“Offline Theorizing” in Understanding the Phenomenon of Education in its Theoretical Images
Viktoria Vikhman,  Mark Romm
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.2.1-124-139

This article is aimed at finding the optimal strategy of abstract-speculative understanding of the phenomenon of education in the reflections of its real and potential theorizations in conditions of continuously transforming, stochastic social reality. Based on the above-mentioned framework conditions, the procedure of studying the phenomenon of education (we called it “offline theorization”) in the research “offline mode” is proposed by referring to the idea of fixing abstract “stop frames” of theoretical images of the education phenomenon. Educational reality in the social context is wisely drawn in the form of a “film” of the available theoretical context of the phenomenon of formation lasting and continuous, consisting of ideal “stop-frames” of theoretical images of the phenomenon of education. And as an abstract “stop-frame” of theoretical images of the phenomenon of education is a huge array of diverse, multi-disciplinary, methodologically loaded theorizations (theoretical images of the investigated phenomenon) recorded by the researcher in the available theoretical context.

In the process of understanding the phenomenon of education in a wide catalogue of its possible theorizations, it is proposed to take into account the analytical assumption of the existence of three interrelated, continuously developing and modifying flows: 1) social reality per se, 2) its social phenomena (in particular the phenomenon of education) and 3) theoretical images of the latter. Besides, this last flow not only exists as such, but it is also inextricably connected to the first and second flows on the basis of principles of direct and reverse connection. Analytically it is allowed to exist for the third - ideal - flow of theorizations, unequal in degree of analytical and methodological elaboration and adequacy of reality and facts, but in quite distinct authors’ conclusions reflecting a wide list of real and potential social mutations, deformations and foresight of development of the required future education as a social phenomenon. The authors’ concept of “theoretical-reflexive lag” is analyzed, reflecting the time distance between the procedure of analytical reflection of the phenomenon of education in its theoretical images and the objective state of the social reality itself at the moment of fixation of the “stop-frame” of theoretical images of the phenomenon of education.

Adaptivity as an Institutional Characteristic of Agents in Higher Education
Maksim Golovchin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.2.1-140-166

It is well known that higher education undergoes multiple transformations, which affect the organizational culture of every participant. The article discusses the adaptation of educational agents to the institutional changes taking place in higher education. The author puts forward a hypothesis of the connection of inconsistent and forced educational reforms with the general non-adaptability of agents to them.

The author considers the possibilities of using adaptive environments and conditions – the concept of bounded rationality (H. Simon, O. Williamson, F.A. Hayek, I.U. Zulkarnaev, etc.) and the concept of adaptive rationality (A.D. Chernyavsky, V.L. Tambovtsev, V.V. Volchik, O.S. Sukharev, etc.) on the basis of generalized data of the types of educational agents that contribute to a change in institutional conditions: nonconformists (moderate and extreme), opportunists and conformists (moderate and extreme). The author highlights the main (attitude to innovation) and additional (role in innovation and reaction to innovations) features that are characteristic of this or that type of agent in higher education. The proposed mathematical apparatus for aggregating these traits into an integral indicator is the index of intentionalization.

The author’s typology was tested on the basis of an expert survey among university professors of the Vologda Region conducted in 2019 (53 experts were interviewed). Based on the analysis of expert assessments, it was revealed that representatives of the teaching staff suffer from losses due to their non-involvement in a number of transplant-institutions. This is increasingly manifested in professional activities. As a result of the calculations, it was revealed that the most common are characteristics of moderate non-conformism and opportunism of agents, which, most likely, indicates inadaptability of teachers in the existing conditions.

The author gives recommendations how to introduce a flexible system of adaptation of teaching staff to create comfortable working conditions in the face of general turbulence in the state policy.

Science and Higher School: Dichotomy of the Mobilization Paradigm
Evgeny Vodichev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.1-58-78

The paper presents the author's vision of the sources of the dichotomy of the institutions of science and higher education, which were formed under the direct influence of the mobilization paradigm in Soviet society. The author analyses the doctrinal factors and the specifics of genesis and evolution of the institutionalized activities of the production, storage and transfer of scientific knowledge, which resulted in the minimized role of institutions of higher education in the Soviet system of scientific production. The paper gives interpretation of the basic concepts: dichotomy, social institution of science, social institution of education, mobilization, mobilization paradigm of development, modernization. Using the methods of interdisciplinary analysis involving the categories of sociology and social philosophy, social history of science, economic history and history of civil society, the author shows the doctrinal basis for the mismatch of two closely related components of the scientific and educational complex – scientific research and educational activities. The author draws attention to the fact, that there was a deviation from the classical university model, which combines the functions of generation, transfer and storage of scientific knowledge. According to the author, the quintessence was an instrumental and utilitarian approach to science and higher professional education, technologization, indoctrination and segmentation of scientific activity and professional education, which determined the key “starting points” and the boundaries of scientific, technical, scientific and educational activities. The paper highlights the relationship between the phenomena of mobilization and modernization in Soviet practice and the identification of the imperatives of the formation of the Soviet “protopolitics” in the field of science and higher professional education. The author shows manifestation of the mobilization paradigm of development in the field of science and higher professional education in the period of “late Stalinism”, associated with the formation of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). The latter can hardly be regarded as a deviation from the mobilization paradigm: the creation of the Physics and Technology Institute became a priority point of growth in the interests of the military sector of the economy with limited opportunities to transfer the experience of scientific and organizational decisions to the civilian sector. The author concludes that social institutions of science and education, which developed in the conditions of the mobilization paradigm, demonstrated conservatism and stability throughout the Soviet era. And despite the objective needs for the model change the institutions did not allow significant deviations from the determined development vector.

Experience of Building Inclusive Spaces of European and Russian Universities (in the contexts of Russia and France)
Michelle Debrenn,  Lyudmila Osmuk
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.1-79-93

  The formation of an inclusive space of European and Russian cities is considered as a social process that has acquired a global scale. Almost all universities are involved in this process, but each of them has its own strategy and understanding of the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the educational space. The article raises the problem of comparing the models of strategies and the level of development of inclusive education in European and Russian universities. The comparative analysis is carried out on the example of French and Russian universities, in order to carry out the analysis, normative documents, University reports, as well as information displayed on the sites were used. The development of inclusive education is associated with the formation of an inclusive space, while it is proposed to take into account the context of urban space. The authors highlight the influence of universities on the development of inclusive culture of the territories as well as the common problems of the development of inclusive space of Russian and European universities, and the reasons for the slight backlog of Russian universities. The presented analysis is of practical importance in the context of the emergence of joint projects in this area between Russia and France.