It is an important question – what power brings people to the Revolution? Why many revolutionaries completely change their vision and ideas as soon as they reach mature years and put away their dreams to change the world and to create a new society manifesting a new culture? Why someone becomes famous after just one episode of a secret group activity while another one is forgotten by the History even remaining faithful to the youth ideals till the very end? In this report I’ll try sort out the intricacy of the fate of one Russian woman-revolutionary and to fill up one of the gaps and return the name of a woman who dedicated her life to fighting for “happiness of all mankind” sacrificing her personal happiness, happiness of a wife and a mother.
In the article the First World War is seen as the transition from the ideology of Enlightenment to the emerging world of mass man. The specific features of this war are formulated which radically distinguish it from previous conflicts of different scale. It is shown that the First World War has discovered and tested a new control over human masses. The particular importance of the First World War for Russia is analyzed, for which it has become the beginning of the cultural catastrophe. The ideology and practice based on the belief that any person can be transformed by changing the external forms of his existence have succeeded, while the intellectual parties of opposition, particularly the KD’s aspired to democracy and respect for individual rights. After the formal end of the First World War it continued both in domestic and foreign policy of several European countries, primarily in Germany and Russia. This continuation is reflected in the labour armies, reinforced by the propaganda, in the shift from religion to ideology, in the establishment of totalitarian regimes, deriving its power from the idea of the constant struggle. At the end the First World War opened up the possibility of transition to mass man, united in humankind.
Scientific and pedagogical activities during the period of 1998-2001 are considered in the article. The author describes the work of the Siberian Transport University (STU) of that time as well as students and lecturers of the Economic Theory Department and the World Economy Department and he also recollects his work with postgraduate students. The author spells out the most significant conclusions he made while writing his book “The Economic History of Russia in Modern Times”, its gaps and inaccuracies. An important place is given to the content of the discussion at the Russian-American conference on the economic history of the Soviet Union in Zvenigorod in the summer of 2000 as well as the description of its participants. The author speculates upon the reasons for his resignation from the Siberian Transport University (STU).
ECONOMIC THINKING OF I.T. POSOSHKOV AS A PRIMARY FORM OF ECONOMIC REFLECTION IN RUSSIA OF THE XVIII-TH CENTURYKokovin Ivan
The author analyses the tendencies of the discipline formation such as philosophy of economy. The author hypothesizes that it was impossible to form autonomous philosophical-economic knowledge in Russia of the 18-th century. The prerequisites of philosophical and economic trends in Russia were investigated in the article as well as the history of scientific rational thinking formation within the framework of religiously-utopian discourse in the 18-th century Russia. According to the basic thesis of the article the philosophical-economic discourse could not be formed in Russia of the 18-th century because of the absence of cultural pre-conditions. The economic aspect was included into the religiously-utopian context, the author states the fact, that cultural space was not prepared to accept the economic ideas and concepts. Nevertheless, there was a need in scientific economic thinking able to specify the way of modernization of economy inspired by historical transformations of Peter I, who generated competition with the European states in such areas as: trade, military business and shipbuilding.
The subject of this article is the role of philosophy in the history from Antiquity till nowadays. Namely in Ancient Greece the idea of the omnipotence of speculative knowledge appears, which has found its particularly strong expression in Pythagorean doctrine. The idea of omnipotence belongs is common to great researchers who are prone to unjustified extension of the scope of their methods. In particular the harm caused to the scientific knowledge of Plato is analyzed. The success of science has brought to life the fantastic philosophy of rationalism, and this science was undoubtedly the Greek geometry. Under the influence of Plato and of Euclidean geometry theology arises in the Middle ages. Only in the eighteenth century science in our sense has become the catalyst of progress. The crucial role was played by Newton, who, by establishing differential and integral calculus, had substantiated the philosophy of empiricism, and had secure its historic victory. Communism as well as fascism grew out of the so-called "German classical philosophy", which was the continuation of the medieval philosophy of rationalism. Yet scientists, unlike priests of the past, do not undertake the attempt to build the unified worldview. The appearance of the objective science was a rejection of important types of previous knowledge. At the same time the humanistic weltanschauung of the New age stands in accordance with science and ready to take her new discoveries. It opens up the creative freedom to shape the future of humankind.
