Philosophy: problems, approaches, decisions

Vadim Rozin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-9-22

The article discusses what the technology is and how one can build a humanitarian technology. It is shown that the technology is introduced as a new reality, which describes the industrial activities in the language of operations, their conditions, division of labor and management; at the same time, technology is characterized by the quality of installation, cost savings, standardization, rational description of the production processes, optimizing them for the training of new professionals – technologists. The author characterizes the features of the humanitarian approach and cognition. Though it is impossible to introduce a unique personality, which is characteristic of the humanitarian approach, into the technology, it is quite possible to provide a functional place for it. And it is better to consider not "a unique personality", the behavior of which, is difficult to foretell, but “a common personality", which is characterized by certain behaviors, because such a person always acts in the way, defined by the set rules predetermined by social conditions. In order to construct a realistic, humanitarian technology with a practical application, it is necessary to organize two activities: training and institutional support as well as the organizational one. The author illustrates these statements with the example of constructing a humanitarian technology and discusses the conditions for its implementation.

S.S. Avanesov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-23-30

In the article the author analyzes the key semantic aspect of the concept “event” in the philosophy of Mikhail Bakhtin. This aspect is related to the understanding of the being as self-transcendence. The author shows that Bakhtin defines a person’s position as his productive participation in the existence of being as a whole. Such a determination presupposes an understanding of the being as an open, closed, noninteger whole. In this perspective, the idea of equal to itself existence of being is fantastic and unrelated to reality. A truly relevant is the idea of being on the whole that comes true. The being on the whole never is, but always occurs due to participation of a responsible subject.

S.I. Grishunin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-31-37

The article is devoted to the role of the initial empirical data in the process of scientific knowledge and scientific prognostication, autonomy of these data to a certain extent in relation to theory. The author gives a scheme of the relationship of the initial data, creative intuition, scientific theories, reduction rules and the empirical consequences of the theory in the process of scientific knowledge. This scheme is valid to a certain extent and for a process development research prognosis and for making decision on the basis of this prognosis.The author of the article systematically analyses Popper's scheme of growth of scientific knowledge and shows that this scheme is broken, if we accept Popper's assertion that the so-called data and facts are theoretical interpretations. Specific examples proved that our senses and their testimony are to a certain extent autonomous in relation to the theories and myths. With the help of a concrete example it is shown that the perceptual component must be present in every empirical fact and that factual language is a complex phenomenon: its concepts are developed under the influence of this theory, other theories, practical activities, sensory experience and everyday experience.

A.A. Kochergin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-38-45

The article is devoted to the prospects of further development of the conceptualization of the notion of heredity in a wide range of biological and socio-humanitarian aspects in synthesis of them. The transition from one stage of knowledge to another, deeper one, is carried out in just such a way. The new aspects of reality that are displayed in terms in the process of cognition are fixed in terms. The notion of inheritance is a fundamental notion of genetics. Therefore, the scientific language is a kind of science's basic information code. This notion is in unity with the notions of variation and selection, and indicates the phenomenon of transmission to offspring of the material factors that determine the development of the characteristics of the organism in specific environmental conditions. The analysis of historically developing ideas about heredity is an important philosophical and methodological problem of genetics. A scientific language is an open system of concepts, which is constantly growing due to the inclusion of new knowledge about aspects of reality and is deepening due to the detection of new properties, structural elements, etc. This means that the history of science can be presented as the history of the development of its notions. The clarification of the historical path of development of science and its conceptual apparatus, of extent of its impact to solve practical problems, of its contribution to the development of knowledge and culture in general makes possible adequately assess its current state, identify its problems and points of growth, and contribute to the definition of its development prospects. The article analyzes the prospects for conceptualizing the concept "inheritance" and proposes a program of studies of these prospects; the program is based on the concepts of the outstanding modern geneticists.

Problems of modern Russian economy

Vladimir Shmat,  D.E. Kareva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-46-67

The authors present initial results of a study dealing with the scenario forecasting of the Russian economy development in its uncertainty and ambiguity. The Russia's future now looks very "nebulous" because of the large number of less predictable foreign economic and political risks. But the main factor of uncertainty, which can be characterized as the fundamental, i.e., excluding the possibility of a correct conversion to the risk situation, springs from the well-established resource dependence of the Russian economy over the past half-century. The peculiarity of the study is related to the application of expert-statistical Bayesian method based on non-formalized source of information by the method of peer reviews. The direct object of the study is to evaluate the probability of the basic scenario of the Russian economy in the long term and in a broader sense it solves a problem of identifying the conditions, which will be required for the realization of favorable scenarios and will be able to prevent adverse ones. According to the results of the two phases of the study conducted in 2014 and 2015, most experts appreciate the likelihood of further development of the country on the way of creating a "resource superpower" with the risk of finding itself on the "periphery of the world", because there is the slightest difference between the two scenarios. Trying to build a “resource superpower” without precisely formulated transparent terms and conditions, we may not cope with the threats and challenges and become a raw material appendage of the "world-economy".

