In the history of philosophical thought the past twentieth century was marked by a great turning point caused by the collapse of the previous intellectual, cultural, and attitudinal paradigm characteristic of the classical modern era. Acting as the destroyer of this paradigm, postmodernism prioritized the “effectiveness of language”, freeing it from morality and truth, and reducing it to the transmission of information regardless of the degree of honesty or dishonesty of the position taken by the interested party. It is in the philosophy of postmodernism that language in its functional and especially in its axiological relation has undergone a violent degradation. Unlike postmodernism, the philosophy of the modern era has never ceased to live the history and heritage of world philosophical thought, the importance of which in the history of cultures and civilizations has always been recognized as the beginning of all subsequent intellectual and technical achievements of mankind. The key place in the article is occupied by the analysis of Heidegger’s fundamental ontology, which creates a “theology without God” and rejects divine reality, without the realization of which the only possibility remains despairing pessimism. In postmodernism, language ceases to be an instrument of cognition of reality, remaining an instrument of the strategy of persuasion. Thus, philosophy should not abandon its own purpose in the search for teleological meaning in the evaluation and interpretation of human being in the world. The new conceptualization of the existence of the world and man was formalized in the philosophy of existentialism and postmodern. These approaches to the interpretation of man, his language, thinking, consciousness and faith inherent in the philosophy of J.-P. Sartre, N.A. Berdyaev, K. Jaspers, M. Heidegger, J. Derrida, M. Foucault and R. Rorty form the subject of this article. The author shows that it is the philosophy of classical modernity, based on Christian doctrine with its orientation to the life of the future century, is an alternative to postmodernism.
The a rticle discusses three versions of the question of the structure of Epicurus’ philosophy. According to the fi rst version, Epicurus’ philosophical teaching consists of three parts: physics, ethics and canonics. An established tradition in the history of philosophy speaks in favor of this version. An important role in the formation of this tradition was played by such authors as Cicero, Seneca, Sextus Empiricus, Diogenes Laertius. According to the second version, Epicurus’ philosophical teaching is limited to two parts: physics and ethics. The Canonics is not considered as a separate section. It is part of physics. The basis for this version is the emphasis in the texts of Epicurus on two teachings: about nature and lifestyle. The two-part structure of epicureanism is also reported by some late Antique authors. According to the third version, the philosophical teaching of Epicurus does not have a strict division into separate parts. First of all, this is evidenced by the lack of clear statements of Epicurus about the structure of his teaching. It also follows from the texts of Epicurus that he adheres to a holistic view of philosophy, in which there is no special need to divide it into separate parts. In addition, works are attributed to Epicurus, the classifi cation of which is not reported. This may indicate a weak elaboration by Epicurus of the question of the structure of philosophical teaching. It was found that Epicurus does not share Plato’s and Aristotle’s representations about the classifi cation of sciences. Epicurus contrasts the representation of the division of sciences into theoretical, practical and productive with the opinion of the division of sciences into useful – contributing to the acquisition of serenity and useless – not contributing to the achievement of this goal. Epicurus’ disagreement with academics and peripatetics on this issue contributes to the assumption that Epicurus does not share other representations of his opponents, including the three-part structure of philosophy.