STATISTICS OF THE INITIAL PERIOD OF THE DEPORTATION OF THE PEASANTRY IN THE 1930–1931 YEARS: THE POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS FOR HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTIONKrasilnikov Sergey
At the end of the 1980s in the context of the policy of «opening of the archives»” historians got an access to government statistics on repressions of the Soviet era. With the obvious advantages of a centralized accounting of repressions significant gaps in the accounting and dynamics control of deported to special settlements peasantry in the 1930 1931 years were revealed. Deportation and the creation from the very beginning of special settlements could not but cause disruption and misrepresentation of statistical reporting, such a kind of information is called «gray hole». Social chaos generated chaos in statistics. Both institutional factors (interdepartmental contradictions and uncoordinated actions of secret police, a huge turnover of staff of the commandant’s offices, etc.) and behavioral factors (active and passive forms of peasant resistance) influenced the accounting of exiled farmers. As a result the statistically recorded special settlements population loss in the period amounted to half a million people, or a quarter of the number of deportees, but accurate data on the mechanisms and relationships of various forms of such catastrophic deportation statistics were not fixed. This publication analyzes the causes of the information «failure» of corporate statistics.
AGRARIAN ECONOMY OF SIBERIA DURING THE WORLD WAR I AND THE CIVIL WAR: THE PROBLEM OF INTERPRETING STATISTICAL SOURCESRynkov V.M.
Agricultural statistics data are analyzed through supplementary types of sources, which provide a critical look at the key statistical sources – agricultural census in 1916, 1917 and 1920. The cross-sectional analysis of statistics, record keeping and narrative material have enabled the author to conclude that the growth of agricultural production in Siberia during the World War I, as it is drawn from well-known statistical sources, can hardly be considered reliable, with the production growth still rising according to some indicators even during the Civil War.
The problem of the reliable statistics on the USSR repression in 1918–1956 remains an urgent scientific challenge. It is particularly difficult to carry out calculations of the Civil War terror victims, as well as those who were killed in political, ethnic and peasant exile in the 1920–1950-ies. Inaccessible documents from Russian FSB, MIA, AP and a number of other important sources hamper a thorough study of the statistics. Nevertheless, the study of the material from the central and regional archives undertaken by the author enabled him to get valuable statistical information and convincingly challenge the accuracy of the figures usually given, especially for the period of the Civil War and the beginning of the 1930s. The documents from the FSB central archive provided the evidence of mass executions based on the extrajudicial procedure in 1933, the number of which turned out to be much higher than announced in the early 1990s. The statistical tricks used to drastically underestimate the mortality level in the Gulag camps were also refuted. Thus, the new data require clarification of the repressive statistics that will inevitably increase the number of victims of the state punitive actions.
In this article the problem of reflecting historical dynamics of a society in modern humanitarian knowledge is discussed. The author shows, that in the modern humanitarian knowledge the tendencies to imitation the cognitive activities are widely presented that is reflected in the reduction of real conceptual and logical complexity of theoretical descriptions of social phenomena. This reduction is generated, among other things, by actual ignoring the principle of historicism in characterizing the studied objects. First of all, with such an approach the qualitative variability of social phenomena is ignored. To reveal the qualitative variability of social phenomena is possible on the basis of special reflection of their historical dynamics. The paper proposes a method to overcome such imitative trends in the consistent implementation of sociocultural cognition on the basis of the principle of historicism. According to this principle any phenomenon should be described theoretically in the whole process of its own internal development. Any social object at every moment of its existence is the result of its own genesis. That is why the consistent categorical description of dynamics of its development as a quality formation through internally irreducible to one another stages would really implement the cognitive principles, declared in the sociocultural approach. The proposed solution is constructed on the basis of socio-philosophical reflection of the historical cognition characteristics of a society as a dynamic system.
At the round table the problem was discussed of using mathematical methods in the analysis of historical process, or methods of historical macrosociology. On the one hand, it is obvious that in the history different societies have certain regularity, which can be examined by statistical methods. This applies to demographic waves as well as to certain economic realities, etc. For instance, we can point to the Kondratieff’s waves. If we take it for granted, it appears that it is possible to speak about the corresponding laws. However two problems appear straight away – the quality of data on which to rely, and the ratio of the peculiarities of the history of some particular societies and the general laws which characterize any society. Economists, the most advanced in application of mathematics, are building system models, while historians are just approaching to this. There is inductive approach to these issues as well, when historians use statistics to analyze certain specific processes. Also such issues were discussed such as the transformation of professional history into applied political science, which is certainly counterproductive from the point of view of science as such, and the problem of the access to the archives. In addition, it was indicated that there is a deep connection between historical research and such complex discipline as adaptology. Participants also discussed the problems of interpretation of historical data and the status of social sciences in general.