V.M. Gilmundinov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-68-81

The paper is concerned with the issues of economic policy improvement of Russia, vulnerable to adverse effects associated with its high raw export orientation. Main features of «Dutch Disease» for the Russian economy are identified. It demonstrates the spiral nature of the "Dutch disease" in the Russian economy and the threat of its transition to the active open form. Particular attention is paid to assessing the impact of decreasing of world oil prices with sharp tightening of financial conditions under the influence of the sanctions in 2014 for the Russian economy. It also identifies the main obstacles to the remission of the "Dutch disease" in the Russian economy in the conditions of falling oil prices of 2008-2009 and 2014-2016 years. Analysis of the system limitations of socio-economic development and threat for reindustrialization posed by introduced against Russia sectoral sanctions is another point of this study. The necessity of active structural policy in the Russian economy, accompanied by an enabling sectoral credit policy of the Central Bank of Russia, is shown. Recommendations for the Russian economic policy allowing to accelerate structural modernization of the Russian economy under the circumstances are also given in the study.

In the search for a just society

K.A. Pavlov-Pinus
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-82-96

Justice as a theme and a subject of research is, in fact, a cluster of concepts, which organize a specific multi-actant historical process. It deals with certain forms of human self-understanding and methods of turning less equitable social relations into more equitable ones. One of the basic problems here is to clarify and to explicate existing forms of understanding of Justice, and then to organize a communicative space for an ongoing process of discussions on the national and even transnational level. While doing so the social life might have been reorganized in the mode of strengthening respect to the competing ideas of Justice, which are revealed as the result of those discussions. On the other hand, Truth within social sciences could be understood as a matrix of openness of the world-as-a-whole, i.e. as a sort of collective optics which allows to identify things as things, facts as facts, events as events, and, therefore, generates collective forms of in-the-world orientation, common for a given nation, or a given historical moment, etc. But altogether this produces deep conflicts between scientific knowledge and “folk” estimates of social and historical reality because historical and social “facts” themselves are still not defined.

«VIEWS WHICH WE PROPAGANDIZED ARE OFTEN RIDICULOUS…» The post-war Commission of Party Control at the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) against dissent of “soldiers of the Communist party”
Alexey Teplyakov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-97-106

The article analyzes the implementation of the control by the Party Control Commission of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) over the political behavior of the Communists in the postwar period. The moral resistance of the members of the ruling party to the authorities’ policy is one of the brightest phenomena of the Soviet era. Documents of the Party Control Commission mostly consist of decisions on appeals of the punished Communists, which allow us to see the characteristic manifestations of dissent from both ordinary party members and the officials. These people denied the brutality of the regime and the limitation of themes available for criticizing. The PCC (the Party Control Commission) brought to justice those responsible for violations of party discipline and ethics. The dissent and perseverance in defending their views were considered to be particularly serious violations of party discipline. The article shows numerous examples of frequent disagreements with the official policy of the backbone of the Communist party: the officials, the old Bolsheviks, army officers, security officers, propagandists. The party punishment was often followed by the charge of a crime. It is obvious that in conditions of terror, the party members tried to hide their views. That’s why the information about different forms of open protest during the period of late Stalinism becomes more valuable, when the numerous controlling structures carefully suppressed intra-party dissent.

Siberia as a megaregion

V.I. Suprun
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-107-117

In this article a reader can find the continuation of the offered in the previous publications the analysis of the concept Siberia as a megaregion. Understanding Siberia as the megaregion plays an exceptionally important role in contemporary geopolitics, taking into account the position of this megaregion, concerning China and South-Eastern Asia. No less significant appears to be the economic capacity of Siberia, taking into consideration it’s natural resources and also it’s industrial, scientific and educational levels. The concept of the megaregion allows to observe Siberia in it’s entity, from the Urals up to the Pacific Ocean. Such an attitude permits to get rid of the “fragment” approach, i.e. division into separate, weakly connected, regions and national territories. Popular in the Russian economic discourse the notion “macroregion” has purely economic character and in difference from “magerarion” doesn’t involve historic, social and cultural dimensions. In the case of New Industrial Revolution there are new opportunities for Siberia, depending on the rebirth of industrial production on the basis of modernization and innovations, and also launching the original projects. Siberia as Russia in whole needs this innovative impulse not only in the sphere of economics, but also in education and science. The positive results will be possible by saving and renewing basic values and cores of successful strategic projects. To reach ambitious aims it’s necessary to have highly-qualified specialists and investments in R&D. It’s important to shift social responses from the plain consumption to the authentic productive labor thru realizing such values as justice and equality.