Historical Review of Russian Biographies of Aristotle (Second Half of the 18th – Early 20th Centuries)Oksana Egorova
The article reviews some multi-genre texts of Russian intellectual literature (the 18th – early 20th centuries), containing structured biographies of Aristotle: dictionaries and encyclopedias, textbooks, educational and scientifi c publications. The author singles out seven main chronological periods in the history of the philosopher’s biographies’ creation, as well as their features and source base, with special attention to the authors’ personalities. A separate block examines the key biographies of Aristotle written in the Soviet era. In the main part of the article the author describes each of the selected periods chronologically in every detail, and considers the history of the individual biographical works’ creation. It is noted that the content of the studied texts varies from full-fl edged biographical sketches to brief notes, listing only the main facts or stages of Aristotle’s life. The conclusion is made about the auxiliary nature of these works, where the philosopher’s biography was often referred to when compiling thematic encyclopedic and dictionary articles, or historical references for educational purposes. At the same time, this information was borrowed mainly from foreign encyclopedic publications and popular science works devoted to Aristotle. The above features of the content of the studied texts allow us to call them Russian biographies of Aristotle only conditionally. Among the designated authors there are scientists from various fi elds, philosophers, publicists, theologians and popularizers of science. However, among them there were no professional researchers who purposefully studied the biography of Aristotle. The most signifi cant for the Russian culture of the studied period are the works of S. Ya. Nechaev, G. Voskresensky, S. S. Gogotsky, S. G. Kovner, E. F. Litvinova, S. N. Trubetskoy.The article reviews some multi-genre texts of Russian intellectual literature (the 18th – early 20th centuries), containing structured biographies of Aristotle: dictionaries and encyclopedias, textbooks, educational and scientifi c publications. The author singles out seven main chronological periods in the history of the philosopher’s biographies’ creation, as well as their features and source base, with special attention to the authors’ personalities. A separate block examines the key biographies of Aristotle written in the Soviet era. In the main part of the article the author describes each of the selected periods chronologically in every detail, and considers the history of the individual biographical works’ creation. It is noted that the content of the studied texts varies from full-fl edged biographical sketches to brief notes, listing only the main facts or stages of Aristotle’s life. The conclusion is made about the auxiliary nature of these works, where the philosopher’s biography was often referred to when compiling thematic encyclopedic and dictionary articles, or historical references for educational purposes. At the same time, this information was borrowed mainly from foreign encyclopedic publications and popular science works devoted to Aristotle. The above features of the content of the studied texts allow us to call them Russian biographies of Aristotle only conditionally. Among the designated authors there are scientists from various fi elds, philosophers, publicists, theologians and popularizers of science. However, among them there were no professional researchers who purposefully studied the biography of Aristotle. The most signifi cant for the Russian culture of the studied period are the works of S. Ya. Nechaev, G. Voskresensky, S. S. Gogotsky, S. G. Kovner, E. F. Litvinova, S. N. Trubetskoy.
The article deals with the mechanism of the religious conversion of the 18th century Königsberg writer J.G. Hamann as well as the infl uence of this event on his subsequent literary activity characterized by an insightful critique of the Enlightenment project. In his autobiography not geared toward the public, this conversion has features of a typical Pietist conversion with its peculiar language as well as normative accents on feelings along with the lowered role of reason. His debut work “Socratic Memorabilia”, however, which was addressed to I. Kant and I.K. Berens, served as vindication of his new “Weltanschauung”, and enables one to interpret his conversion as a transition to a new conceptual scheme with its own distinct interpretation of texts, ideas, and events. Theological-philosophical foundations of Hamann’s conversion have greater signifi cance than its psychological aspects. Within this framework, the former life is then viewed from a different perspective. However, it is the text and the author behind the text (rather than internal feeling of the heart) that is primary to Hamann. This text presupposes subsequent authorship of Hamann himself. Thus, the London conversion experience of Hamann may not be reduced to ecstasy, elimination of cognitive and rational capacities, but rather viewed as “metanoia”, a change of thinking, way of life, and worldview. From this perspective it is more appropriate to view the ensuing philosophical career of Hamann as activity in a different framework rather than conceptualization of personal experience of conversion. While his efforts were directed at a variety of subjects (theology and philosophy of history, aesthetics, philosophy of language, correlation of faith and reason, critique of political basis of the Enlightenment), the very thrust of his thinking was governed by a conceptual scheme, which in turn also implied a different lifestyle (attitude to professional activity, family, and marriage), incongruent with the conventional notions of the time.
The subject of this research is various ideas about happiness in the history of philosophy. Happiness is a concept of a special kind, the importance of which in motivating human activity is extremely great. The subject arouses a constantly renewed interest among philosophers, psychologists, educators, sociologists and other specialists throughout the foreseeable intellectual history of mankind from Antiquity to the present day. All people strive for happiness, understanding it as a guarantee of a prosperous existence, but they put the most diverse meaning into this concept. Happiness has always been the most important motive of human actions, therefore it is necessary to clarify the actual content of this phenomenon in the conditions of the modern spiritual situation of the time of the confrontation of cultures and civilizations. The purpose of the work is an attempt to analyze from the historical and philosophical positions the intellectual and emotional-spiritual state of a person in which he feels happy. Each historical epoch put forward its own ideals, so intellectuals offered new formulas of happiness. The philosophical origins of the concept of happiness investigated in the article allow us to consider and substantiate its substantive aspect from various positions (theological, social, psychological). The methodological basis is the general scientifi c methods of cognition (historical, system-structural and dialectical, due to the complexity and internal inconsistency of the subject) in combination with the philosophical and anthropological approach. The main method of research is the historical-deductive method, a method of comparative analysis of philosophical approaches to solving the problem of happiness in various historical epochs. In conclusion, the authors assert that happiness is a deeply experienced complex integral physical, mental, intellectual, social and spiritual state that depends on the person himself. A person’s happiness is himself, his life created by him, in which all the acquired values of culture fi nd their true place and meaning. The results of the study can be used in the process of educating young people and teaching philosophy and humanities in various educational institutions.
