Economic theory

The Evolution of the Territorial Structure of GDP
Boris Lavrovskii,  Ekaterina Goryushkina,  Evgenij Shil'cin,  Aleksej Chuvaev,  Irina Ruzaeva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-239-253

Due to the extreme diversity of economic conditions, the level of interregional differences in Russia is unique. The extent of these differences is usually measured by traditional indicators of variation based on per capita GRP indicators. However, while the movement of the coeffi cient of variation, for example, refl ects the systemic properties of the object under study, it may not capture structural spatial shifts. But it is precisely these shifts, if they are stable, that are of particular interest both as a subject of scientifi c research and as an object of management by authorities.

The main question posed in the article is the following: Is there a connection between the level of economic development of a region and its “propensity” for structural displacement? Or in other words: how stable is the territory’s position in the interregional ranking of per capita GRP indicators, does it depend on the value of per capita GRP? It turns out that noticeable structural shifts (predominant growth or increasingly lagging behind the per capita GRP of the region relative to the national average) are the prerogative, fi rst of all, of territories with a level of per capita GDP close to the average.

Economy of the USSR during the Initial Period of the Great Patriotic War. Part 2
Grigory Khanin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-254-267

This article is the fi nal one, the second part of the study devoted to the analysis of the economic history of the USSR in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War (1941–1942). The author considers the aspects of economic development not discussed in the fi rst part of the article. The greatest place is occupied by the analysis of the standard of living of the population in its various aspects. Numerous sources are used, including statistical collections of the war years, survey guides and memoirs of contemporaries. In addition to the current consumption of goods, the consumption of services and living conditions of the population are also considered.

The author analyzes the role of Lend-Lease economy in the USSR in detail. Supplies under the Lend-Lease program are considered not only for this period, but throughout the war. The analysis is carried out for individual product groups. It is shown that, contrary to the prevailing ideas in literature about the insignifi cance of the share of supplies under the Lend-Lease program, based on their estimates in value terms, especially in many key areas, the role of these supplies in the economy of the USSR during the war was enormous. The state of science and higher education during the turning point of the war is examined. It is shown that they were preserved and played an important role in improving the qualifi cations of personnel and the quality of military equipment. Particular attention is paid to the initial stage of research on atomic weapons. It is shown that despite limited resources, already in the most diffi cult period of the war in the USSR, research on the creation of nuclear weapons began.

Behavioral Economics in the Context of a Crisis Situation: Research and Conclusions
Elena Dzhandzhugazova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-268-283

This article is devoted to the problems of behavioral economics, which defi nes the boundaries of rational consumer choice and studies models and scenarios of consumer behavior. The author examined the features of consumer behavior in the context of economic and geopolitical crises that modern Russia has gone through from the 1990s to the present. The article provides a periodization of crises, taking into account their specifi cs, causes and consequences. The research included an analysis of models and scenarios of consumer behavior during the acute phase of the crisis period in 2022, a comparative analysis of the cost structure; indices of the decline and growth of spending on the main categories of goods and services were given, and the readiness of consumers to refuse purchases was analyzed. Signifi cant attention in the work was paid to a comparative analysis of the main trends in consumer behavior during the crisis of 1997–1998 and the crisis of 2022, during which it was noted that consumer behavior is infl uenced by the increased maturity of markets and the preparedness of the public administration system for crisis situations. It is concluded that it is necessary to take into account the growing role of consumer behavior that deviates from the usual rational models, which emphasizes the need to develop new forms for building the economic policy of government bodies. In conclusion, the author focuses special attention on the fact that when making management decisions on the formation of programs to support industries and sectors of the economy, it is necessary to take into account emerging models and scenarios of consumer behavior.

Quantitative Analysis of Financial Instruments Based on Portfolio Theory and Game Theory
Dmitry Vlasov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-284-303

