Anticlerical Discourse in Modern Russian Science
Andrey Beskov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.4.1-88-111

One can often read about the religious revival that came about in Russia after the collapse of Soviet power, both in the media and in scientific literature. According to opinion polls, the majority of Russians are believers, mostly orthodox Christians. The Russian state clearly patronizes religion, at least some specific ("traditional") religions. In socio-political discourse, the prevailing view is that religion is a good thing, and if sometimes religion is a source of problems, it is associated with some deviations from the norm, a perversion of the very essence of religion. This point of view can easily be found in Russian scientific periodicals. However, a critical attitude towards the growing role of religion in Russia is also often expressed in Russian science. The article highlights the main reasons for the dissatisfaction of scholars with the current state of affairs. It is also shown that such works have no influence on the religious situation in Russia. Although anti-clerical sentiments are quite clearly expressed in Russian science, they do not fall into the socio-political discourse, since there is simply no such force in Russia that could consistently promote the principle of secularism. In search of an additional electoral resource and a replacement for the Soviet ideology, the authorities did everything to enhance the importance of religion and strengthen the authority of religious leaders. As a result, today, despite the fact that the real level of religiosity of the population is apparently much lower than is commonly believed, politicians (even opposition ones) are not ready to openly doubt the positive role of religion, fearing PR problems.

The Onset of Narcissistic Culture: Consequences for Education, Science and Politics
Petr Orekhovsky,  Vladimir Razumov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.3.1-84-102

Scientists and teachers have been discussing the peculiarities of dissemination of postmodernism in different areas of society, usually ignoring universities and scientific organizations. During the dominance period of the rationally-oriented intellectual culture, the communication methods among specialists have been developed, assisting to describe any phenomena. Postmodernism, factually revolutionizing communication and discourses, radically changes the communities producing them. Without understanding the essence of these changes, it becomes almost impossible to comprehend what, how and why they are engaged in universities and scientific organizations, and what is happening in economy and in politics? The mentioned transformations have been identified in the article as a phenomenon of the onset of narcissistic culture. Accepting the concept of high culture and a multitude of local cultures, it is reasonable to note the increasing processes of the cultural patterns, which transfer between different areas of private and public life, which more and more complicate being of an individual in culture, when, in particular, the expansion of human freedom is accompanied by enhancing the control over him. Imagine a carnival unfolding in a space arranged like a rhizome (fractal). In this way, from the deconstruction of concepts we move on to the deconstruction of slogans, which, presumably, served as a source for a new type of public perturbation from the end of the 80s of the 20th century till the present time. In modern universities, research institutes, entrepreneurship, politics along with liberal values a large-scale dissemination of narcissistic culture took place. The slogan Science Must Serve the People is being deconstructed. Thus, narcissistic culture unfolds beyond the boundaries of this slogan. At the same time, the carriers of narcissistic culture belonging to different generations, educational and academic statuses become not only carriers of new patterns of behavior, but pose themselves in a very special way in society. Individualization beats the standards, including professional ones. Recognizing that culture is an external factor to subjects, mainly predetermining collective memory, as well as collective thinking and imagination (expectations), and the transition from mass to narcissistic culture changes the social roles and transforms the society. Even in elite universities professionalism is squeezed out in order to achieve the needs for convenience and comfort. The loss of the importance of professionalism in the environment causes a response - self-isolation (absenteeism) of specialists. In the field of entrepreneurship, replacing mass culture with a narcissistic one required new artistic models, a change in behavior style, and legitimization of hedonism and egocentrism. Perhaps this is the reason for the decline in the world economic growth rates. Under the prevailing conditions a healthy lifestyle becomes a necessary setting for meeting certain social and political indicators. There has been a dramatic cultural shift in electoral democracy. It is no longer important to ‘enrapture the hearts and souls’, but to be in admiration of yourself and your close environment. Absenteeism is an immanent feature of narcissistic culture, leading the individual to alienation from the political life of the society. Narcissistic culture has always existed, but postmodernism served as a unique medium for its dissemination. Despite numerous criticisms of narcissistic culture, it brings a high diversity to all areas where it penetrates, and this diversity can act as a trigger mechanism to the beginning of a new round for the development of mankind. Narcissistic culture in the 20th century is an external factor changing the flow of all social processes, including economic, political, and social ones. A project ignoring the peculiarities of cultural narcissism discussed above is doomed to failure.