Numerous publications indicate the presence of a deep political crisis in the United States. One of the most obvious indicators of the crisis is the authoritarian tendency in the development of the political system. Polarization between the two major parties has reached its peak. Polls show, with both sides perceiving the opposing party not just as a political rival, but as an enemy of the nation. The divergence of positions between them on important issues has greatly increased, which gives rise to extreme partisanship in decision-making. This article is the fi rst in a series about the “end of America”. The topic of “the end of America” or “the death of America” has become especially relevant in the publications of the last 20 years. These phrases are used so often that many people no longer notice that they are compound metaphors. The article analyzes the framework or fi elds of meaning in which these metaphors acquire their context and content. The following meanings of “America” are identifi ed and described in the article: a sovereign country, a social and political-economic system, civilization and culture, a geopolitical player, a superpower, and, fi nally, the “American experiment,” that is, a unique political and social project for self-government in the state. The answer to the question “is America dying” (“died”) depends on what features of America, what values and principles of its structure are considered the main or system-forming ones. Most modern authors call democracy the main characteristic of the political system and understand by the “death of America” the “death of democracy,” or more precisely, the degeneration of democracy from liberal to authoritarian. The article contains examples confi rming this trend. Predictions of the “death of America” do not mean its inevitable end, since not all changes are irreversible. The current crisis in the history of the United States is far from the fi rst in the history; its political system contains opportunities and mechanisms for resolving crises and restoring the foundations of the “American project.”
Studies of Chinese stratagem thinking in Russia still do not take into account works created in line with the Confucian philosophical tradition. “A Complete Book of Wisdom” by Feng Menglong (1574–1646) can be regarded as a collection of stratagems. The grounds for this assessment may be found in traditional bibliographic descriptions and the modern research and publishing tradition.
The fi rst edition was published in 1626, the supplemented edition – in 1634.
Formally, “A Complete Book of Wisdom” can be referred to encyclopediasleishu. The text is not a continuous narrative, but consists of individual short stories; the number depends on the edition, from 1061 to 1236. Each story describes a precedent for the application of a stratagem. The period of the narration covers years from ancient times to the Ming Dynasty. Feng Menglong selected proper stories, edited them, and added his own comments. Typologically, similar stories are organized into separate sections (28 in total), which, in turn, are organized into chapters (10 in total). One chapter contains from two to four sections.
“A Complete Book of Wisdom” retains the features of the “A New Account of Tales of the World” by Liu Yiqing (403–444), which are characterized by a value classifi cation of people’s deeds. All the stories are arranged according to the principle of “from the best to the worst”.
Feng Menglong wrote a large preface to the entire work, and provided extended prefaces to each chapter. Each section is preceded by a brief explanation. Feng Manlong’s own ideological views can be discovered as the paratextual elements: prefaces and commentaries.
The article consists of two parts. The fi rst part is devoted to the description of the peculiarities of the narrative language of “A Complete Book of Wisdom”, as well as the analysis of the socio-philosophical issues that stimulated the creation of this work. On the basis of quotation from classics in Feng Menglong’s works two types of author’s meaning formation are revealed. The author of the paper shows transformation of ethical models of Sung neo-Confucianism and the changing status of the category ‘wisdom’ in Feng Menglong’s ideological program. The second part of the article offers the author’s commented translation of Feng Menglong’s general preface to “A Complete Book of Wisdom” and ten prefaces to each chapter.
