Economic theory

Scientific Support of Import Substitution in the National Security of Russia
Natalya Poltoradneva,  Vladimir Razumov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-235-256

The study of national economic and financial security in the context of sanctions and import substitution revealed the lack of a unified methodology in the economic block of the Russian Federation, manifested in the form of discrepancies in the methodological approaches of regulatory institutions of the ministerial level.

The presence of such theoretical and methodological discrepancies in the work of the regulatory institutions of Russia indicates the lack of a unified national state ideology for the formation of the development strategy of individual territories and the country as a whole. Effective and stable development of the country is impossible without strong science, the results of which are implemented in public practice.

Declaring a serious large-scale import substitution project, there is actually no task to develop an appropriate theoretical and methodological basis for it, to define a paradigm that is designed to reflect national interests. The presence of developed theories and methodology as the basis of the scientific foundation in the country’s economy, including economic security as an integral part of Russia’s national security, allows us to develop effective strategies that constitute a unique intellectual base for the development of the country’s economic sectors. If import substitution is based only on the initial level, without a scientific basis that takes into account the national interests of Russia, the preservation of the country’s sovereignty turns out to be an impossible task.

To verify the assertions made, letters were sent containing questions about the use by institutions of domestic or foreign theoretical and methodological tools in their work. The correspondence covered 7 ministries and the Bank of Russia, which form the economic bloc of the RF Government.

The analysis of the responses allows us to conclude: import substitution in Russia is defined narrowly, only in relation to groups of goods, technology and equipment without taking into account scientific domestic developments in theory and methodology; it is not clear what domestic/foreign tools are used in the economic block of Russia; there is no constructive interaction between representatives of the scientific and educational community and managerial practitioners.

Import substitution in Russia should start from the theoretical and methodological level, where the strategy is defined and the integrity in the activities of the institution and the relevant sector of the economy of the country is set.

Non-Cash Payments of Russians in Europe in the Era of Peter the Great
Alexei Balabin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-257-272

The paper considers financial technologies that were used in the time of Peter the Great to organize non-cash payments abroad. The sources for the study were legislative documents, letters of Peter the Great’s contemporaries and mentions of historians about financial calculations in Peter the Great’s time. The author considers the use of promissory notes and bills of exchange that were used in the time of Peter the Great to organize non-cash payments abroad. Russian merchants used them in trade settlements in Arkhangelsk long before Peter I. During the reforms of the first quarter of the XVIII century notes and bills settlements were carried out by Russian people on the territory of Europe already. This explains the wider use of the notes and bills in both interstate and private settlements, including the purposes of obtaining scholarships for young people sent abroad by Peter to study. Peter himself and his pets used all the means of payment available at that time in Europe – both cash (gold and silver coins) and non-cash means (promissory notes and bills of exchange). An important issuer of bills of exchange for Russians was the Amsterdam bank, since Amsterdam was the center for the sale of Russian goods. Not only trade transactions, but also the payment of royal orders in different countries, and the issuance of stipends to scholarship holders, took place by transferring bills of exchange from the Amsterdam bank or Amsterdam merchants accepted to other European cities of Europe. In addition to mastering the ‘basic’ profession, those staying abroad needed to show some financial literacy (which could not be obtained at home), skills in handling modern (for that time) securities, and visit banks from time to time. Russian students were prevented from studying not only by the possible temptations and pastime of a beautiful life abroad, but also by serious life difficulties that arose in connection with the financial crisis in France in 1720-21.

Theoretical and Methodological Foundations of Pricing for Apartment Building Management Services
Anton Kogan,  Anastasia Averyaskina,  Natalia Troitskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-273-290

The article summarizes the methodological foundations of pricing in the housing sector (with the allocation of prices of services for the management of apartment buildings). 

During the historical analysis of methodological approaches to pricing in the housing sector, the authors identified a directive and market approach. The directive approach describes the procedure for setting prices and its problems, manifested in the fact that attempts to centralize the pricing process on the part of the state have led to overestimation of the cost of services by management companies. Modern approaches with manifestations of a directive approach are described: sequential and compensatory-targeted. 

