SOCIAL NETWORKS: THREATS OF MANIPULATION
Lisenkova A.A.,  Tulchinsky G.L.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.2-38-42
Annotation:

The article examines the impact of the development of the Internet technologies on the ways of communication and social interaction in a society. The increasing of information flows and the speed of information exchange stimulate people to search for new forms of self-organization. Among these forms, there are some significant ones like virtual communities in social networks. This process intensifies different effects for all users of the network groups. Users in search of a circle of "friends" and personal identification resort to various methods of self-categorization experiencing the affect of different methods of influence and manipulation (both positive and negative). To maintain the balance of interests it is necessary to increase media literacy, mastering critical perception and analysis.

DYNAMICS OF BIRTH-RATE AND ITS CYCLE IN FENNOSKANDIA
Erdakov L.N.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.2-119-131
Annotation:

There is a whole area of demographic studies – the chronoecology. It is connected with the cyclical nature of virtually all processes in the evolution of the population. In addition to the vector process (a constant growth of the world's population), which has created a strong concern and this phenomenon has been included into the list of the global environmental problems of mankind; cyclic processes of the population change were also revealed.   The paper considers the cyclical birth-rate index in Fennoscandian countries during the long - term investigations. There is a steady negative trend of the birth-rate index, especially in Sweden. The spectra of periodic components, that form the long-term dynamics of the birth rate, are built. Specific to these countries, 170-, 50-60- and 15-17- year cycles are determined. The author speculates upon the internal causes and possible external pacemakers of these fluctuations. A comparison of the spectra of the periodic constituents of the birth-rate indices in Fennoskandia and Romania, as a more southern country, has been made. For the population cycles of fertility, the time external sensors can be manifested in individual fluctuations of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) in Scandinavia, as well as the harmonic components of the spectrum of the Nordic index (SCAND), the primary focus of which is situated over Scandinavia. The first oscillation of this global climate index can maintain the stability of the 170-year cycle of birth-rate; and the second one is responsible for the 60- and 40-year rhythms that function in Scandinavian countries, but they are absent in southern Europe (Romania).

ESCAPISM AND EARTHLY SUCCESS: ECONOMIC CULTURE OF FOREIGN OLD BELIEVERS
Raskov D.E.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.1-37-53
Annotation:

The article deals with the economic culture of the Old Believers, known as «chasovennye», who live in North and South America. The interviews and observations, collected during the expeditions to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Canada; as well as previously published works became the material for the generalizations. The first part outlines the nature of the activities and the economic culture of the Old Believers in America, and the second part deals with the Old Believers’ choice of the place of residence and their main activity; finally, the third part reveals the phenomenon of the dialectics of escape from the world and earthly success. A comparative overview of the economic life of a community of Old Believers named “chasovennye” shows the intensity of movements and the voluntariness in choosing the place of residence. In terms of theory, the article shows the dialectical logic of economic and religious choice. Economic success, followed by the loss of traditional ways of life and the language, provoked searching for the new places of residence. Like medieval monasteries and mendicant orders, the Old Believers, who had consciously chosen isolation and escapism, often found themselves in even more advantageous economic conditions, as it can be seen in Alaska and the Canadian Alberta.

ALTMETRICS AS A COMPLEX OF NEW TOOLS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY PRODUCTS EVALUATION
Busygina T.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-79-87
Annotation:

In the article the reasons to develop metrics alternative to conventional scientometric and bibliometric indicators for assessing the scientific work of the scientist or whole organization are analyzed. Altmetrics is an young discipline (started in 2010), the subject of which is the creation and study of new metrics (alternative metrics) to assess the scientific product (articles, books, presentations, speeches and discussions on the topic of scientific research, computer software, etc.) within the virtual space (the number of discussions in social networks, downloads and views in the scientific repositories and bibliographic managers, and others.) The altmetrics tools are observed. And the positive aspects of the altmetrics and criticisms expressed toward them are considered.

STATISTICS OR GEOPOLITICS?
Yakovenko L.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-75-78
Annotation:

The article assesses the discriminatory content posted on the website "The World of Statistics" that encroaches on Russian identity in the field of statistics. Being only an episode of the virtual negative information impact on professional Internet users, this action cannot but causes regret. "The World of Statistics" is not only a hyperbolized concept of characterizing a wide arsenal of tools and databases used in the process of cognition of the phenomena of the objective world, but also a geographical concept. International statistics should be out of politics. Attempts to exclude individual countries or groups of countries from international statistical space or context are counterproductive. Isolationist policy imposed against Russia in various fields by the international opponents, does not make the world safer and more sustainable, does not contribute to progress in achieving the Millennium development goals contained in the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations.