Ethic of Science: Classic Norms and Modern Deformations
Anatoly Ablazhey
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.3.1-103-115

The article discusses the problems of the professional ethos of science genesis and its transformation in the context of modern realities. There is a brief description of the classical norms of the scientific ethos (universalism, communalism, disinterestedness and organized skepticism), formulated by R. Merton in the late 1930s and early 1940s, in response to the sharp exacerbation of the problem of science’s autonomy in the conditions of totalitarian regimes. The key idea of ​​Merton is especially emphasized: compliance with the norms is aimed primarily at optimizing the process of scientific production and, thereby, the most effective solution to the main goal of science – the increasing of certified knowledge volume. The concept of the ethical imperatives of a scientific profession was almost immediately criticized for being ‘idealistic’ and ‘disconnected from real life’, and by the end of the 1960s it intensified many times over. You can find the examples of critical attitude to the concept of Merton, also we described the alternative versions of the norms of scientific ethos (in the interpretation of Mitroff and Fuller). It has been established that under the conditions of academic capitalism, which implies the incorporation of market culture into the system of scientific research, a negative deformation of classical norms occurs, in practice creating barriers to the production of knowledge and disrupting the practice of communication within the scientific community. The result of this deformation is the system of relationships between scientists, described by Ziman in the framework of the concept of ‘post-academic science’. Evidence is presented that the process of degradation of norms is further intensified in the conditions of cognitive capitalism and neoliberal science. Using the example of modern Russian science, the author shows that the result of such degradation is, for example, the exacerbation of the problem of plagiarism. Methods of counteracting such practice are briefly described using the example of modern Russian science, such as the creation of a Dissernet community or a special commission to counteract falsification of scientific research within the framework of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In a theoretical sense, in the context of the philosophy and sociology of science, the concept of ‘two ethics’ proposed by B. Pruzhinin, looks productive. B. Pruzhinin singles out the specific ethos of fundamental and applied science.

The University Mission in the Humanitarian Dimension: Stating the Problem
Olga Zinevich,  Tatyana Balmasova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.3.1-116-132

The article focuses on the mission humanitarianism of a university as a social institution from the perspective of social ontology. The mission is viewed as a perfect benchmark (supreme goal and purpose) necessary for university existence as well as for maintenance and authorization of its institutional identity. It is shown that despite the changes in functionality of universities under the conditions of knowledge-intensive economy development (use of business models in interaction with the society), the humanitarian orientation has not lost its significance since it is necessary for the existence of a university as an institutionally organized specific educational activity, including knowledge generation, storage and transmission. Key institutional characteristics are considered that reveal the importance of humanitarianism for preserving the university as a unique social phenomenon. The authors are guided by the methodology of moderate constructivism – the study of value and meaning of human mentality, ideas and ideals in forming the institutional design of social reality. The role of the ideal and the intentionality of human actions in the construction and function of an educational social institution, which is expressed in the university corporation’s drive to be orientated at values, which give positive social significance to its activities and are aimed at achieving good, are explored. The university produces and conveys knowledge through establishing a knowledge subject, in other words, it forms the very intention to achieve a socially significant result not only in an objectified form of knowledge, but also in the form of evolution (development) of an individual who can produce and use knowledge for the good of society and for their personal advancement. In this context, the mission is understood to be a supreme goal and an ideal benchmark in the concrete historic practices of university education in forming a knowledge subject who must master the fundamental values ​​necessary for society’s existence. The university mission is based on the concrete historic interpretation of the key socially significant goal of education: the development of a “human being” who acts for the good and benefit of society and its members via conveying the thesaurus of universal human values in their concrete historic theoretical and ideological formats.