The article focuses on modern methods of quantitative analysis of fi nancial instruments based on the Markowitz portfolio theory, which allows designing optimal portfolios of fi nancial instruments under the assumption of extreme rationality of investors and game theory, which allows taking into account the factor of player interaction between those participating in fi nancial markets. The relevance of the research topic concerns the need to improve the quality of fi nancial decisions made in conditions of increased volatility of fi nancial markets. An initial set of fi nancial instruments was built, consisting of fi fty alternative options for placing funds. A preliminary analysis of the initial set of fi nancial instruments allowed us to narrow it down to ten elements that are most preferable for placing funds. The classic Markowitz portfolio model, which assumes maximizing the expected return on a portfolio at a given level of risk, is complemented by auxiliary constraints that allow taking into account individual investor preferences. The presented six modifi cations of Markowitz portfolios help to identify the dynamics of the quantitative characteristics of portfolios depending on the individual preferences of investors. Expected profi tability and expected risk, estimated from real fi nancial data, are accepted as quantitative characteristics of portfolios. The game model is constructed in the form of a game with nature, which allows taking into account the complex nature of player interaction, which in most cases is not characterized by antagonism. The game model is designed to select the optimal net strategy of the investor, which takes into account various fi nancial market conditions expressed by a market index (market portfolio). The study of the game model is implemented on the basis of the integrated Hodge-Lehman criterion regarding profi tability and risk. Its use made it possible to take into account the individual level of investor confi dence in the available fi nancial information. In the process of practical implementation of these techniques, results were obtained that allow us to conclude about the degree of sensitivity of optimal investment strategies to individual preferences and perceptions of investors. The constructed models can be used to update the content of professional training of students in the higher economic school system, as well as to set up courses of additional professional education

Flow Method in Diagnostics of Threats to National Economic Security of Russia
Natalya Poltoradneva
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-304-331

The work identifi es the problem of discrepancy between the rapidly growing importance of national economic security (NES) of Russia and the degree of its scientifi c elaboration according to such criteria as clarity in defi ning the subject of NES, methodology for studying NES, mechanisms for connecting scientifi c research with education and practice of NES.

The article is devoted to the study of the dynamics of teacher and scientist staff. The research is carried out using a new method developed by the author – the Flow Method. The novelty of the Flow Method begins with a change in the idea of the object of study. In traditional approaches, an object is fi xed, and is studied from different sides in different periods of time; the Flow Method focuses the researcher’s attention on the movement of resource fl ows in the economic environment. In such a movement of resources, the following are distinguished: infl ows, outfl ows, accumulations. Normally, the movement of resources is balanced.

It is appropriate to consider sanctions as the most important component of a hybrid war, aimed at unbalancing the resources of the national economy by blocking fl ows. The study showed that the representation of the movement of resources by the Flow Method differs from traditional representations in statistics and accounting.

Approbation of the Method in diagnosing the state of personnel in scientifi c and educational institutions showed strategic threats to the national security of the Russian Federation. Since 2015, the number of scientists and teachers with an academic degree has been continuously decreasing. The fl ow method allows us to dispel the myth that if scientists leave region A, they will simply work in another region. This study refutes such a hypothesis. Scientists, in particular, can change their specialty, leave the country, etc. The noted situation is similar for all 16 cities with a population of over a million in Russia, including Moscow and St. Petersburg and 18 constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The infl ux of young scientists is decreasing while the workforce continues to age. If we ignore the results obtained, then in 5–10 years, for example, the Omsk region will begin to lose the ability to train specialists with higher education, not to mention candidates and doctors of science. A similar situation awaits other regions.

International Market Entry Strategies of Russian Organizations under Changed External Economic Conditions
Galina Litvintseva,  Andrey Ivashchenko,  Daniil Arbatskiy,  Aleksey Kolmagorov
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-332-351

The change in the system of world economic communications as a result of sanction policy towards Russia and its allied countries forces enterprises and organizations to prove strategies of entry into foreign markets for the purpose of income generation and inclusion in new value chains. Therefore, the purpose of this research is the comparative analysis of factors and assessment of the application of international market entry strategies of Russian IT companies. Qualitative and quantitative methods of economic research were applied to achieving this goal. Qualitative methods included PESTEL analysis, situation and comparative analysis. Quantitative methods included the cost-benefi t method, statistical techniques and economic analysis methods. Tabular and graphic approaches are used for text visualization. In this research the factors infl uencing organizations activity in the international sphere and also the main foreign market entry strategies of IT companies were analyzed. Comparative analysis revealed benefi ts and shortcomings of each strategy, taking into account modern forms of business and currency risks. For the Russian IT company producing software three strategies were evaluated: export, franchising and direct investments. The choice of the IT industry for considering international market entry strategies of Russian organizations is proven. It is necessary to separate the development of new technologies and infrastructure, existence of fi nancial resources and pressure of economic sanctions from the factors infl uencing this process. Of the three strategies analyzed, the lowest-cost and lowest-profi t strategy was the franchising strategy; it can be used when there is a shortage of fi nancial resources. For “growth hacking” the expensive, but highly profi table strategy of direct investment taking into account currency hedging is applicable. Proceeding from the analysis of the infl uencing factors and legal conditions of the Russian Federation it is expedient to follow the strategy of average profi table export for ensuring company development.

The practical application of strategies for organizations to enter foreign markets is a multifaceted object of research that requires a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of business expansion. The received results will help companies make weighed decisions when choosing the optimum strategy for expanding their business in the international market.