Oleg Donskikh
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-118-127

This article examines the dynamics of the process of geographical perception of Siberia, in the aspect of the forming of the idea of Siberia as geographical and cultural unity. There are presented, in particular, quite legendary testimonies of foreign travelers who almost up to the end of the 17th century were getting pretty random information from Russian merchants; some data from the proper Siberian Chronicles is also given. Taking into account the idea of empire as a political structure that prevailed in the last 2,500 years of human history, author deals with the cultural and political factors which has determined the integrity of the idea of Siberia as a specific megaregion. Particularly the question of the nature of the development of Siberia in terms of the corresponding type of colonization is examined. It is concluded that the population of Siberia, despite the fact that it was used and even became in the first place famous as a region of exile, the consciousness of Siberians is not typical for colonial territory. Since the end of the 18th century the representation of a Siberian as a special group of the Russian population is firmly established.

Education in Modern Culture

Vladimir Diev
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-128-135

Globalization has seriously influenced the system of higher education. As a result the concept of the university role has also changed. Such concepts as “Entrepreneurial Universities” by Clark B., “A Triple Helix” by Etzkowitz H., “The Third Generation University” by Wissema J. came into being. All these concepts change our traditional understanding of the impact universities have on the social and economic development of our society. The term “academic capitalism” appeared at the end of the 1990-ies. Slaughter S. and Leslie L. define it as the market activities of the research and educational institutions as well as the staff aimed at attracting the money from outwards. University becomes the subject of the market economy with all the consequences. Russian universities today mostly have a hierarchical management structure, modeled on a big corporation. In the conditions of academic capitalism, which is not only highly competitive but also dynamic and volatile, the management system must be able to quickly respond to emerging challenges that the bureaucratic structure cannot always meet. The article shows that the network methodology of management decision-making has many advantages, as well as a number of restrictions.

Radiy Ibragimov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-136-147

The existence of the fictitious and hidden competences in the structure of educational standards is the problem of the Higher Education Reform implementation. The object of research is reconstruction of a number of the competences which are absent in the regulating documents, but they are important for subjects in professional socialization and they are really incorporated into it. During methodological study of the project of reconstruction of the young specialist model we assumed that the existence of the hidden competences is not a secret for students; and also – that many competences, declared in educational programs, have a fictitious character for them. This assumption became a basic hypothesis for the empirical research "Professional Socialization in the Conditions of Competence-Based Reconstruction". Readiness to use official position for personal enrichment, ability to join false conventions, to manipulate interlocutors, to strike up useful acquaintances and to derive benefit from them (in P. Bourdieu's terminology – to create and use social capital), ability and readiness to use gaps and contradictions in the legislation are referred to the hidden competences. The research has revealed that these competences are real and pressing for all levels and social subjects comprising the system of higher education.

Our publications

Tony Fang
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-148-166

In the article the author shares his findings on understanding the uniqueness of Chinese culture. Understanding Chinese culture demands and deserves an innovative approach which helps us to shed light on Chinese culture’s “millions of truth”. And this approach is Yin Yang philosophy. The Yin Yang philosophy suggests that there exists neither absolute black nor absolute white; every universal phenomenon embraces paradox and change. Culture is perceived as possessing inherently paradoxical value orientations, thereby enabling it to embrace opposite traits of any given cultural dimension. Through the examination of eight pairs of paradoxical values in business and social contexts, the authors have argued that Chinese culture has undergone significant change. However, “change” occurs not in terms of old values being replaced by new values but rather that contradictory values coexisting more and more visibly in today’s Chinese society. The article analyses the modern communication characteristics.


V.D. Shadrikov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-167-179

In the interview Prof. Shadrikov speaks about the recent educational reform in the Russian Federation. Its shortcomings are discussed, and the problem how it should be organized. The modern pre-school, school and higher education should be tailored to age and take into account the uncertainty of the cultural characteristics of different social groups and individuals. The difficulties of developing the contents of education and training are also under analysis, which is a very serious challenge in the new informational environment. The need is emphasized to get away from the fiscal targets and not setting the task to save, but rather to achieve high quality education. The situation with the standards is also touched, especially in the area of higher education, and the important conclusion is given that the standard is proposed in the terms of competencies yet the results are checked in terms of knowledge, and this situation determines the discrepancy between the opportunities provided by well-developed standards, and the real possibility to implement them. The situation in higher education connected with the realization of Bologna process, from which in recent time only two-level educational system is borrowed, yet everything else, basically the spirit of the Bologna process, is thrown away and forgotten, including the good financing and development of national education systems.

Notes in the Margins

I.S. Kuznetsov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-180-184

The subject of analysis is the article by I.V. Zhezhko-Braun. It is useful to discuss the history of the Siberian city of science, taking into account the present state of the RAS. The author highlights the uniqueness of this historical phenomenon, where the appearance of certain structures of civil society could be even more important than scientific discoveries. The article is based on unique sources, the resources, used by the author, involved oral narratives, interviews with a number of contemporaries and participants in the events described. For further research it is recommended for the author to use more available sources, primarily documents of the party organs. The author has to deeper present the general context in which these events took place. It is very important to substantiate the application of the term «student movement» to the opposition phenomena in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok.