research, the authors used methods of statistical and comparative analysis, and gave a list of relevant sources.

Institute of Rehabilitation of Credit Institutions in Russia: Problems and Prospects of Development
Nina Protas
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-261-277

The article is devoted to the study of the institution of rehabilitation of credit institutions in Russia, its current problems and prospects for further development. The author examines the influence of the institution of reorganization on the stability of the country’s banking system. The object of research in the article is the Institute of Reorganization of Credit Institutions in Russia. The subject of the study is an assessment of the current state of the domestic institute of rehabilitation of credit institutions. The theoretical and methodological basis of this article is the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation, the normative acts of the Bank of Russia, scientific publications and studies of Russian scientists devoted to the study of this issue. Statistical materials of the Federal State Statistics Service, the Bank of Russia, as well as other information materials posted on the Internet were used as an information base. The study is based on methods of statistical analysis, a review of literature, regulations and other information sources concerning the rehabilitation of credit institutions, and covers 1990-2021.

The definition of rehabilitation of credit institutions is formulated. The main stages of the development of the institution of rehabilitation of credit institutions are considered: the mechanism of the rehabilitation procedure, the main changes in it at each stage of the institute’s development, its advantages and disadvantages. The ‘credit’ mechanism of bank rehabilitation with the participation of the Deposit Insurance Agency (DIA) and the mechanism with the participation of the Management Company of the Banking Sector Consolidation Fund specially established by the Bank of Russia (LLC “CC FCBS”) are considered in the most detail. Each of these mechanisms has its advantages and disadvantages highlighted. Currently, both of these methods are used in Russia. Based on the analysis of the current state of the institute of rehabilitation and the effectiveness of the rehabilitation of credit institutions, a number of problems are identified: the lack of a single regulatory act regulating the activities of this institute, the high cost of the procedures of rehabilitation, etc. Recommendations for their solution and improvement of the institution of rehabilitation of credit institutions in Russia are given for each identified problem.

Application of Project and Process Approaches on the Example of the Largest Banks of the Russian Federation
Natalya Pozhidaeva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-278-290

The article contains materials on the periodization of the application and development of project and process management in the banking sector of the Russian Federation in 2008–2021. Based on modern ideas about the economic (financial) crisis as a factor in stimulating innovation, including the banking sector, the author examines the consequences of the 2008–2009 and 2014–2015 crises and the corona crisis 2020-2021 as one of the answers to them - the introduction of project and process approaches by banks to improve banking processes. The author reveals the impact of the crisis (2008–2009) on the development and implementation by the largest banks of innovative technologies based on lean manufacturing approaches (Lean), the creation of their own production systems, as well as brief conclusions on the results of the application of lean management. The impact of the crisis of 2014–2015 is considered to stimulate innovation of commercial banks using the innovative Agile project approach, an innovative process approach based on the BPM (Business Process Management) model and other similar models. Process management and time-to-market reduction using the Agile approach are of particular relevance in the context of declining margins of the banking business and/or focusing on the best customer experience of leading Russian banks. Particular attention is paid to the innovations of 2020–2021, focused on the implementation of the ecosystem approach in the banking sector. The financial crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic (corona crisis) has greatly accelerated the social, economic and geopolitical processes taking place in the world, and it will be easier for those organizations that have wide product and service lines and create ecosystems that form a seamless customer experience. Project and process management discussed in the article are used in most of the largest Russian banks and their ecosystems at the present time.

Law and ethics

The Relationship between Transparency and Administrative Liability in Comparative Law
Vincenzo De Falco
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-291-303

The author considers the interrelationship between the legislative formalization of administrative responsibility and the acceptance or non-acceptance of the ethical and legal principle of transparency of power, understood as free access to information. The universality of the right to information is substantiated. The paper shows the transition of the legislation of various countries from the principle of secrecy of any information at the disposal of state bodies to the principle of transparency, considered as freedom of search, receipt and dissemination of information. This transition is shown in dynamics as going through several stages. The author considers various models of administrative responsibility adopted in various jurisdictions, mainly in European countries, in comparison with the American model. Their mutual influence is also taken into consideration. Much attention is paid to the need for the correct application of the principle of transparency. It is noted that the declarations underlying the new rules adopted recently cannot give real innovative effects if the reforms are not accompanied by changes in organizational structures and additional financial investments. At the same time, the completeness of the transition from the secrecy regime to the principle of transparency is determined by the legal traditions that have developed in different countries.