The pricing mechanism within the framework of the market approach and its problems are described. The main problem is that high transaction costs create unequal conditions for market participants, which leads to the absorption of small and medium-sized management companies with the subsequent formation of an oligopoly or monopoly in the market. 

The market approach also has a number of disadvantages in terms of the influence of individual consumer interests on the price. Housing services for the management of apartment buildings in the assessment of consumers of services have different utility, but the assessment of the usefulness of services by an individual consumer is suppressed by a collective assessment of utility.

The process approach to the management of the organization and the cluster approach to the organization of housing and communal services are considered as ways to reduce the cost of providing services for the management of apartment buildings.  It is proven that the process approach is applied in practice in the case of hotels, while the cluster approach remains a theoretical construct. 

A set of tools for online and offline marketing communication is offered for increasing the income of management companies (by increasing the number of houses they serve): development of the management company’s website and mobile application, creation of social networks and using messengers, launch of targeted advertising, introduction of autonomous communications. 

The authors substantiate the necessity of further specialized research and development of a methodological approach to pricing adapted to the modern conditions of the housing services market in Russia, based on standards, laws of production organization, marketing, firm economics, financial management and marginalism.

Theory and history of culture

Library: Scientific Knowledge Promotion and Other Points of Intersection
Olga Lavrik,  Lidiya Kurmysheva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-291-311

The article examines the potential of the library as a possible active participant in the interaction of science and society. The situation with the library nowadays can be described as the search for its new niche in the readers’ space. The purpose of the article is to analyze the possibilities of libraries for the development of communications between science and society. The first part of the article presents the history and analysis of the modern participation of libraries in the communication of science and society, the second part analyses the potential of libraries in this process. The authors come to the following conclusion: libraries can become one of the conditions for rational communication between science and society, which should act not only in the usual system of documentary communication, but also in the system of data communication, interpersonal communication. Libraries should expand their role in the society: to be an intermediary and serve not only “scientist to scientist” communication, but also “scientist to the society” communication. The study showed that various forms both one-time and repetitive mass events of a popular scientific nature have not yet become systemic. The practice of libraries’ participation in other facets of communication between science and society (increasing public understanding of science; involving the public in science) is not yet visible at all. The weak influence of libraries on the development of communications between science and society is also evidenced by the analysis of their activities presented on their websites. This practice is confirmed not only by the analysis of websites, but also by publications: their number is not large (31), and by the way, the authors tackle this topic only once. The paper suggests solving of the above-mentioned problems using huge potential of the libraries.

British Art Dealers in Rome in the Second Half of the XVIII Century
Nina Makarova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-312-325

In the second half of the 18th century, an antique market flourished in Rome. That was largely due to the increased interest in the culture of the Ancient World, associated with excavations in Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as with the activities of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who was convinced of the need to turn to the art of antiquity, which, in his opinion, had ideal beauty and was capable of cultivating a noble artistic taste. In European countries and in Russia, collections of antiques were formed during that period. Travelers who came to Rome tended to buy ancient sculptures, gems, vases. They turned to antique dealers working in this art market. A special place among the antique dealers belonged to the British, such as Gavin Hamilton, Thomas Jenkins and James Byres. It is largely thanks to their efforts that excellent private collections of ancient art have been formed in Great Britain and interest in art in general has been developing. The article examines the activities of these antique dealers on the examples of two English collectors depicted in the portraits of the Italian artist Pompeo Batoni: William Weddell and Peter Beckford.