Vectors of Integration and Disintegration of Asian Russia: Prospects for the Future and Discussion about the PresentElena Erokhina
The article raises the problem of the lack of strategic planning in relation to the development of territories in the east of Russia. The author highlights the special status of the Siberian macro-region in terms of the integrity of the Russian Federation as well as the heuristic value of the concept “Asian Russia”, referring to the geopolitical risks of the early 20th century. The author analyses the challenges of its development that have not been overcome so far. These include the geographical remoteness of the center from the territorially vast periphery, the social alienation of the provinces from the capital enclaves, and the cultural distance between representatives of different ethnic groups. The resources of human potential in the east of Russia, the civilizational multi-vector nature of its Ural-Siberian core, and the stability of interethnic communities are designated as opportunities for the accelerated development of the macroregion.
The methodological basis of the study is the concept of V.L. Tsymbursky “Island of Russia”. On the basis of Rosstat data and the discursive analysis of the “Strategy for the socio-economic development of the Siberian Federal District until 2035”, the risks of underestimation of human capital for the future of Asian Russia and the country as a whole are shown. The main management risk in the long term may be the focus on “raw materials” specialization, which threatens to depopulate vast areas. It is concluded that there is no alternative to a real “turn to the East” and the accelerated development of the Asian regions of Russia as the core of the “Great Eurasia” project.
The problem statement concerns the actual issues of raising the status of the intellectual component of the Humanities education within the framework of the author’s investigation on “Cultural self-determination of the individual in the space of realization of intercultural communication”. The conditions of modeling communicative situations of the ecosystem of multicultural education are determined in the paradigm “From observation to generalization and replication through cooperation”.
The focus of this paper is on the strategic and tactic directions of the development of Russian education within the methodology and technology of the Self as a cultural personality.
Socio-philosophical perception and theoretical justifi cation of the problem under consideration have given grounds for mastering the communicative culture of the individual in the frames of intellectual architectonics of multilingual culture as the methodological basis of the many years of activity. The multicultural intellectual architectonics refl ects a humanizing core of the regional information and educational spaces. The social signifi cance of the formation of a multicultural mindset of the personality initiates creating of one of the possible models of the ecosystems of the synergetic effect of co-management in a communicative society.
The presentation of the effects of cooperation of the Department of the Institute of Continuing Education, educational organizations of Novosibirsk and Novosibirsk region, domestic publishers, as well as the effects of cooperation of regional, All-Russian and international universities is carried out within the framework of the project “Creating a unifi ed information and educational secure communication environment”. As the fi nal result of the generalization, the corpus of case-studies is considered, and the system of conditions for their implementation is substantiated as a multidimensional humanitarian project in the aspect of the integration of society and the reproduction of culture within the humanitarian educational practices. Such features of students’ perception of a different culture as the development of multilingualism and multicultures in artifi cial conditions of mastering the communicative skills of implementing the basics of intercultural communication are noted. Special emphasis focuses on the social signifi cance and cultural mission of educational organizations in the aspect of modeling the corpus of vital communicative situations/events in the space of scientifi c and methodological support within the socio-humanitarian sphere of regional events.
In conclusion, the system of methodological, pedagogical and methodological conditions for the effective implementation of the author’s model for the formation of intercultural skills and teaching/learning techniques of intercultural communication, which form the basis for the development of additional professional programs in the system of continuing professional education of specialists in various fi elds, is formulated.
Development of Humanistic Orientation of the Modern Russian Education System: Conditions for ImplementationMarina Kucherevskaya
The education system includes the main social institutions that perform the functions of upbringing and education. A common characteristic of any education system is the orientation towards the transfer of knowledge and the formation of skills in order to develop students. At the same time, each stage of social development corresponds to an education system that meets the requirements for the results and goals of education in a particular society. Historically, the evolution of educational systems is interconnected with the transformation of the socio-political structure.
The need for a serious reform of the Russian educational system arose under the infl uence of two interrelated factors: the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991 and its education system, and the rejection of the existing ideology of educating the younger generation. The protracted reform of the Russian education system is currently causing a lot of criticism from experts and the public, one of which is the deviation from humanistic traditions in teaching practice. The subject of analysis in the article is the conditions that ensure the implementation of the idea of developing the humanistic orientation of the modern education system in Russia.
At the origins of the implementation of any idea is a person, innovations in educational practice are embodied by a teacher. Consequently, the backbone components capable of ensuring the embodiment of the idea of a humanistic orientation of the modern education system in Russia are the goals of education that are consonant with this orientation and the pedagogical staff that ensure their achievement.
