The article discusses the individual’s right to privacy in his/her private space. The right to privacy does not imply complete loneliness and lack of social contacts, but the ability to independently regulate the degree of intimacy and distance in relations with other people. A person as a social being needs both communication and rest from other people in his private space, which provides an opportunity for leisure and personal self-development. One’s own home is closed from the objectivizing gaze of the Other; there is no need to wear a social mask, take into account the opinions of others, be subjected to someone’s assessments. The need for privacy is also due to the bodily nature of man, because according to public regulations, many actions related to body care should be closed to the public.
The degree of need to be outside of society varies in different times and cultures. In the traditional society of the Middle Ages, being alone was regarded as a state of danger, an experience of failure, which was caused by the weakness of state structures that did not provide the individual with protection. With the growth of individualism associated with the strengthening of the state, as well as an increase in the well-being and literacy of the population, the life of the individual becomes more complicated and the need for privacy increases. In modern times, there is a differentiation of home space: there are such types of rooms as a library, a study, a room where a person could indulge in relaxation, thought, or reading alone. For a long time, only wealthy people could afford private space. However, from the second half of the 20th century, such an opportunity arises for the majority of the population of developed countries.
For a modern person, the presence of his private space is a psychological need, the absence of which causes a state of deprivation, anxiety and irritation. Violation of private space is characteristic of totalitarian regimes seeking to exercise total observation and control over an individual. The right to privacy is constitutive of human dignity and is fundamental to the modern concept of personality, its freedom and autonomy.