The problem of the reliable statistics on the USSR repression in 1918–1956 remains an urgent scientific challenge. It is particularly difficult to carry out calculations of the Civil War terror victims, as well as those who were killed in political, ethnic and peasant exile in the 1920–1950-ies. Inaccessible documents from Russian FSB, MIA, AP and a number of other important sources hamper a thorough study of the statistics. Nevertheless, the study of the material from the central and regional archives undertaken by the author enabled him to get valuable statistical information and convincingly challenge the accuracy of the figures usually given, especially for the period of the Civil War and the beginning of the 1930s. The documents from the FSB central archive provided the evidence of mass executions based on the extrajudicial procedure in 1933, the number of which turned out to be much higher than announced in the early 1990s. The statistical tricks used to drastically underestimate the mortality level in the Gulag camps were also refuted. Thus, the new data require clarification of the repressive statistics that will inevitably increase the number of victims of the state punitive actions.
The article explains that the relevance of the topic is related to the need of developing youth entrepreneurship. Problems of development of entrepreneurship among young people are related to a number of reasons, including target settings, business motivation, support for authorities at all levels from the state to local governments, legal support, the attitude to entrepreneurship on the part of society, the attitude to the female and male entrepreneurship . Development of youth entrepreneurship can be analyzed from the perspective of endogenous and exogenous factors. Exogenous factors include government and legal support of business, the use of the financial system, the image of the entrepreneur in the mass consciousness. Endogenous factors include business-motivation and personal characteristics of young entrepreneurs. These factors have received empirical testing in the study of youth attitudes to business conducted on the total sample of Tomsk and Novosibirsk. Relevant for entrepreneurs is to obtain services from the state to realize their business project, as well as an information environment conducive to learning and sharing experiences in the field of entrepreneurship. The main problems of the youth of the Russian business are under-utilization of resources offered by the state, public attitudes towards entrepreneurs. Gender aspects are manifested in relation to the female and male entrepreneurship.
By the mid of 2014 the population of the globe reached 7,2 billion people, with nearly 6 billion living in the developing countries (83 % of the world population), 1,2 billion – in the developed countries (17% of the population of the Earth). If not to take into account the economic aspect, the “developed countries” group is the countries with mainly white, Caucasian population acknowledging Christianity. There is a global modern world trend, which attracts attention – the decrease in the share of the white population from 34 % in 1900 to 17 % in 2014. All changes occurring now are the result of the actions of the certain system laws. Distribution of population of people on a terrestrial surface depends on a set of factors, including the history of development of the specific territory. The population of Africa, mainly adherents of local traditional beliefs and Islam, grew more than 10 times for the last hundred years, and the population of Asia – almost 5 times.
В статье рассматриваются вопросы взаимосвязи социологии и статистики как отраслей научного знания. Обосновывается необходимость использования статистических методов в социологических исследованиях. Показывается, что массовые наблюдения, характерные для статистики, дают возможность измерять социальные явления методом обобщающих показателей. Статистика, выявляя типичные явления, «помогает» социологии увидеть на их фоне качественные образование и процессы. Результатом таких взаимодополняющих исследований выступает конструирование моделей социального развития, которые являются исходным звеном с точки зрения управления социальным объектом.
The territorial statistics as the system of collection of information about a condition of social and economic processes became an example of complex study of the situation in the agrarian sector of the Russian society of the second half of the 19th century. It was perceived as an illustration of additional opportunities of local governments in the post-reform period. Considerable volumes of the obtained statistical data served both as the basis for definition of territorial tax levies and the empirical base of notice able theoretical research. The programs of territorial observations included several methods of data collection. The sample budget survey of farm households became one of the directions of research in the district councils. Innovations of the territorial statistics also concerned the ways of tabular processing of obtained in formation. Programs of research, methods of data collection and ways of its processing make it possible to consider practice of territorial statistical descriptions as an important prerequisite of the development of empirical sociology and practice of sociological research in our country.
A Round table on regional and international studies was held as a part of the annual scientific session of the Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU) on 5 March 2015. The Round table brought together the lecturers engaged in the research of Russian society and the regional problems in the field of international relations. The Round table was attended by the lecturers of the Departments of International Relations and Regional Studies, Sociology, Social Work and Social Anthropology. The purpose of the Round table was to discuss the problems of regional studies in the field of theoretical research and applied research. The following issues and topics were discussed: the complexity and interdisciplinarity of regional research, strategies for construction of the Regional Studies subject, the specificity of regional studies and teaching of regional disciplines. In addition to the development of regional studies focused on international relations, comprehensive studies of Russia's regions that meet the needs of a specific region in the new regional modeling systems, implementation of innovative technologies, the examination of the activities of the various organizations, programmes and projects are becoming more noticeable. A number of Roundtable participants clearly showed that the driver of the emergence and development of scientific projects are the needs of the region addressed to "its" University. It was noted that the development of applied research, social forecasting and social diagnosis for the local community at the University is yet another challenge for University regional segment research.
The article is devoted to Eurasian civilizational identity of Russia and Mongolia and to the problem of civilizational identity of Russian and Mongolian youth. The processes of globalization and modernization affect the value orientations of young people. The break of traditions and continuity of generations due to global and local socio-cultural processes is the main cause of the disintegration trends of Russian and Mongolian society. The authors make a conclusion that the formation of the Eurasian civilizational identity of Russian and Mongolian youth will promote continuity between generations and create favorable conditions for the development of cooperation between Russia and Mongolia.