From the first days of the war there appeared a large number of cartoons mocking the German army and the German people in the French press and on postcards. These cartoons - often woefully primitive and vulgar- allow to understand the reasons which forced the French to fight against the Germans, they show how the French perceived the war, especially in the beginning of the conflict, when the cartoons appeared in large numbers, and when they expressed the most cruel motives. Firstly, caricatures ridiculed the Germans. Secondly, they emphasized the danger caused by their invasion, accompanied by atrocities. Thirdly, the cartoons depicted the abomination, and the inhumanity of the enemy, both these qualities made the Germans an intermediary between a man and a pig. Caricature is, certainly, a popular aspect of propaganda, which turned out to be quite consistent with people’s preferences. This kind of genre is not only the evidence of the atrocities of the war, but also reveals the cruelty of creative thinking and is a constituent part of that total war.
In the article on the material of reconstruction of Z. Bauman’s book "The Relevance of the Holocaust" and the analysis of other studies the understanding of complex sciences, which are based on interdisciplinary research and focused in terms of practical applications in engineering and technology in the broadest sense, is introduced. First, the criteria of distinguishing between legal and illegal modernization of philosophical and scientific works are discussed. Special features of interdisciplinary research are characterized in every detail: partial implementation of methodological strategies and ideals of science, balancing and configuration of monodisciplinary discourses, which are included into interdisciplinary research, epistemic knowledge requirements obtained in these studies.
The duality of a man's relationship to Deity as the "I" and "we" turns into a dual character of any social cohesion, that is both free and repressive at the same time. The concept of genetic connection between "we" and "I" is a perfect reflection of the ideal foundation of empirically given communities. It is an abstract unity, "we", which has elevated beyond "I", and submitted itself to its tyrannical "must" provoking an uprising of "I". Manifestations of obligation are empathy, legitimation, sacralization. The conflict of “I” and “we” values inherent to the very basis of the ideal society is different for specific communities. Social empiricism has different understandings of genetical connection between "I" and "we." It has always been a cyclical conflict of "I" and "we" as an alternation of anarchy and despotism. In today's society it has acquired the form of the conflict between capitalism and socialism, but has retained its sacred source – Understanding of God (Bogoponimanie). The idea of coordination and non-hierarchical position of "we" and "I" is the concept of the ideal society, which depends on the right Understanding of God (Bogoponimaniye). The evolution of Understanding of God (Bogoponimaniye) changes the ratio of transcendence and immanence of the sacred Divine image; however, its antinomy will never be overcome and it is given objectively in the collective consciousness. Therefore, the absolute ideal theosis of a man coexists with the optimization ideal "service to the people" which includes the requirements of social subordination and discipline. Disclosure of the God’s immanence to a man softens the brutality of the legal and moral norms. Their arbitrary softening leads to chaos and social disasters. The ideal society is formed with the help of a unity of principles: service to the people, solidarity, and freedom. Service to the people is antinomic: a man is obliged to promote the growth of the Good and prevent the world from the Evil. These requirements are mutually exclusive. The first one requires following the Grace of God, and the second one - following the "law." Service to the people needs both strengthening the "law" and its weakening. Saving the world from the Evil is uppermost coercion of freedom in human actions. The reference to antinomianism of the optimization ideal turns into the assumption, that anthropological perfection as the growth of the Good frees a man from the objective social order.
Widely discussed global systemic crisis is redoubled by the lack of the ideas that can generate a new paradigm in the science, philosophy and intellectual culture in general. Philosophy is able to become the beginning of the intellectual culture output from the recession. This requires the fulfillment of the conditions: a new way of the problematizations, the inclusion of new philosophical problems into interdisciplinary discussion; identification of a number of the humanity ideas with poorly reflected philosophical intuitions and their coordination with problems. Philosophy mission in the XXI century is to establish some synthesis. In the broad sense this is an association of a human, nature and society in some system while prescribing their consistent attachment to the self-development of the Universe. In the narrow sense this is a synthesis of philosophy, physics and mathematics, where the prerogative of philosophy is the organization of interdisciplinary researches and projects. Another actual for philosopher’s task turns out the work at the basis of scientific social theory which is capable to analyze social processes including simulation tools on the computer; to serve as a basis for selecting some development strategies. For philosophers it is important to perceive intellectual culture in general as the main area of their activity when science is a part of this culture.
