SIBERIA: THE PROBLEM OF THE FORMATION OF THE UNITY OF MEGAREGION
Donskikh Oleg
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-118-127
Annotation:

This article examines the dynamics of the process of geographical perception of Siberia, in the aspect of the forming of the idea of Siberia as geographical and cultural unity. There are presented, in particular, quite legendary testimonies of foreign travelers who almost up to the end of the 17th century were getting pretty random information from Russian merchants; some data from the proper Siberian Chronicles is also given. Taking into account the idea of empire as a political structure that prevailed in the last 2,500 years of human history, author deals with the cultural and political factors which has determined the integrity of the idea of Siberia as a specific megaregion. Particularly the question of the nature of the development of Siberia in terms of the corresponding type of colonization is examined. It is concluded that the population of Siberia, despite the fact that it was used and even became in the first place famous as a region of exile, the consciousness of Siberians is not typical for colonial territory. Since the end of the 18th century the representation of a Siberian as a special group of the Russian population is firmly established.

COMMENT ON THE ARTICLE BY I.V. ZHEZHKO-BRAUN «NSU: THE STUDENT MOVEMENT OF THE 1960-s"
Kuznetsov I.S.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-1.1-180-184
Annotation:

The subject of analysis is the article by I.V. Zhezhko-Braun. It is useful to discuss the history of the Siberian city of science, taking into account the present state of the RAS. The author highlights the uniqueness of this historical phenomenon, where the appearance of certain structures of civil society could be even more important than scientific discoveries. The article is based on unique sources, the resources, used by the author, involved oral narratives, interviews with a number of contemporaries and participants in the events described. For further research it is recommended for the author to use more available sources, primarily documents of the party organs. The author has to deeper present the general context in which these events took place. It is very important to substantiate the application of the term «student movement» to the opposition phenomena in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok.

RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES AND THE RUSSIAN intelligentsia. Part 2
Fet A.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.2-146-160
Annotation:

This article is a continuation of the article "Russian Universities and the Russian Intelligentsia" Part 1, published in this journal, №3, 2016. The author discusses the problem of the Russian intelligentsia formation and the role, which the Russian university community played in the process. He also demonstrated the origins of the "groundlessness", which has always distinguished the Russian intelligentsia, and analyzed the reasons for its invariable opposition to any authority. The author proves the thesis that the revolutionaries of all stripes represented a semi-intelligentsia: instead of thick books, these people read the brochures, and they replaced the philosophy with the party ideology. Semi-intelligentsia played a leading role in all French Revolutions, and later in the Russian one. The article analyzes the destiny of Russian universities during the years of Soviet power. The years of "stagnation" meant already the agony of Russian universities, which had lost all the impulses to scientific activities. The experimenters were without instruments, theorists were without books ─ they were isolated from the world; they were under a bureaucratic ban. The author gives a brilliant analysis of the role and significance of the Russian intelligentsia in the Russian and world history. In his opinion, the main distinctive characteristic of the Russian intelligentsia was unselfishness. In the West, “freedom” and “equality” meant protecting group and class interests; in Russia, however, these words were understood as “brotherhood” with all oppressed people without any self-interest.

NGU: TO THE HISTORY OF THE STUDENT’S MOVEMENT IN 1960-s. Part 2
Zhezhko-Braun Irina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.1-109-134
Annotation:

The students movement in the 1960s in the Novosibirsk State University (NGU), the longest open legal students movement of the Soviet period, is analyzed in this article.  The previous publications on this subject do not present the movement in its entirety, nor properly reflect the nature of the phenomenon. The civil movement in Akademgorodok (the Academytown) and, in particular, at the NGU was a by-product of the famous Siberian experiment. Nowadays, this by-product is quite topical in search for the best strategy of social change. The article reconstructs and analyses the preconditions and factors of the students movement, as well as the spectrum and directions of its political activities: self-organization and self-management, club activities, participation in choosing the Rector, protection of student political and academic freedoms, preservation of the autonomy of the university, etc. The conclusions about the nature of the movement are made based on numerous memoirs and available documents.

SOVIET COMPUTER ENGINEERING IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMY, EDUCATION AND IDEOLOGY (LATE 1940-s – MID 1950-s)
Pivovarov N.Yu.,  Shilov V.V.,  Krayneva Irina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-4.1-135-155
Annotation:

Computer engineering became a reality in the USSR in the mid-1950s. Capabilities of this new branch, demonstrated in the Soviet Atomic Project, generated an urge to expand the production of computers not only in the defense industry but in the civilian economy as well. Since the USSR’s economy developed in confrontation to the capitalist world, the political cliché “to catch up and outdo” introduced by V.I. Lenin back in 1917 was reiterated by other Soviet leaders in different situations. In particular, it was popular after the Second World War and, among other things, was applied to computer engineering. The comparative production of computers in the USSR and in the West was not in favor of our country. Our modest success was primarily attributed to the general slippage in this area. The situation with computer engineering is an example of the catching-up nature of the Soviet technological development during the period of late Stalinism. Nevertheless, since computer production was launched, there emerged a need for specialists both in industrial production and maintenance. Hence, appropriate disciplines were introduced in the Soviet higher educational institutions. Computer specialists were trained in Moscow, Leningrad, Gorky, Kiev, Penza, and in other leading universities of the USSR. Dating back to this period, until the mid-1950s, there are three out of the four principal academic programming schools, based in Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev.  At the same time, A.A. Lyapunov laid back the foundations of the theory of programming and L.A. Lusternik organized, in 1950, a workshop on programming at the Institute of Precise Mechanics and Computer Engineering, USSR Academy of Sciences. Computer design was improved simultaneously with software development. From the very beginning, the civilian applications of computers took computer engineering beyond mathematical calculations, to automatic translation, and with time this tendency grew stronger. The new industry developed in the conditions of severe competition between the two establishments: the USSR Machine-Building Ministry and Academy of Sciences, each promoting their own project. Various means were used in this struggle, up to classifying information about computers in academic and mass media. The ideological pressure on some scientific areas of biology, genetics and physics, characteristic of the late Stalin’s period, did not have any serious consequences for computer engineering. Yet, computer advocates intentionally distinguished themselves from the “bourgeois” theories of computer animation. Computer applications in civilian branches of economy were artificially held back: no small share in this had the authorities’ stance to strengthen, above all, the national defense potential.

RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES AND THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA. Part 1
Fet A.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-3.2-155-169
Annotation:

The article "Russian Universities and the Russian Intelligentsia" was written at the request of Inna Kizhner to work with students. According to Inna, it was in 1996, when she was working with a group of economists. She might be wrong. I remember that year very well: A.I. Fet was in America for a long time and returned to Russia only in December. Apparently, he started writing this article not earlier than in 1997. He wrote about half of the text at once up to the chapter "Russian Universities before the Revolution and the Emergence of the Russian Intelligentsia," and then he gave it up for a few years. At some moment, Inna reminded him of her request. A.I. Fet half-heartedly returned to the writing of his manuscript, having marked in it that it is necessary to insert a certain section from "Instinct." At that time, he was absorbed in the work on the book, but, yielding to Inna’s insistence he wrote the last half, ending it with the words "Russian universities, Russian science and science education will have to be rebuilt. We need to overcome this tragedy quietly. You cannot be angry with these swindlers: they do not know what they do". As such, the article was ready in 2001; then A. I. Fet added the chapter "The Russian Intelligentsia" from "Instinct", prefacing it with a small foreword.

INTERVIEW ON THE ECONOMIC EDUCATION, THE REFORMS, AND THE CURRENT SITUATION IN RUSSIA
Aganbegyan A.G.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-3.2-170-184
Annotation:

Academician A.G. Aganbegyan gives interview to Oleg Donskikh, the chief editor of the journal "Ideas and Ideals”. The academician shares his opinion about the history of economic education in the Novosibirsk State University and about the importance of economic thought in a society. The questions under discussion are the following: the role of the reformers, the activities of Y.T. Gaidar, in particular, and the significant role he played in the history of our country. He also characterizes the current economic situation in the Russian Federation and speaks about the necessity to move from the investment reduction policy to the investment facilitating policy into fixed assets and human capital.

NGU: TO THE HISTORY OF THE STUDENT MOVEMENT IN 1960s Part I
Zhezhko-Braun Irina
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-3.1-136-156
Annotation:

The author analyses the student movement in 1960s in the Novosibirsk State University (NGU), the longest open legal student movement of the Soviet period. The previous publications on this subject do not present the movement in its entirety, and they also do not reflect the nature of the phenomenon properly. The civil movement in Akademgorodok (Academic Town) and, in particular, at the NGU was a by-product of the famous Siberian experiment. Nowadays, this by-product is quite topical in search for the best strategy of social change. The article reconstructs and analyses the preconditions and factors of the student movement, as well as the spectrum and directions of its political activities: self-organization and self-management, club activities, participation in the Rector’s elections, protection of student political and academic freedoms, preservation of the autonomy of the university, etc. The conclusions about the nature of the movement are made based on numerous memoirs and available documents.

THE PHENOMENON OF BORIS SAVINKOV AND THE SECRET OF HIS DEATH
Morozov Konstantin
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-3.1-157-175
Annotation:

The article is devoted to the moral and ethical search and God-seeking of a prominent socialist-revolutionary Boris Savinkov. He earned a reputation not only as one of the leaders of the PSR “Fighting organization”, who participated in the organization of the most resonant attacks – on Interior Minister V.K. Pleve and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, but also as a writer whose works "The Pale Horse" and "That Which Was Not (Three Brothers)" had a great public resonance. The contradictory nature of his personality, attitudes and actions, clearly manifested in the fact that he simultaneously combined leadership of “Fighting organization” and public reflection on moral inadmissibility of the murder, and in the fact that his anti-Bolshevik activities he combined with writing "The Black Horse", still attracts the attention of researchers and journalists. The circumstances of his death also attract the attention. The author explores them using the documents of "Savinkov case," initially stored in the secret archives of the Politburo of the CPSU (b), which allow us to speak with confidence about his suicide.

IS REVOLUTIONARY JULIE GORTYNSKY – JUST «UNLUCKY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA»?
Terekhova N.YU.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2016-2.2-31-42
Annotation:

It is an important question – what power brings people to the Revolution? Why many revolutionaries completely change their vision and ideas as soon as they reach mature years and put away their dreams to change the world and to create a new society manifesting a new culture? Why someone becomes famous after just one episode of a secret group activity while another one is forgotten by the History even remaining faithful to the youth ideals till the very end?  In this report I’ll try sort out the intricacy of the fate of one Russian woman-revolutionary and to fill up one of the gaps and return the name of a woman who dedicated her life to fighting for “happiness of all mankind” sacrificing her personal happiness, happiness of a wife and a mother.