Government and society

“Hard” and “Soft” Power of the Continental Empire: Reminiscences on a Historical Subject
Evgeny Vodichev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-326-351

In this paper, the author attempts to apply the concept of ‘soft power’ developed by J. Nye, which has been established in the field of international relations and political science, to the historical domain, and specifically to the analysis of basic trends in the development of the Russian Empire and the USSR. The peculiarities of the balance of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ power tools are identified with regards to the totalitarian (authoritarian) and democratic regimes. The concept of ‘smart power’ is placed into the context of historical research. The author points out the connection between the mechanisms of ‘soft power’ and the development of civil society. Russia and the USSR are presented as continental empires of the colonial type, which possessed internal colonies and dependent territories. Against the background of the general patterns of development of continental empires, which include territorial expansion, the specifics of the USSR are shown. It is determined that expanding the resource base under the dominance of the vector of extensive development, ensuring ‘security’ of the imperial ‘heartland’ at the expense of peripheral territories, and maintaining the geopolitical status have been the key drivers of development of continental empires. In relation to the USSR, the specific function of the metropolis, or capital city of the empire, is underlined. The author pays particular attention to the development of the eastern territories, and Siberia as an internal colony, that was based on the principle of ‘a region for the country’ while ignoring its own interests and internal needs. This has formed a stable matrix of suboptimal centre-periphery relations in the country. It is noted that the empire preserved itself as a single state based on the synergy of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ power, projected both into the intra-imperial space and outside. The gradual degradation of the ‘smart power’ tools used by the Soviet regime is shown. It is concluded that the collapse of the USSR meant an imbalance and loss of efficiency in the use of factors and tools of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ power, and now Russia is still experiencing a post-imperial syndrome. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the loss of satellite countries made it necessary to shift the emphasis to internal stabilization. However, the influence of two key arguments: nuclear weapons and huge resources and territory, ensured the preservation of the previous ambitions.

Priority Areas of Japan’s “Soft Power” Policy in the 21-st Century
Olga Moskvina,  Svetlana Kolyshkina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-352-371

The article analyzes the term ‘soft power’ policy, developed by J. Nye, in relation to Japan as the country with the largest resource of its application due to the need of national business to adopt foreign cultural experience. The limitations of its use in the country’s foreign policy are associated with the internal conservative orientation of Japanese culture and society, Japan’s militaristic past, demographic problems and the language barrier, as well as competition with other states. The spheres of implementation of the ‘soft power’ policy are economic, ideological, diplomatic, and cultural. According to the statements of Japanese officials, the following priority areas and goals for applying the ‘soft power’ policy in the 21st century are highlighted: expanding cooperation with the world community, including investments; promoting Japanese pop culture and promoting the national language on the world stage through educational organizations and funds. Organizations that implement ‘soft power’ policy in the country are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Advisory Council, the Japan Foundation, the Japan-Russia Youth Exchange Center, etc. These organizations offer programs for academic and student exchange, acquisition of educational materials, grants for holding events and translations of different kinds of literature, attracting foreign labor to the country and developing diplomacy. In order to achieve the goal set by the Japanese government, international competitions in the Japanese language, an international exam for knowledge of the Japanese language, and Japanese centers abroad are created, financed by the state and receive various subsidies and benefits. The main feature and trump card of Japan is that the country acts within the framework of the promotion of values that are reflected in the status of the country through humanitarian assistance, a positive image of the state and positive education. In the conclusion, the authors highlight the fact that Japan managed to create a positive image of the country in the international arena; strengthen economic, political and cultural ties at different levels; reinforce the position of Japan in the world community as one of the leading countries; export the Japanese traditions and culture to other countries.

Philosophy of science

Mathematics: Formation, Substantiation, Resolution of the Crisis
Vadim Rozin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-372-387