The author has devoted his article to the consideration of the moral aspects of such an important phenomenon of human communication as a RESPONSE. In our responses we humans behave honestly / dishonestly, resolutely / hesitantly, directly / evasively, respectfully / impudently, responsibly / irresponsibly, humanely / ruthlessly, adequately / with servility. It happens not only on the atomic level of the relationship between two individuals, but also where there is a line connection between an individual and a group, between two groups, an individual and a community, a group and a community. And there is every reason to attribute the answers, given by the actors to each other, to the semantic field studied by the ethical science. The answer is not simply a reaction to the event that has caused it. It's an emotional experience, a thought, an evaluation, or an action of the subject caused by significant moral circumstances. In response, people actively express their attitude to the events, showing their moral culture. Consideration of the generalized situation structure where there is a morally significant answer (SUBJECT – ADDRESSEE – OBJECT – CONTEXT – MOTIVATION – PURPOSE – TOOLS – RESULT) extends the ethical philosophical possibilities in understanding human culture, identifying the moral resources of an individual, a group, and a human community.
The article describes foundations of Post-Operaism in particular and ontology of abundance in general in their connection with the problem of precarity. The critique of the debatable theoretical aspects of the congruous ontological constructions and especially anti-capitalist socio-political projects based on them is represented. Much attention is paid to the question of nomadism – the idea of nomadism was transferred from the context of the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari to the soil of contemporary autonomous Marxism and it has become an important aspect of the post-operaist theory (precarious homeless multitude), from the point of which nomadism is perceived as emancipatory. But we can’t help noting its resemblance to the late-capitalist ideology of mobility.
On the basis of analysis of the normogenesis concepts the author proposes the formulation of the foundations for the integrative approach to the issue of the nature of normativity. The possibility of such approach is viewed in the reference to the anthropological sense of normogenesis.A human as a special kind of being, as the basis of his being constituted the dynamic equilibrium of the individual-collective ability to live within a certain socio-cultural model of evolution. A variety of shapes and characteristics of the normativity phenomenon can be explained by means of bringing together to the relatively stable unity of the ontological foundations: substantial, cultural and historical, and discursive. The resulting theoretical model allows to link different concepts of normogenesis and obtain heuristically and prognostically a significant idea of the establishment of norms.
In explaining the causes of the acute economic crisis, which is Russia experiencing now; it is important to step aside from the widespread simplified opportunistic interpretations, connecting it to the events of recent times. The real causes of this crisis are determined by the fundamental phenomena in the history of Russia and the Russian economy of the last century. As the first reason the authors name a huge loss of human capital during the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. The second reason is a wrong way of reforming the Russian economy in the early 90's. The third reason is a long period of minimizing labor and intellectual efforts of all sectors of Soviet society in the period of stagnation, in contrast to their mobilization in the 30-60s years. As a result of these three causes Russia has currently produced, at least four "dwarves": government, society, business (to a lesser extent) and much of the economic science. The article provides several scenarios for the Russian economy in the situation when these “dwarves” influence all the processes occurring in the country. The conclusion is that the crisis of 2010, with the sharpest (in the last 25 years) foreign policy crisis, marks the end of an era of modern Russian history related to social and economic transformations of post-Soviet period, or even the entire post-Stalin period.
It is typical for innovative projects to be not profitable during the first stages of their implementation, as well as to carry high levels of risk because of high uncertainty degree in forecasted cash flows. In that situation standard methods of economic efficiency analysis do not allow to obtain proper evaluation of whether it is reasonable to make investments. The paper describes contemporary methods of such evaluation able to solve this problem. These are the real options method and the fuzzy-sets method. A critical analysis of foreign and Russian works is conducted. It is revealed that real options approach is quite widely used in foreign articles but is almost absent in the Russian ones, whereas a fuzzy-sets method is actively applied both abroad and in Russia. At the same time combined utilization of both methods is quite rare. Despite more accurate results in highly risky projects evaluations brought by the real options method comparing traditional approaches, it is also could be complemented with the fuzzy sets methods. It could allow to improve accuracy of innovative project evaluation made by a venture investor and to enhance the toolset available for him.
A Round table on regional and international studies was held as a part of the annual scientific session of the Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU) on 5 March 2015. The Round table brought together the lecturers engaged in the research of Russian society and the regional problems in the field of international relations. The Round table was attended by the lecturers of the Departments of International Relations and Regional Studies, Sociology, Social Work and Social Anthropology. The purpose of the Round table was to discuss the problems of regional studies in the field of theoretical research and applied research. The following issues and topics were discussed: the complexity and interdisciplinarity of regional research, strategies for construction of the Regional Studies subject, the specificity of regional studies and teaching of regional disciplines. In addition to the development of regional studies focused on international relations, comprehensive studies of Russia's regions that meet the needs of a specific region in the new regional modeling systems, implementation of innovative technologies, the examination of the activities of the various organizations, programmes and projects are becoming more noticeable. A number of Roundtable participants clearly showed that the driver of the emergence and development of scientific projects are the needs of the region addressed to "its" University. It was noted that the development of applied research, social forecasting and social diagnosis for the local community at the University is yet another challenge for University regional segment research.
SOCIALIST-REVOLUTIONARIES ABOUT THE ESSENCE AND CHARACTER OF THE BOLSHEVIST REGIME IN THE YEARS OF CIVIL WARMorozov Konstantin
The author analyzes how Socialist-Revolutionaries estimated the character of the Bolshevik regime. He considers this in the context of the opposition between Socialist-Revolutionaries (PSR) and Bolsheviks as representatives of two branches of the Russian socialism – Narodnichestvo and Marxism. This opposition had a long history and roots. It must be taken into account that their doctrines had different nature and were derived from different concepts. At the same time it is a fundamental issue that Bolsheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries argued in the frames of one socialist paradigm, but PSR offered another model of socialist society and other ways and means of its construction and they estimated the Bolshevik regime from this point of view. The evaluations of the Bolshevik regime differed among the PSR members according to the group attachment of this or that PSR member. Centrists and Left-Centrists argued that adventurous and ill-considered actions of Bolsheviks pursuing among others selfish interests would lead to the discredit of the conception of socialism in the eyes of the masses and impede the movement to it in future. “The Right-Wing PSR members” including the group of Avksent’ev and Fondaminsky saw the near future of Russia in recovery of destroyed economy mainly on the capitalist basis and by “the formation of a healthy productive bourgeoisie” but necessarily with simultaneous development of democracy, self-government, cooperation, trade-unions and with PSR cooperation with other democratic parties for common or coordinated actions. V.M. Chernov characterized the Soviet regime as a form of state capitalism. All those Socialist-Revolutionaries stated from the very beginning: the impossibility of building socialism in the country with unready economic, social, cultural and psychological prerequisites; the regime relies not on the mass initiative but on the coercion and intimidation; the development of state terror to enormous quantitative and qualitative degrees which had no analogues in the previous history and destroyed the society structure; the degeneration of the Bolshevik party itself (E.M. Ratner pointed out this fact, which happened in 1922, at the PSR Trial, speaking about moral experimentation of Bolsheviks) – all this was confirmed during the next decades
The article is devoted to Eurasian civilizational identity of Russia and Mongolia and to the problem of civilizational identity of Russian and Mongolian youth. The processes of globalization and modernization affect the value orientations of young people. The break of traditions and continuity of generations due to global and local socio-cultural processes is the main cause of the disintegration trends of Russian and Mongolian society. The authors make a conclusion that the formation of the Eurasian civilizational identity of Russian and Mongolian youth will promote continuity between generations and create favorable conditions for the development of cooperation between Russia and Mongolia.
The article offers the interdisciplinary culturological and art-critical approach allowing to reveal a number of the important semantic points in interpretation of a picture of the Altai artist A. Gnilitsky "Encounter". The painting became widely known due to its participation at exhibitions in Altai and Siberian exhibition in Omsk in 2013. Here the artist continues the tradition of Russian realistic portrait, and his manner of painting is close to the Russian Impressionism, going back to L. Turzhansky. The method applied here shows its prospects in the analysis of the works of contemporary artists, the painting reveals the figurative and psychological aspects of thematic portrait, makes it possible to describe and identify the specific features of the artistic manner of A. Gnilitsky.