Legal Aspects of the Ethical Principle of Protecting Legitimate Expectations (on the example of South America)
Maddalena Zinzi
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-304-316

The principle of legitimate expectations becomes a new limiter of administrative action, further strengthening the legal positions of the subject. The author shows that the principle of legitimate expectations is aimed at protecting the positions of the subject. This doctrine belongs to administrative law and is associated with the ethical principles of morality, loyalty and, above all, good faith. Influenced by the Spanish experience, this is now a widespread approach in South American countries where the doctrine of legitimate expectation is mentioned in administrative procedures. This is particularly relevant predominantly in the context of administrative actions. The author highlights the idea that in South America, legal practice directly points to the principle of good faith as an effective means of preventing a negative attitude towards an individual. The paper analyses the features of the application of this principle in such South American countries as Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Peru, Bolivia and Uruguay. At the same time, the author notes that there are several factors that affect the operation of the principle, do not depend on normative acts, and may limit the protection of the legal positions of subjects. The most important of these is the process of transition to democracy, which is still ongoing in these countries and is strongly influenced by persistent primary dynamics such as the logic of so-called caudilism, idiosyncratic legal traditions and political practices, and complex and conflicting social, ethical and cultural contexts.

Theory and history of culture

Ethnogonic Texts in the Indo-European Tradition
Sergey Proskurin,  Anna Proskurina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-317-331

This article examines the texts of the Indo-European tradition, which narrate about the myths of the origin of peoples. Thus, a segment of the Anglo-Saxon runic series correlates with Tacitus’s description of the origin of the Ingevon tribe. As a result, the parameters of the ethnically derived text are reconstructed. The parameters explain the choice of the sequence of the runes of the Anglo-Saxon Futhark. The restored text testifies that the Ingevons, who had the totem deity Ing, lived on the shores of the Ocean, and this was their homeland. Ethnogonic texts also tell about the correlation of totem and ethnonym in past eras. The German influence on the choice of the ethnonym Rus, determined by the alliterative connection of the name of the country with the name of Rurikovich, has been explained. The Rurikovich themselves came from the name of the Rhos tribe.

Many ethnogonic texts are associated with sacrificial rituals. In this context, of interest is the name Italia, which takes its origin in the sacred texts of the high sacred style. The most ancient Indo-European inscription in the Lusitanian language, written in a high style and telling about the origin of the Veaminikori tribe, is analyzed. The choice of the names of sacred animals is contrasted with the profane names of the Latin prayer to the god Mars. The suouetaurilia prayer bears witness to the repertoire of sacrificial texts about dairy animals. As a result, it becomes clear that the name Italy is derived from the name uitulus in a high sacred style.

Thus, the thematic contours of Indo-European texts containing ethnogonic myths about the origin of peoples are revealed. The boundaries between cultures are erased, and the Indo-European prototext comes to the fore, giving impetus to the genesis of ethnonyms, the naming of totems, as well as the names of their own tribal leaders.

Thus, we can conclude that the sacred names of young dairy animals are represented in the Lusitanian language. In the rite of sacrifice, the scale of high style is attested. The name Italia refers precisely to the solemn sacred layer of vocabulary, but already as the implicit name of a Latin prayer to the god Mars.

In the proportions of a proper name, rules for handling a name are incorporated, which vary from tradition to tradition. Attention is drawn to the special nature of ethnogonic texts that shed light on the origin of peoples. Cultural boundaries can be the limit that generates recognizable patterns that migrate from culture to culture.

Intercultural and Social Communication: Tolerance or Love?
Tatyana Zaytseva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-332-346