At the same time, the reforms of domestic education in the post-Soviet period led to the loss of the primacy of the educational component in the educational process. Currently, society and the state are making efforts to make up for this mistake. However, a signifi cant obstacle to solving this problem is often the unpreparedness of teachers to implement the educational functions of education based on the humane principles of pedagogy, the basis of which is to take into account the individual characteristics and personal needs of the pupil. The introduction of new forms and methods of working with students will not provide long-term results if it does not affect the foundations of the education system. The purpose of the article is to systematize and supplement information about the conditions that contribute to the development of the humanistic orientation of the modern education system in Russia.
The author evaluates the evolution of two ideas: the humanization of education and the formation of a professional orientation in the system of teacher training. The humanistic orientation is substantiated by the author as part of a professional orientation. The origins, problems and approaches to the scientifi c analysis of the idea of the formation and development of the humanistic orientation of future teachers in the conditions of university education are analyzed. To obtain substantiated scientifi c results, the author analyses the normative documentation of the Russian education system, dissertation research, current periodicals and the educational environment of the university. The paper also indicates the reasons preventing the mass dissemination of humanistic ideas in modern Russian education.
Thus, the author draws reasonable conclusions about the set of conditions necessary for the development of the humanistic orientation of the education system of modern Russia. Among the conditions mediated by the system of training of pedagogical personnel are: respectful relations of the subjects of the educational process; selection of the content of education; use of active forms and methods of training and education; participation of students in volunteer activities, including leader activities; creation of a special educational environment of the university. The general conclusion of the article is the emphasis on the dependence of the embodiment of the idea of developing the humanistic orientation of the Russian education system on the organizational and pedagogical conditions of the modern system of training teachers. The teaching staff in this historical period is a system-forming component of the Russian education system, on which the results of its transformation depend.
This article examines the phenomenon of open education, its infl uence, and prospects within the context of contemporary education. An in-depth exploration of this pedagogical approach offers invaluable insights for educators, researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders intrigued by advanced methodologies and ideas in the educational realm. The primary objective of the research is to ascertain how the principles of open education facilitate the transformation of traditional educational frameworks and how they can promote educational equity. To achieve this aim, the author employs a method of analyzing diverse sources and practical examples. It is posited that open education represents a signifi cant stride towards creating a more inclusive and accessible educational milieu, anchored in the principles of democracy, self-organization, and knowledge equality. The article’s key fi ndings encompass the understanding that open education, rooted in principles of accessibility, inclusivity, self-organization, and knowledge democratization, offers novel opportunities for the transformation of conventional education and the realization of educational fairness. Challenges in implementing open education, including digital disparity, content quality, accreditation, and student motivation, are also illuminated. Open education introduces pedagogical innovations, infusing elements of fl exibility and individualization. Novelty contributions of the research encompass delineating the impact of open education on transforming educational frameworks, a profound comprehension of open education principles and their application for ensuring educational equity, and the formulation of new methodological approaches to studying the open education phenomenon. In conclusion, the study offers valuable perspectives on the role and position of open education in the current educational landscape and its potential for further exploration. This work will be of interest to those seeking to understand and probe the possibilities that open education presents for today’s educational environment.
This article examines the relationship between the occurrence of non-communicable diseases and the level of physical activity in regions with various cultures. The World Health Organization statistics on diseases such as obesity and hypertension and physical activity data are taken as indicators. Particular attention is given to describing the cultural factors motivating the population to get engaged in sport and physical activity in countries such as Japan, India, China and the USA. The author touches upon the philosophical and religious foundations of the individual’s and society’s attitude to improving physical abilities in Eastern and Western cultures, as well as the special attitude of Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism to the interaction between the individual and society. In her reasoning the author relies on the differences in the priority goals of the individual in different cultural spaces. The author highlights the role of the collective-individual in the mass enthusiasm for physical exercise in the East and the development of professional sport in the West. The key factor here is the pronounced individualism of modern culture in Western Europe and North America. Particular attention is paid to educational approaches and the infl uence of the family on the development of positive attitudes towards physical activity. And also how orientation on family values infl uences formation of high level motivation to physical self-improvement. The article briefl y points out the reasons for the decline of physical activity and sports in modern Russia. The author concludes that cultural differences are a key factor that should be taken into account when planning social policy with regard to health and sport.