The article considers the iconography of Christian art associated with the rainbow motif. A rainbow is a beautiful optical phenomenon in the atmosphere that occurs when light is scattered on water droplets; it has the form of a multicolored arc or two arcs. The shining rainbow in Scripture is closely related to God's acts of communication with the chosen people such as Noah and the prophets. In such iconographic schemes as the Last judgment, the All saints’ Day and the Ascension of the Lord, the rainbow motif, based on the prophetic visions of Ezekiel and John the Apostle, is a symbol of the radiance of the Divine Glory and Majesty of God in His appearance to the prophets. In these iconographies, the rainbow is depicted with different degree of conventionality. Thus, it can be represented in one or two colors, but can also be made with expressive brightness in several colors of the spectrum. In these iconographies, the rainbow often represents the throne of the Lord within the mandorla - an oval or round frame around the figure of Christ or the Virgin, which has a complex symbolism associated with the image of a cloud, with the Divine Glory, as well as with the special nature of the image of Christ or the Virgin, which is outside the physical time and space. In a number of other iconographic schemes, the rainbow motif has the meaning of God's mercy. These are compositions associated with God’s Covenant with Noah, as well as with the Lord Covenant with the chosen people – the Church, which is reflected, in particular, in the compositions of Noah's Ark and the iconography of Our Lady of Mount Nerukosechnaya.
The article explores such a kind of musical genre – a Soviet lyric song, its place in the Soviet everyday life, aesthetic task, and its fate during the 70-year period of life. The author substantiates the reasons why this genre in the Soviet era turned out to be so popular that it became a part of folk culture. The author also studies the phenomenon of some songs of that period, heavily propagated, but not popular among people. The author highlights the idea that even pseudo-folk songs, such as V.G. Zakharov’s songs for the Pyatnitsky Choir, although actively propagandized and often performed from the stage and on the radio, did not really become popular. The article attempts to explain the reasons for this spontaneous mass ostracism by “popular censorship”. Thieves' lyrics as such are not explored, with the exception of the “anthem of prisoners” - the song “I remember that Vanino port.” The author analyzes the reasons for the sudden end of the “golden age” of the Soviet lyric song, which nature ceased to correspond to the commercial interests of post-perestroika Russian song variety.
Let’s Check Harmony with Algebra Again, Shall We? About J. Bigelow’s Article “Music, Mystique and Shakespeare’s Sonnets”Kurlenya Konstantin
The article focuses on the arguments given by an Australian researcher John Bigelow who aspires to prove the existence of regular relations between the compositional structure of William Shakespeare’s cycle of 154 sonnets and the system of modal scales in the version of Shakespeare’s outstanding contemporary, composer and theorist Thomas Morley, which served as a basis for musical theory of that time. It is noted that J. Bigelow managed to prove the rightfulness of his own assumptions allowing to disclose such relations. One of the brightest examples he draws is the relations between the first eight sonnets and sonnet 145 and the interval structure of the corresponding modal scales and peculiarities of the triton sound as well as the auditory perception of certain non-tempered thirds and fourths. At the same time, the article points at a certain inaccuracy of Bigelow’s arguments and his lacking the principle of universality as the reasons and observations given by the researcher concern only the smallest part of the cycle and not the whole one. Nevertheless, Bigelow’s conclusions are certainly worth the attention, and one may continue the research of the sonnets cycle in the given direction which might probably lead to a fuller understanding of its compositional structure.
Shakespeares Sonnets (1609) contains several rhyming patterns that were regarded at the time as ‘anomalies’. In a list of ‘Rules’ for poetry published in 1585, the very first prohibition laid down by King James VI of Scotland was that a syllable should never be rhymed with itself. In 1603 James VI of Scotland became James I of England. And yet, in Shakespeare’s sonnets, the very first of King James’s prohibitions is broken ̶ rarely, but repeatedly. If Shakespeare’s successive sonnets are aligned with the successive notes in musical scales for the canonical series of the Renaissance ‘modes’, then the locations of Shakespeare’s rhyme-anomalies coincide reliably with the locations of the notes that are significantly discordant with the tonic according to a musical theory that was published in 1619 by the astronomer Johannes Kepler. Kepler’s master-work The Harmony of the World (1619) was dedicated to King James I of England. This work opens with a Dedication to King James, in which King James’s celebrated political successes were credited to his understanding of the ‘celestial harmonies’. It is argued here that Shakespeare’s sonnet sequence constitutes a ‘microcosm’ that formally echoes Kepler’s theory of the ‘macrocosm’ and ‘the harmony of the spheres’. If Shakespeare could somehow have brought the formal patterning in this ‘microcosm’ to the attention of potential patrons in the Jacobean Court, then he could reasonably have hoped that this might curry favour with those among them who shared ‘Platonic’ interests like those of Kepler.