On the Necessity to Reorient Scientific and Technological Policy from the Production of Indicators to Solving Actual Problems
Evgeny Semenov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.2.1-11-32

The main feature of the state scientific and technological policy in modern Russia is its hypertrophied formalism - isolation from the real problems of the country and science itself, from the substantive tasks that are replaced by standards. Such a policy distracts science from the production of knowledge, competencies and technologies, orients it towards the production of reporting indicators. It is absolutely necessary to reorient the scientific and technological policy from the production of indicators to solving the actual problems of the country, associated primarily with overcoming the technological backwardness by modernizing the existing and creating the new branches of production and industries, as well as creating an innovation system. Deep transformations are also needed in science itself, primarily in its outdated disciplinary and official structure, as well as in the model of scientific organization and the national scientific system as a whole. A radical change is required to the national language of science, the loss of which is dangerous for the loss of higher education in the Russian language as well.

Knowledge and Education in Digital Era
Dmitry Sokolov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.2.1-33-50

The article describes the crisis experienced by the education system during the development of the digital economy. The main presupposition of the crisis rests upon the following paradox: although the modern economy is based on the accumulation, processing and dissemination of knowledge, a fragmented perception of knowledge as such is being formed nowadays in the whole of society. The urgency of this crisis is especially noticeable against the background of the unfolding pandemic, which exacerbated many serious problems in the academic structures both in Russia and in foreign countries. This crisis of education is supplemented (and enhanced by) the crisis of science as a source of authority in postmodern era. In particular, expansion of social networks within the digital economy leads to the crisis of rational discourse in the society, because of the tendency of individuals to form closed interest communities, based not only on free discussion, but also rather on common misunderstandings, conspiracy theories and esoteric, contra-scientific forms of knowledge. The purpose of the article is to highlight the most important features of this crisis, as well as to outline its specificity within the Russian context. The main conclusion of the article is, although the education crisis in Russia is in many ways more severe than in developed countries, there are still opportunities to overcome it, not only within the framework of an academic system as a whole, but also through a wide range of grassroots initiatives related to with the promotion of scientific knowledge to a mass audience, covering wide sectors of society.

Postmodernism in Education and System Inversions
Dmitry Sevostyanov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.1.1-52-68

This paper is a detailed review of the article by P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov ‘The Carnival Time: Russian Higher School and Science in the Postmodern Era’. The author considers the main problems shown in this article.

            In order to study these problems the author uses a method of analysis of inverse relations in hierarchical systems as a theoretical basis. System inversion is a form of relations in hierarchical systems, in which the lowest element receives the dominant value in the system, formally remaining in the same subordinate position. This situation can occur both in the social hierarchy and, for example, in the hierarchy of values. As a result of the developed inversion, contradictions accumulate in the system, which can lead to the collapse of this system or to a radical transformation. Such processes can be observed in modern education. This is why there is a priority of the visible over the existent, as it happens in the situation of ‘carnival’.

            The article by P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov examines the postmodern cultural context in which modern education functions. In this regard, the author presents an interpretation of the postmodern situation from the point of view of analyzing system inversions. The current state of the educational sector is determined by the resolution of inversion in the system of human activity. This inversion covers the instrumental and symbolic aspects of human activity. Due to this, there are features of educational activities related to the introduction of digital technologies, which P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov pay special attention to.

            The authors of the article describe the status of the modern teacher’s activity as ‘spiritual prostitution’. Indeed, the activities of some teachers can be described by this term. However, this happens when both the teacher and the student experience a value inversion (as is the case with ordinary prostitution). Instead of this model of behavior, the author suggests another one, more worthy, – a ‘soldier of culture’. ‘Soldiers of culture’ do not ‘provide educational services’, they have a mission to broadcast and enrich culture, which is the highest, terminal value.