The article discusses the current situation in mathematics, which is interpreted as a crisis. The problems that allow making such a conclusion are considered: the question of the scientific status of mathematics, the possibility of its substantiation, the mental or experimental nature of mathematics, the time of its formation. The author presents the results of the genesis of geometry, the generalization of which makes it possible to assert that mathematics, on the one hand, can be considered a kind of empirical science, on the other, a constructive scientific discipline, in which more complex ideal objects are created on the basis of initial ideal objects and knowledge. Two different understandings of the foundations of mathematics are considered - general scientific and David Hilbert’s, as well as what paradoxes are in science and how they are removed. The author is inclined to believe that antinomies in mathematics cannot be eliminated once and for all, their source is attributing inconsistent characteristics to objects of mathematics, which is due to the very structure of mathematics. The fact is that the construction of ideal objects of mathematics proceeds under the influence of at least four areas: the empirical area, describing which mathematicians create initial ideal objects and knowledge; areas of design based on the original more complex ideal objects; areas of geometric theorem proofs; area of ​​construction of the theory of geometry. In addition, here it is necessary to add the concept of the foundation of mathematics by D. Hilbert, and also take into account that there are different concepts of the foundation of mathematics. At the end of the article, the features of the current crisis in mathematics and the possible direction of its resolution are discussed.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

The Conformity to Nature Phenomenon in Modern Japanese Architecture
Elnara Dumnova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-388-405

The article examines the uniqueness of modern architecture in Japan from the point of view of combining aesthetic principles, the origins of which go back to the traditional religious and  philosophical thought of the Far Eastern civilization, with new design techniques. The author gives a retrospective analysis of its formation, starting from the Meiji era. The phenomenon of the naturalness of the architecture of metabolism and minimalism is revealed based on the analysis of the most important Japanese aesthetic principles, the observance of which allowed modern Japanese architects to create an architectural sign-symbolic space filled with deep meanings reflecting the connection of times and generations.

The understanding of form in the Far Eastern aesthetic tradition is considered, through the analysis of the concepts of katati, kata and sugata, as well as its determination within the framework of the ‘aesthetics of wind’. The importance of the ideological principles of kaei and ma in shaping in the architecture of metabolism and minimalism, as well as in the organization of space, is revealed. The concretization of the kaei principle in relation to the architectural form is the recognition of layering and the duality of the latter. The form hides the inner semantic content of an architectural object, being a kind of shell, a symbol. In addition, the explication of the kaei principle is observed in the transition of internal space to external space. This is how a sense of unity with nature is achieved, even in an urbanized environment. This principle is embodied in the aesthetic concept of renmentai.

The category of the main architecture is a space–time interval. Applied to architectural space, ma reflects emptiness and rhythm. Ma unites and fuses space and time; it is expressed in such things as openings, transitional spaces, space defining the form, smoothly changing forms.

The analysis of the principle of excess of color comes to the conclusion that the formation

of the aesthetics of black and white is a reflection of the characteristics of wabi – simplicity. Using the example of a semiotic analysis of the works of architects-metabolists and minimalists, including the projects of Kisho Kurokawa, Kenzo Tange, Tadao Ando, the implementation

of some traditional aesthetic principles in modern Japanese architecture is considered, that allowed us to achieve harmony of architecture and nature.

Dance and Personality
Aida Ailamazyan
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-406-426

The article is devoted to the problem of personal involvement in dance activity. The author applies an interdisciplinary research methodology: on the one hand, a semiotic analysis of the dance language is carried out and the features of the dance sign are considered, on the other hand, a psychological description of the dancer’s personality is given, a psychological portrait is created. According to the methodology of the cultural-historical approach, the sign is taken in its instrumental function and orientation. The author puts forward a hypothesis about the dual orientation of the dance movement as an expressive language: orientation on the viewer as a visual component of the sign and on the dancer himself through the kinesthetic component. The material of dance as a type of artistic activity is the body of the dancer, which undergoes reinterpretation and symbolization. Not only the body, but also the whole personality can become the material of dance, it can be included and transformed in the course of the dance activity. The bi-directionality of the dance sign can lead to a discrepancy, a rupture of the function of the dance movement, which is expressed in an object relation to one’s own body, in strict control of movements and the non-involvement of the emotional and sensual sphere of the individual in the dance activity. Stage forms of dance contribute more to this discrepancy, developing mainly motor technique in isolation from the semantic side of movement and focusing on the visual expressiveness of dance. On the other hand, ceremonial, sacred, ritual dances, many forms of modern free dance contribute to the integral inclusion of a person in the dance and are aimed at transforming the personality in plastic action. On the basis of biographical material, the destinies of outstanding dancers and dance teachers are analyzed. It is shown how an object attitude to one’s own body and one’s own personality can lead to an internal split and loss of subjectivity. A contradiction may arise between a person’s experience in dance and her/his behavior in real life. It is removed under the condition that a person carries out a transformative activity – work on himself/herself.