The present work develops the traditions of intellectual history associated with the re-creation of «hyperreality» of the theatrical and cinema space through scenic biographies. Continuing to adhere to the right-conservative positions, the author made an attempt to touch upon a special facet of this space. He seeks to draw attention to the career of female actresses, who because of their sincere and dedicated service to the high art of the cinema and for the ideological and aesthetic sophistication of their images can be considered genuine «queens of the screen» not only of the Fifth Republic, but also of the world cinematography. Of all the numerous pleiad of French cultural figures of the investigated gender category, the author singles out three large-scale, legendary figures – Annie Girardot, Simone Signoret and Michel Morgan.
The study focuses on the most important stages of the cinema career of these actresses and the concrete results of their activities that make up the contribution to the cinema art, which is considered in direct correlation with the main tendencies of France's social and political development in the newest period of time.
Because of this, a historical and cultural comparative analysis of «being-in-the-art» based on the use of various kinds of sources is carried out in the work.
They, except for sources of personal origin, are of paramount importance media materials in the form of film productions, films, the conceptual evaluation of which is based on both the personal impressions of the author and the research reserve that exists in historiography and cinematography
THE ORIGINS OF PERSIANA IN RUSSIAN MUSIC: ONCE AGAIN ABOUT THE PERSIAN CHORUS FROM OPERA "RUSLAN AND LYUDMILA"Drozhzhina M.N.
This article presents an attempt of retrospective excursus done through analyzing the causality between events and artifacts concentrated around the known fact – i.e. using the authentic Eastern (Oriental) melody in the Persian chorus from "Ruslan and Lyudmila" opera by M.I. Glinka. Their blending in a single chain contributed to identifying and comprehending the circumstances and historical-cultural context that predefined emergence of domestic musical Persiana - the phenomenon almost unexplored hitherto. Diaries analysis of the composer's contemporaries, as well as that of memoirs literature, revealed that "interest group" of M. I. Glinka included both Russians who were visiting Iran (Ambassador A. S. Griboyedov; traveler and the author of "Journey to Persia" treatise, prince A. Saltykov etc.) and direct representatives of Persian culture. Among them was the university professor M. J. Topchibashev (who formerly taught him the Persian language) and participants of the Apology mission of the crown prince Hosrov-Mirza sent by the Iranian Shah in connection with murder of the Russian ambassador Alexander Griboyedov. Archival documents showed that the mission included such highly educated people as the poet Fahil-khan Sheida who later adopted Russian citizenship, and Mustafa Afshar - a connoisseur of Russian culture, fluent in the language. Study of documents and researches dedicated to this mission enabled to assume the name of the prince’s secretary who initiated M. I. Glinka in the chorus’s melody and, accordingly, in the national origin of this tune. However, it requires confirmation with the aid of further research. As a result, on different levels – the personal one (the composer’s success in studying Persian language, communication with its native speakers and connoisseurs of culture), the social one (conditioned by mutual relations of Russia and Persia/Iran), the advantage of the "Persian version" (marching melody) is cleared out in defining the original source, along with identity of the person who has sung this melody to the composer. The article shows that additional argument in favor of this march version might be the relatively similar marching theme in "Persian March" by Johann Strauss. A great many details drawn from non-musicological sources made it possible to grasp the idea of "Persian context" presence in Glinka’s life, thus aiding to form interest to the Persian culture. Thus, the "Persian chorus" can be described as a reference point in establishing the domestic musical Persiana– the phenomenon having in its basis the respective socio-cultural context augmented by competence of its initiator.
In the article the author makes an attempt to close one of the "white spots" in the history of Novosibirsk Opera Theatre. Materials gathered for this purpose were the documents from the archives of the Novosibirsk Region and the Novosibirsk Theatre of Opera and Ballet. Using rare publications, memoirs of the People's Artist of Russia Zinaida Didenko as well as personal memoirs the author managed to recreate several scenes from the life of the outstanding figure of musical culture of the XX century, Honored Artist of Russia, laureate of the Stalin Prize, Chief Director of NSATOB Margaret Ozhigova. The years of her studies at the Petrograd Conservatory are associated with the names of A. Glazunov, D. Shostakovich, G. Rimsky-Korsakov, N. Malakhovski, I. Musin, N. Amosova and the forgotten history of the Society of quarter-tone music. After graduating from the Conservatory in three specialties as a harpist, a composer and a director of a musical theatre M. P. Ozhigova (from 1941 to 1945) served as a soldier of the Red Army during the Leningrad blockade. She introduced Stanislavsky principles into the system of work with the actors being a director at the Opera theatres of Saratov, Novosibirsk, Ivanovo. The same principles of work according to the Stanislavsky system she applied working with young singers of the Opera Studios at the music universities of Kazan, Gorky and Rostov-on-Don. The article presents documentary evidence of obstruction towards M. P. Ozhigova, which she experienced at that time at the Novosibirsk Opera Theatre and which forced her to leave the theatre.
The author considers creative work of Vladimir Magar, who was a director of the Sevastopol theatre named after A. V. Lunacharsky for fifteen years, and this creative work hasn't been studied yet and the study is continued in the series of publications about him. The study of his manner of directing may be indicative for identifying the patterns specific to regional theatrical life and may restore some pages of the history of Russian theatre, which have been out of the scope of research so far. The activities of the director can be divided into several periods – from light comedies to romantic works involving basic questions of human existence. His performances have always been characterized by complex and multi-literary foundation. The article examines such performances as “Empire of the Sun and the Moon”, “Talants and Admirers”, “Don Giovanni”, “Othello”, “The Cabal of Hypocrites”. They are based on substantial principles of Magar's directing such as multi-piece basis, montage construction, complexity, transmission of the main lyrical expressions of the director. The role of scenographic solutions, plastic, music and other components of dramatic action are also examined in the article. The article is based on using of the comparative-historical method, personal audience experience of the author, analysis of different literary sources, revised by the director, and reviews which are not numerous. The principles of creation which are studied in the paper testify about the successful application by the director V. Magar of a great variety of expressive means of modern theatre and lead to the development of theatre art in the Russian province.
THE PHENOMENON OF POLITICAL POWER AND ITS ARTISTIC COMPREHENSION IN A. S. PUSHKIN’S TRAGEDY “BORIS GODUNOV”Glembotskaya Ya.O.
The article is devoted to the phenomenon of political power as it is depicted in the artistic world of Pushkin’s “Boris Godunov”. The concept of Tzar Boris is analyzed in the context of contemporary view on the nature of power elaborated by Eugen Fink. The author of the article focuses on the dialogue of historical truth and artistic credibility. The article shows that the complexity of Godunov’s character gives way to a wide range of interpretations in nowadays theatre and movies. Boris Godunov is comprehended by stage directors as the “actor” (acting subject) of modernity capable to struggle through the problematic current reality. In addition to the problems of the relationship between power and an individual, the authorities and the people in Boris Godunov, the author raises the most important topic of relations between Russia and the West. The author draws attention to the most famous performance of "Boris Godunov" in new Russia, the play, staged in 2000 by the British producer of Irish descent, Declan Donnellan, and expresses the opinion that this very performance solves the problem in the context of the "unhealed present" at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. The study is addressed to theatre professionals, philologists, specialists in cultural studies and aesthetics, cultural scientists and educators.
The article examines how the program of acmeism, proclaimed in the manifestos of N. Gumilev, S. Gorodetsky, O. Mandelstam, finds its practical embodiment in the early lyrics of M. Zenkevich, the representative of Adamism - the "left wing" of this poetic school. Adamism is characterized by a radical follow-up to the manifestos of N. Gumilev, S. Gorodetsky, O. Mandelstam, which emphasizes the need for aesthetic mastering of the earthly, material, objective world as opposed to the symbolist slogans of theurgy. M. Zenkevich "brings to the scene" a new hero, reflecting on his place in the universe, his nature - in the unity of the carnal / animal and spiritual. The task of "making peace in the whole aggregate of beauties and disgraces" set by the Acmeists in the work of M. Zenkevich does not receive practical implementation. In the collection "Wild Porphyry" nature appears as a unity of "earthly and mystical", unknowable and beyond the control of man. But to adopt its laws, where "equilibrium" is achieved through the rotation of infinite destruction and creation, would mean for the lyrical subject "dissolution in matter", the loss of subjectivity. In the second book "Under the Meat Purple" nature as the creative absolute is almost not paid attention. The same problem of natural and super-natural gets an aesthetic embodiment at the level of the microcosm, where man and woman are dual beings: "animal" nature is manifested in the erotic instincts of the first and - the physical perfection and cruelty of the second. In this case, the woman is a sacred creature (like nature in the «Wild Porphyry»), the earthly and mystical in it are merged together, and the man is sacrificed under the sign of death, sacrificing himself. But even in these "personified" models there is obviously a disequilibrium of "earthly and mystical": a woman is partly defective as a natural being (she is barren), and a man is doomed to die in the name of Eternal Femininity. At the same time, in the lyrics of M. Zenkevich, in the 1910s, the appearance of a new hero, "the coming Apollo," a human machine civilization free from natural determinism, begins to form. Thus, there is a rapprochement with the aesthetics of the avant-garde, where the subject challenges both nature and God, usurping the right of creation.