The Potential of a Museum in the Conditions of Crisis and Transformation of Modern Education
Alina Kildyusheva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.1.1-69-79

The article by P. Orekhovsky and V. Razumov ‘Carnival Time: Russian Higher Education and Science in the Postmodern Era’ focuses on the acute problem of the crisis state of modern science and higher education in the Russian Federation. The current situation is considered by the authors ‘from the inside’, since they are representatives of the university and academic environment, they see many ‘weak points’ in the system more clearly. Using the metaphor of carnival (according to M.M. Bakhtin), the authors analyzed the postmodern state of intellectual activity, paying special attention to the ‘new’ roles of teachers and scientists, viewing their spheres rather ‘pessimistically’. In addition, the authors also considered other problem areas of the post-industrial society: economics, HR, engineering, technology. Moreover, the article by P.A. Orekhovsky and V.I. Razumov provides an impetus for reflection not only on the topic of the crisis in education as such, but also allows us to look at the transformation of education from the inside. The processes of globalization, technicism, scientism, intellectualization, digitalization, informatization, automation, communication, unification, service, consumerism and at the same time, the observed crisis phenomena in the economy, science, education have covered all spheres of life, including they penetrated into the value - the cultural component of our being. In the proposed work, the main attention is paid to the consideration of the museum's potential (primarily its educational activities) in the context of the crisis of modern culture. In general, the idea of cultural heritage has changed, the discourse about the meaning and prospects of the museum in the ‘era when Google is just one click away’ (according to D. Scevers) has been updated. Reflections on the status of the museum in the culture of the information society are associated with its economic and social significance, as well as with the modernization of museum work methods. Why do people need a museum and what role can it play in the new educational paradigm? Shall we interpret formal and non-formal education as partners or competitors?

Institutional Erosion of Science and Education: Postmodern Grimaces
Radiy Ibragimov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.1.1-11-23

The article is a reaction to the article written by P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov ‘Carnival Time: Russian Higher School and Science in the Postmodern Era’. The author agrees with the analytical diagnosis of the state and situation in the Russian science and higher education, shares the concern expressed by colleagues about the fate of the most important social institutions for our civilization. The author proposes a number of considerations that develop the topics raised in the reference article. The author draws attention to the historical inversion of the positivist social project, which appears to be at the forefront of the emerging social architecture of a new scientific-technocratic elite; another thing is that its social configuration does not coincide with institutional boundaries of academic and University science. The author speculates upon the analogy of science with prostitution, which is currently undergoing a noticeable institutionalization. The author considers its phasing to be universal. It is suggested that prostitution can be extrapolated to other social institutions, including science and education. The potential of their resistance and survival is determined by how effectively passionarity accumulates in the structure of these social institutions. This indicator is directly proportional to the efficiency of the formation of human capital in the system. According to the author, problems, voiced by P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov, are explained by the passion drift, the overcoming of which is not an automatic macro-social act, but the craft of each scientific and pedagogical worker.

On Professional Self-Determination of Philosophy Teachers in Russia
Mikhail Nemtsev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.1.1-24-41

In the beginning of this paper, the author presents a critical analysis of “The Carnival Time: Russian High School and Science in the Postmodern Era” by P. A. Orekhovsky and V. I. Razumov who scrutinize ongoing degradation in Russian science and education. This crisis is a local variation of deep global crisis (described among others by B. Readings (1996)). Their article represents such a particular feature of humanities in Russian higher educational institutions, as systematic lack of attention to personal educational interests of students that unavoidably leads to certain monologicity. Before now, there has been gnoseological inequality between teachers and students. Thereby, objectives and content of education were predetermined. Global crisis of education is grounded by factual disappearance of this inequality. However, one can appreciate new possibilities for philosophy teachers to live on according to their professional self-determination. In the second part of the article, it is proposed to evaluate the situation from the standpoint of dedicated philosophers for whom teaching is the most appropriate way to fulfill their professional self-determination. Philosophy is a unique profession, where it is barely impossible to separate professional thinking of a philosopher from the practice of teaching Philosophy. To teach philosophy is to philosophize. In this paper, the author considers the term self-determination as creation of general value grounds of the philosophy teachers practical (everyday) activity, which provides every professional activity with justification as reasonably necessary to establish these values. Self-determination establishes a bridge between personal ethics and everyday practical life decisions. In order to implement their self-determination, philosophers need educational situations. Therefore the main proposition of this paper is that philosophy teachers have a chance to take advantage of the ongoing situation if they develop self-determination and explore educational interests of prospective students.