The research attempts at solving the problem of tolerance compatibility with Orthodox values. The concept of tolerance arouses ambiguous feelings in Russia. A fairly common point of view is that tolerance is recognized exclusively as a Western value, being completely foreign to the Orthodox tradition. The article analyzes different approaches to the concept of tolerance and reveals its key meanings. As for the very concept of tolerance, the author agrees with those researchers who argue for this term to be clarified, since tolerance cannot be reduced only to being patient. Patience must be supplemented by the recognition of the ‘other’ as an equal. The analysis substantiates the argument that the real recognition of the ‘other’ and a different system of values as well as otherness as such is possible only in the format of a dialogue.  The article reveals the ontological essence of love and examines the Orthodox understanding of love, which is opposed to tolerance by its critics. For the analysis of the Orthodox viewpoint the author relies on the patristic heritage, primarily on the works of the pillar of Orthodoxy, the monk Maximus the Confessor as well as St. Theophan the Recluse and others. The process of comparing a tolerant position with a love-based strategy of behavior reveals some points of convergence, such as: respect for the other, recognition of his right to be himself, refusal of violence against the individual, refusal to look at a person as a means to solve their own problems, irreducibility of a person to his beliefs or behavior. At the same time, the research leads to the conclusion that there is a significant difference between tolerance and love, with this difference being related to a diverse view of human nature.  From the Orthodox point of view, love as a life position is a view of a person as a being endowed with spirituality that determines one’s essence. This is a view of man as a potentially divine being, while tolerance views man as a representative of the human race whose life is limited to the earthly matters. The author substantiates the conclusion about the meaninglessness of contrasting tolerance and love, since these concepts reflect the stages of a person’s spiritual ascent, whose top is love.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

Characteristic Features of the Dutch Enlightenment at the end of the 18th Century
Nina Makarova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-347-359

The article analyzes the characteristic features of the Dutch Enlightenment at the end of the 18th century. During this period, a movement of "patriots" appeared in the Republic of the United Provinces, who in their activities paid great attention to the education of the people, as well as to the school reform and children education. Educational societies and social clubs were formed, uniting people of different social background, engaged in the discussion of pressing socio-political issues. Under the influence of the pan-European Enlightenment movement, such authors as Jan Floris Martinet appeared in Holland, who promoted teaching children the natural sciences and humanities not in the form of traditional lectures in the classroom, but in the form of a conversation between a teacher and a student during an excursion or travel. Of particular importance to the Dutch enlighteners was the experience and writings of German philanthropists, who founded new schools in Germany - philanthropinums. A characteristic feature of the Dutch Enlightenment was the emphasis on family education in the formation of modern man. This was reflected, in particular, in the work of the poet Hieronymus van Alphen, as well as in the increased interest in women's education during this period.

Creativity as an Integral Part of the Educational Process
Georgy Morgunov,  Ruslan Khandogin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-360-375

The article is devoted to the consideration of some aspects of creativity in the context of its essential and conceptual involvement in the educational process. Creativity is a social, cultural and psychological process, but both in the industrial and in the post-industrial paradigm, the educational system is in a subordinate position. Human development as self-development is always a creative act. It is impossible to force a person to be creative: creativity, self-actualization, responsibility should grow “from below”, and not descend in the form of command directives “from above”. In order for creativity to become the norm of the educational process, it is necessary to organize it in such a way that all its participants can fully realize themselves in it as individuals. The “hidden” level of creativity, included in the considered model “Four-C”, reveals the space of creative goal-setting, activities and behavior that trigger mechanisms for realizing creative potential and the ability to adequate, dynamic, flexible response to emerging problems, overcoming arising difficulties, mobilizing internal resources of a  person. At the same time, the rationality of the creative process, in which a person is able to penetrate, a particular object of his activity is also determined, accepting it in universal, substantial characteristics, disobjectifying, and not simply using it in a purely external way. Systemic creativity seems impossible without a personal component, but personal creativity is reproduced and funded by the system. The educational system forms an organic unity of creative work and creativity. Decay, disequilibrium, uncertainty, loss in new circumstances at the same time generate and actualize creativity as a response to new challenges, as the only possible way to solve permanently emerging new non-trivial problems, since traditional and classic methods do not help much. Thus, the education system, on the one hand, can be a more or less suitable space for realizing the creative potential of a person, and on the other hand, it itself produces a synthesis of personal and systemic creativity.

Conformism of the Soviet Artist as a Way of Existence in Art, or the Generation and Resurrection of Juliet by Soviet Conformism
Lev Mysovskikh
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-376-391

The article examines the influence of the phenomenon of conformism on the formation of an artistic image in the Soviet classical choreographic art on the example of the creative path of the outstanding Soviet ballerina Galina Ulanova. The author analyses the phenomenon of conformism in the Soviet artistic sphere and considers the conditions of its origin and development. Using the dialectical method of research, the author makes an attempt to analyze the phenomenon of conformity from a neutral position and determine its role in creating an artistic image. The biographical method of research makes it possible to establish the contribution of a particular conformist artist to the formation of a single art form – Soviet classical choreographic art. The author comes to the conclusion that artists in the course of their creative activity can consciously adhere to the form of conformal behavior as a certain strategy to achieve their creative goals, which can contribute to the creation of masterpieces and the development of art.