Methodological problems in assessing capital investments of electric grid companies
Grigory Shulgin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-352-373

In the article the author reveals the most signifi cant methodological problems in this most important area, which is the basis for the reproduction of economic systems, on the basis of considering the most widely used methods of capital investment assessment. The article also provides a brief theoretical characterization of capital investments. It is concluded that the reason for methodological problems in the assessment of capital investments is the issue of the nature of capital, which has not been fully resolved in the fi eld of fundamental economic theory. The author draws attention to the fact that the detailed methods of capital investment assessment for specifi c conditions of management of individual sectoral economic systems, elaborated in scientifi c articles, dissertations and other works, do not receive scientifi c generalization and balanced assessment of the community. In fact, it means that there are no methods proven and used by many researchers and practitioners. It is shown that it is inappropriate to completely identify the investment process, project appraisal and capital investments of enterprises. The author points out the gap between fi nancial and technological effi ciency existing in the theory and practice of work with investments. Further, using the example of the Russian electric power transmission industry, the author shows how general methods of capital investment assessment may not be applicable depending on specifi c industry conditions, and how theoretical and methodological problems in practice turn into a lack of tools for decision-making.

In conclusion, based on the consideration of disproportions in the mechanism of capital investment assessment, implementation and regulation, another fundamental issue of the theory arises – the need to change approaches to the confl ict of interests and regulation of natural monopolies as a non-cooperative game.

Analytics of Spiritual Culture

On the Paradoxical Mode of Self-Consciousness: Rock Culture as a Marker of Identity
Sergey Dyukin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-374-385

One of the tools that participate in the transformation of the identity system at the stage of transition from modern culture to postmodern culture is rock culture. It offers a person a number of identifi cation opportunities that have different properties compared to the possibilities of defi ning oneself in a manner characteristic of modern culture. There is a partial rejection of identity markers characteristic to the modern era. The identity formed by rock culture, in accordance with current theoretical concepts, can be attributed to multiple, small narrative identities. As its fundamental characteristic feature, the presence of an indefi nite core of identity is considered, which is understood as a set of phenomena perceived and interpreted by the subject as a basis for establishing one’s own identity with other subjects. This uncertainty lies in the weak defi nitions of rock, in the desire of subjects to refuse to positively identify themselves with rock, in denying the existence of this phenomenon as such. At the same time, rock does not turn into its own opposite, does not assume the functions of the excluded Other, remaining an object of centrifugal or centripetal motion. In addition, the weakening of the core of identity is due to the fact that the concept of rock turns into the focus of axiological aspirations of the subject. Rock culture is appropriated by the subject, turning into an absolute epicenter of identifi cation. Subjectivity, thus, is taken out of the framework of one’s own personality and is endowed with the characteristics of an object, while receiving the name of rock.

The real object for building identity disappears, being replaced by a subject, or at least a separate segment of it.

Social Attitudes of the Experience Society and the Logic of Consumer Behavior – Correlation Factors
Yuliya Lobanova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-386-397

This article comprehensively examines and analyzes the historical and cultural context of the transformation of a formerly consumer society into a society of impressions (“a society of experiences”), analyzed from J. Baudrillard and G. Debord to G. Schulze, whose work of the same name made a signifi cant contribution to the process of understanding the causes of change in the attitudes of consumer behavior recorded over the past decades. Developed by G. Schulze, the social concept of “consumption of experiences” of members of modern society is studied from the point of view of the growing crisis of the previous models of mass consumption, which are increasingly ceasing to meet the requirements of modernity. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the features of further development of all these ideas in the form of the emerging counter-culture of anti-consumerism, criticism of overconsumption and a number of psychologizing approaches to the study and search for solutions to the problems of the emerging “emotional economy” in its application to the broader concept of “emotional capitalism” in that form as it is presented in a number of works of domestic and foreign authors.

Value Grounds of Stratagem Thinking. On the Example of Ming A Complete Book of Wisdom (1614 - 1634)
Tatiana Zavyalova
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-398-429

In the history of human thought, the question of the human wisdom nature, or the possibility to gain it, has never assumed a simple solution. Chinese thinkers and philosophers answered this question in different ways. The secular and practical character of understanding the concept of wisdom in the Chinese intellectual tradition was largely due to the infl uence of the ethical and political doctrine of Confucianism. From the point of view of Confucian ethics, the idea of using tricks and gimmicks was considered rather dubious. In the history of Chinese thought, there were periods when the intellectual elite had time to realize the beginning of a crisis in society and tried not only to theorize stratagem thinking, but also to fi nd suffi cient ethical grounds for applying stratagems in routine practices. The last third of the Ming dynasty reigning, when A Complete Book of Wisdom was written, was just such a period. At the same time, there was a serious value guidelines transformation of the educated class in China, which could also act as one of the factors in developing interest in stratagems and stratagem thinking. The aim of the article is to analyze the transformation of the value system of Chinese intellectuals, who lived in the last third of the Ming dynasty, and identify the value grounds of stratagem thinking described in A Complete Book of Wisdom.