ESTIMATION OF INNOVATIVE POTENTIAL OF THE TERRITORY: THE SPATIO-DYNAMIC APPROACH
Serga Lyudmila,  Zajjkov K.A.,  Glinskiy V.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-62-74
Annotation:

The Government of the Russian Federation in the "Strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020" sets ambitious targets of long-term development. It plans to achieve a high level welfare of the population, strengthening the country's geopolitical role as one of the global leaders. The only possible way to achieve these goals is considered to be the transition of the Russian economy on an innovative socially-oriented model of development. The article is devoted to the statistical study of the innovation potential of Russian regions. Provide comparison of methods for the study of innovative activity and innovative potential of the territories. Developed methodological apparatus of statistical research of innovative potential of regions of the Russian Federation for a series of years. Held typology of the Russian regions in terms of innovation potential.

FREEDOM, CORPORATION AND NATIONAL IDEA
Shamolin R.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-14-21
Annotation:

The article tells about a base anthropological conflict between properly human indefinite and free integral part and his/her biological animal nature. The conflict is the fact, that having anxiety and fear of excess of their anthropogenic freedom, people create corporate culture for recovering their biological balance broken by freedom. In this context, culture is a try of reviving of animal natural state harmony. A great number of symbols and ideas sacralized by culture serve to this purpose. But freedom cannot exist with the normative construction. All unpredictable dynamics of human history is based on the continuing process of the conflict.

СOLLECTIVIZATION AS THE CAUSE OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE PEASANT LABOUR CULTURE
Lopatina N.L.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-3-13
Annotation:

The author considers the degradation of peasant labour culture in the Soviet kolkhozes, which still affects the modern village. Peasantry is presented as the community of rural inhabitants occupied with crop growing and cattle breeding who possess socio-cultural legacy of ancestors. The author highlights the idea, that traditional culture of peasant labour in Russia was very high. To prove the fact, the examples from the research work of classical writers of the Russian history, ethnographers’, foreigners’ evidence about Russia and the Russian folklore are given in the article. According to the author the policy of collectivization led to the socio-cultural degradation of the traditional labour culture of peasants. The absence of private property, material and moral interests as well as super-exploitation of peasants by the state, low-paid work, cultural revolution and "equal rights" for everybody were the main factors, which led to degradation. And as the result, such phenomena as low productivity of labour, economic indifference, imitation of labour were formed and all the previously mentioned factors led to moral degradation. The author supports the formulated conclusions with the testimonies of former peasants which have been collected in the new scientific genre "oral history". In the opinion of eyewitnesses of collectivization and the author of the article for the modern village recovery it is necessary to give peasants private property and freedom of creativity.

THE STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL CAPITAL INDICATORS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION REGIONS ON THE LEVEL OF THE POPULATION ECOMONIC ACTIVITY
Kazhaeva T.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-111-120
Annotation:

In the article, Russian regions are the classified in terms of cultural capital  development by cluster analysis method. Inside the allocated clusters, generalized factors are defined by the method of principal components; the effect  of indicators  of  cultural capital on the level of economic activity of the population is measured. The obtained multiple regression equation was used for forecasting the level of economic activity of population in 2016-2018 years.  

ANNOUNCEMENT OF M. V. MELNIKOV’S BOOK “PRIVATE AND PUBLIC IN THE HISTORICAL PROCESS. THEORETICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS”
Melnikov M.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-167-169
Annotation:

The author attempts to explain the changes taking place in different historical periods in the private and public spheres of social life. The content of these transformations is described as social privatization. The direction of social privatization is defined as the movement of the society towards de-politicization, de-socialization and privatization (ochastnivaniye). The author provides the examples of changes, the essence of which is social privatization; he also considers a decrease of civic activity of the population, the emergence of fenced and quasi-public spaces and turning of the state into a private corporation. The author argues that social privatization can act as a mechanism by which individuals and groups are trying to adapt to adverse changes in the social environment. Socially dangerous consequences of social privatization are characterized by the inability and unwillingness of people to hear and see each other, to carry out collective and cooperative activities in the public interest. The book is intended for sociologists, social philosophers, historians, graduate students and students of social theory, sociology of management, sociology, state and law, sociology of the city.