Urban Lifestyle in Soviet Feature Films: Development of Research Methodology
Elena Kochukhova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-392-407

The article discusses the methodological problems one faces while working with the feature films in research on Soviet daily urban life. In the cultural anthropology of Soviet society, three methodological concerns should be highlighted. First, feature films are rarely thought of as providing reliable data and play marginal role in anthropological research. Second, the study of Soviet cultural politics in general and feature films in particular, requires bringing diverse disciplines in humanities in a synthesis. Third, the apparent lack of specific methodological guidelines for such analysis can be explained by the ongoing controversies in the theory of cinema and competing approaches to film studies. We found that although in the anthropology of Soviet society feature films are seen as an effective instrument of culture politics, there are but a few cases of studies focusing on feature films. At the same time the expressive potential of cinema and the viewer’s perceptions make films an important source for studying daily city life. On the one hand, the visual imagery of such films contains elements of urban life that are familiar to the viewer and thus provide a context that is understandable and intuitively legible. On the other hand, through the use of various dramatic and cinematographic techniques, certain norms of urban life are established in regard to daily practices, for instance, showcasing desirable images of urban dwellers.  Therefore, analysis of feature films can shed light both on the reality of urban life and on its norms constructed in accordance with the goals of culture politics.  In order to distinguish these two types of representations of urban living, it is necessary to take into account the conventions of the cinematic language evolved in different periods of Soviet history; the key points of culture policy; the actual social and economic opportunities enjoyed by Soviet urban dwellers. Therefore, findings in the field of film studies, culture studies and history of Soviet society provide the necessary context for the analysis of Soviet cinema as an anthropological source. Semiotics and deconstruction are among the main approaches to the study of elements of the cinematic language and mechanisms underlying the construction of ideological messages that these elements convey. In this study, we relied on protocol schemes developed by Helmut Korte as a methodological tool for film analysis.

Problems of national discourse

N.A. Berdyaev’s Chiliastic “Mirage” and Eurasianism
Igor Likhomanov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-408-427

The article is devoted to the problem of N. A. Berdyaev’s ambiguous and contradictory attitude to Eurasianism - the ultra-right political trend of Russian emigration in the 1920s and 1930s. The author sees the reasons for Berdyaev’s rapprochement with the Eurasians in the collapse of the religious and mystical ideal that captured the philosopher’s imagination during the First World War. Under the influence of religious excitement that seized part of the Russian intelligentsia in the pre-war period, he believed in the nearness of the end of history and the onset of the millennial Kingdom of God on earth. According to Berdyaev, Russia was called upon to fulfill its historical mission in this final act of the world drama. This role (the “Russian Idea”) was to unite the East and the West in a global religious and cultural synthesis.

The revolution of 1917 destroyed Berdyaev’s eschatological ideal and forced him to radically reconsider his view.  From a Christian anarchist, he turns into a statesman, a defender of conservative values and social hierarchy. During this period, his social philosophy is very close to the ideology of fascism. But fascism was a pan-European phenomenon and in each country had its own original versions. The Eurasian movement was one of the varieties of Russian fascism. Berdyaev’s political sympathies brought him closer to this movement and became the main reason for long-term cooperation with its leaders. However, the commitment to the values of individual freedom and Christian personalism as the basis of his worldview did not allow Berdyaev to go far in his passion for right-wing conservative ideas.

In the late 1920s, he sharply criticized the totalitarian features of the Eurasian ideology. After the National Socialists came to power in Germany, Berdyaev gets the opportunity to compare European far-right regimes and creates a general theory of totalitarianism. In this theory, he uses Eurasian concepts and terminology.  Thus, Eurasianism becomes a model for him, on the basis of which he develops his theory of totalitarianism.

After the end of the Second World War, the philosopher got deeply disappointed. After the end of the Second World War, the disappointment of the philosopher was due to the failure of his hopes for a softening of the political regime in the USSR. He was again seized by gloomy forebodings of an unsuccessful end to human history. And although the hope for a favorable outcome of the struggle between good and evil did not leave Berdyaev until the end of his life, a sense of realism weakened those hopes and faith in the feasibility of the “Russian Idea”.