The article presents a classifi cation of relevant factors that infl uenced the transformation of the value system of educated people under the late Ming. It describes and systematizes the data on the attitude of Ming emperors to educated people and Confucian ethical-political doctrine.  The struggle not only for real power but also for symbolic power in the area of values and ideals was one of the drivers for the transformation of the value system. In addition, the commercialization of life and mass culture was the main factor in the signifi cant change of Confucian philosophy. The article presents the analysis of educated people feelings and attitudes, which entailed changes in approaches to the process of knowledge and social practices. Thus, under the late Ming dynasty, there was the development of new models of social confl ict resolution and value grounds of stratagem thinking.

Soviet Sport: Attempts of Galvanizing Eidos in Modern Films about Outstanding Soviet Athletes
Valentina Lipitskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-430-440

The author believes that the so-called cinematic speaking on the Soviet, that is, an array of texts, formulated within the contours of fi lm, television, and other screen arts, is one of the representative sources shaping the domestic discourse of the reception of the Soviet. Within the framework of this work, research attention is focused on the consideration of modern Russian fi lms about the legends of Soviet sports, which, in the area of the abovementioned cinematic speaking, appeal to a number of phrase themes, such as sports, personality, heroism, asceticism, service, and moral values. According to the author, the repetitive nature of references to Soviet sports mythology is associated with the dire need of having some kind of incredible task fulfi lled; but, unlike, for example, S. Toymentsev, the author considers this task to be cultural, educational and didactic rather than politically predetermined. The author sees Soviet sports biopics as a good opportunity for a large-scale conversation at the level of everyday consciousness, designed to ensure the galvanization of eidos, re-launch of values and remastering of meanings. However, despite the self-evidently noble nature of such intentions, modern sports dramas are unable to fully realize their mission for a number of reasons. The fi rst reason why biographical fi lms about Soviet athletes do not turn into a guide to action, and their protagonists do not become sought-after role models, is the dramatic discrepancy between the glorifi ed personal qualities of the heroes and the main plots of current popular psychology, which consistently inculcates the cult of hedonism and the so-called ‘positive mindset’. The second reason that determines the emergence of the viewer’s “cognitive lag” is associated with the unanimous silencing in such fi lms of the ideological component of Soviet social relations as a factor that necessarily shapes personality (or the reduction of this factor to requisite and decorative markers): a complex of behavioral patterns, choices and motives thus turn out to be impenetrable to the viewer in the absence of interpretative model. As the third reason, the author names the formal, ‘dotted’ manner of depicting Soviet temporality in “champion fi lm sagas” and comes to the conclusion that unpacking and appropriating the didactic, instructive potential of legendary sports stories is impossible without a thoughtful depiction of Soviet social time.

Historical and Cultural Heritage of Towns of the Republic of Crimea in the Context of Constructing the Image of the City
Anzhela Normanskaya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2024-16.2.2-441-454

At the current stage of development, towns are in a diffi cult socio-economic situation, when the slowdown in economic and social development is caused by multilevel processes of an internal, regional and national nature. In many ways, the successful existence and functioning of a city depends on its image, i.e. attractiveness both for investors and tourists, and for the inner society – its citizens. In modern conditions, historical and cultural heritage is the basis of identity and continuity of generations, which, among other things, largely determines the image of each city. The relevance of the work is determined by the signifi cance of the historical and cultural heritage of towns of the Republic of Crimea in the socio-cultural and economic development of the region. The new economic reality actualizes the solution of a complex set of problems that hinder the attraction of investments in towns and are associated with the limited economic base, the low level of development of infrastructure facilities and the socio-cultural sphere. The study of the existing complex of monuments of historical and cultural heritage makes it possible to determine the cultural potential of towns in Crimea and the prospects for its use. The subject of the study is the analysis of the historical and cultural heritage of towns of the Republic of Crimea as an integral part of the urban image. The current development strategy of these cities is aimed at fi nding, developing and implementing effective methods of adaptation to modern realities, and creating more favorable living conditions for the population. As a result of historical-comparative and structural-functional analyses, the study identifi es a close relationship between the cultural potential of towns in Crimea and external factors of infl uence (geographical and historical-cultural conditions of settlement development).