Socio-Philosophical and Culturalogical Thought in Relations between Russia and Serbia
Aleksandra Kartseva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-427-443

The article deals with the issues of socio-philosophical and culturological thought as a factor of interaction between Russia and Serbia in the modern European space. In the study the author presents the historical periods of socio-cultural development of relationships between the two countries, beginning from the first millennium. The work focused on identifying the common mental, cultural and historical commonalities of our peoples which allowed for the development of interaction between the two countries in the field of scientific cooperation, socio-philosophical, cultural and spiritual relations [1, c. 244-250]. The author defines the role of the language of communication and examines an important stratum of Serbian culture: Orthodoxy. In this context, the aspects of spiritual and cultural unity between Russia and Serbia, which have shaped the unity of views of the representatives of Serbian science and cultural, socio-philosophical and spiritual-cultural thought have emerged. The author defines the role of the ‘Russian House’ Centre for Culture and Science in Belgrade, Serbia, as a fulcrum of cultural, scientific and religious life of the Russian immigrant community and a firm manifestation of the Russian-Serbian spiritual, socio-philosophical and cultural ties between the two states.

The paper focuses on such phenomena of intercultural contacts between Russia and Serbia as the scientific and cultural influence of the Russian intelligentsia after the 1917 revolution. Several waves of Russian emigration in the 19th and 20th century had the biggest impact on Serbian spiritual culture, architecture, civil engineering and art. One of the first associations of Russian post-November emigrants was the Archeological Society of Serbia (1921), represented by the Slavist historian A.L. Pogodin. Emigration to Serbia increased after the ruefully known ‘Philosophical steamer’ in 1922. This year, the St. Petersburg scholarly community widely marked the 100th anniversary of this exodus of Russian intellectuals, which marked the loss of the spiritual forces of Soviet Russia, but there was a considerable acquisition of culture, science, architecture, and theatrical art in Serbia, and thus in Europe.


Music in the Third Reich
DeLora Neuschwander DeLora J.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2023-15.1.2-444-458

Music played a prominent role in the formation of Nazi culture in Germany and was widely used in propaganda and indoctrination throughout the country; the Nazi party combined music and politics and sought to shape their ideal culture by elevating their ideas of pure music to the highest status and outlawing what they defined as inferior. The translation of the scholarly article examines Hitler’s specific views on music and explores some of the factors and personalities that contributed to his views and were directly rooted in the Nazi party, as well as how the Nazis used music to spread their propaganda, what was considered ‘pure’ music, and what influence the idea of ‘pure’ art had on Jewish musicians and composers. Hitler considered himself an artist and believed that art and music were a vital part of life and culture. He was deeply influenced by both Wagner’s views and his music, and Hitler saw many parallels between Wagner’s conception of Germany and the stories the composer used in his operas.

      The Nazi Party used music to a great extent to reinforce its political activities and indoctrinate individual citizens. Not only music, but Nazi doctrine played a significant role in the fate of Jewish composers and performers and was used to portray Nazi ideology. Many Jewish musicians lost their jobs and were excluded from major cultural and musical organizations. Arnold Schoenberg is a prime example of the influence of Nazi ideology on the music and perception of a Jewish composer, and Wagner is a perfect example of a composer who conformed to Nazi criteria of pure Aryanism. This study attempts to examine these historical facts in an attempt to promote a better understanding of the socio-cultural aspects of the Third Reich in the hope that an informed person will ensure that such views never penetrate society again.