“New Religious Consciousness” as the Development of L.N. Tolstoy Main Idea of “Religion” – the Idea of Apostasy from Orthodoxy
Svetlana Malimonova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-428-437

The work is devoted to the study of the new religious consciousness” from the point of view of religion, its comparison with other religious systems, and specifically with the religious and moral teachings of L.N. Tolstoy, with which the “new religious consciousness” has much in common. The teachings of L.N. Tolstoy were widely known, criticized by the Orthodox Church, and the figures of the “new religious consciousness” expressed a lot of critical opinions about the teachings of L.N. Tolstoy, they often refused to recognize him as an Orthodox. Nevertheless, they undertook the development of many of Tolstoy’s ideas, which later became the real basis of the “new religious consciousness”. Being in many aspects the development of L.N. Tolstoy teachings, the “new religious consciousness” criticizes “historical” Christianity, its dogmas, contains the ideas of a religious revolution, denies state power, autocracy, and also proposes to create a new religion, build the Kingdom of God on earth, etc. In addition, Tolstoyism and the “new religious consciousness” are also brought together by the fact that both Tolstoy and the figures of the “new religious consciousness” did not rely on Orthodoxy as such in their studies, because they could not even know it enough, because they did not have a systematic theological education, but their ideas were based on Gnosticism, Theosophy, Buddhism, paganism, etc. Therefore, it becomes possible to consider that the “new religious consciousness” not only has a lot of points of contact with the religious and moral teachings of L.N. Tolstoy, not only develops some of his ideas, but also follows the main idea of ​​his “religion” - the idea of ​​apostasy from Orthodoxy.

Populism/Neopopulism of the 19th-20th Centuries: Essence, the Problem of Unfulfilled Potential and the Relevance of Their Intellectual Heritage Today
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-438-452

Three main problems were brought up for discussion by the participants of the round table: What is the essence of populism/neo-populism? What potential aspects of populism / neo-populism were unrealized in the 19th-20th centuries and why? Is the old Soviet mantra about the “ideological collapse of populism” relevant today? How do we see the relevance of the intellectual heritage of populism/neo-populism? How and in what areas and spheres can it be used today and tomorrow?

The article by G.N. Mokshina “What is populism?” was offered as material for discussion. The article used materials from a survey of 32 specialist historians, who have attempted to propose their own formulations and approaches. During a lively discussion, the participants also discussed such problems as the need to clarify the conceptual apparatus and expand the terms populism / neo-populism, the relationship between populism / neo-populism and liberalism and various trends within populism, and came to the conclusion that it is necessary to continue the discussion.

Social practices

Student Lean-Clubs: Source оf Continuous Improvement оf the University Performance
Ekaterina Spiridonova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2022-14.1.2-453-468

ducational organizations require a fundamentally new organization of business processes. The transition to blended and distance learning (remote work) is the first reason. The second reason is the problems of Russian higher education that have accumulated earlier. Universities need to improve the efficiency of personnel, eliminate losses, maintain and improve the quality of the educational product. Lean production tools and techniques are suitable for these tasks. Lean production approaches have been used in large industrial plants around the world for many years. The expansion of lean practices to the service and public sector is a current trend. The ideology of lean production is also permeating higher education institutions. The Lean Universities Association contributes to this process. The National Project “Labor Productivity” is also a driver of development. Universities are training personnel for the implementation of this project. The students’ lean-club can be a successful form of interaction with students. Lean-club members will participate in the analysis of processes and generation of ideas for continuous improvement of the university. The activities of the lean-club will improve the work of the university and form a lean thinking among its members. The Kaizen quality philosophy can form the basis of the lean-club’s concept. It involves the gradual but constant implementation of improvements. The main tool will be quality control circles. Their participants will analyze business processes and make proposals for their improvement. Both Kaizen philosophy and lean production are customer focused. Students are customers and consumers of most of the key processes of the university. Building a system of continuous improvement of the university with the participation of students is considered appropriate. Student lean-club members need certain personal and professional competencies to implement projects. The most important competencies are soft skills and basic knowledge of lean production. They do not prevent you from joining the lean-club. Lean-club members can acquire these competencies as they work. Learning in practice, in the process of project activities from simple to complex, seems to be important and valuable.