Notes on the article by W. Sassin “Images of the World: Ideas of Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood and their transformations”
Flakh Sergey
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-1.1-49-56

Wolfgang Sassin’s article "Images of the World: Ideas of Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood and Their Transformation" (“Ideas and Ideals”, No. 4, 2017) forms the first part of his big article (part 2 is published in this volume of the journal). The ideas expressed in the article have evoked great interest of Russian researchers, yet some of his statements have raised serious questions and objections. The author presents a critical analysis of these controversial statements. The goal of this discussion is not just to express objection and the opposite point of view, but to deeper understand extremely important and interesting issues raised by W. Sassin. The idea of the primary atomicity of individuals and the deriving from it the original individual freedom seem to be quite controversial. W. Sassin tries to find the grounds for the key social concepts in the Bible, however he takes the ideas which are not essential for the Bible itself, but have been widely disseminated during the age of Enlightenment that took place under the slogan of struggle against Christianity. This refers to such slogans as "conquer nature" and "liberty, equality, and fraternity". The author's persuasion that the faith in One God makes all people equal before Him, would be fair only if the equality would be understood by him only in a personal sense, but the author imparts it with social meaning. The inference of these values not only from Christianity but also from monotheism in general looks unjustified.

Ruban O.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-56-63

A systematic approach makes it possible to discover new ways of investigating the question of family-marriage problems. Through systematic approach the family is considered not from the point of individual elements’ qualities, but from the point of system’s qualities, which appear as a result of elements’ interaction. Once appeared, these qualities obtain the influence on other elements. In this way, system’s elements’ interaction becomes the key determinant parameter for system’s qualities. The three family systems: traditional, nuclear and individual- are considered within the scope of the systematic approach. Each of the mentioned types is defined by the presence of an over-systematic system-forming principle and orientation on existing cultural models or by their absence. Traditional and nuclear family types have certain patterns of interactions, worked out during the evolution. The third marked out type of family organization is still going through its establishment and development stages. The systematic approach within family-marriage range of problems, on the one hand, is based on epistemology of modern time, and, on the other hand, follows traditional philosophic intuitions in this field. This view allows us to prevent evaluation in description of system’s elements, shifting the attention on the dynamic constituent. This broadens the opportunities of finding modern viable family organization models.

Petrakova N.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-34-42

The paper deals with the relationship between dialogue and intersubjectivity. The idea of the subordinate nature of these relations is noted, a number of fundamental differences between concepts are revealed. Intersubjectivity and dialogue are correlated as possibility and reality, as space and action in this space, as timelessness and temporality, as whole and part. The space of intersubjectivity as three-layered is fixed: the existential-phenomenological, cultural-symbolic and institutional levels of intersubjectivity are unfolding each in its logic: the logic of the victim, the logic of the gift and the logic of exchange, respectively. The peculiarity of the dialogue is seen in the fact that it is accentuated on the second - cultural-symbolic - level of intersubjectivity. The existential-phenomenological and institutional levels remain outside the zone of dialogue. The first is due to the lack of attention to such an essential tool as speech. The second is due to the absence of the subject to whom this speech is addressed. Relations at the normative or institutional level of intersubjectivity are close to the subject-object relationship. At the same time, the layers of intersubjectivity are not homogeneous, the analysis reveals a fractal principle of their composition. Each level of intersubjectivity is similar to all intersubjectivity in general. So, in a dialogue, three logics are combined: the existential logic of expression, the symbolic logic of understanding and the institutional logic of positioning, which are correlative to the logic of sacrifice, gift and exchange. Moments, when the dialogue overlaps the whole space of intersubjectivity, are rather exceptions to the rules, but it is at such moments that it realizes itself completely.

Likhomanov Igor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-85-97

  The article considers social and socio-psychological prerequisites of Eurasianism coming on the stage. Eurasianism emerged in the early twenties of the last century as an ideology and a political movement. But its social origin dates back to the earlier period. Eurasianism is a consequence of the world war and the revolutionary situation. The active participation of Caucasian and Asian peoples of the Russian Empire as well as some features of the revolutionary everyday routine formed a part of the Russian intelligentsia`s perception of the revolution as the Eurasian matter. This was facilitated by the complex nature of the Russian identity which comprised two hearts of the Russian peoples – European and Asian. The specificity of the Eurasian perception of the revolution was the reassessment of the European and Asian components of the Russian identity. In the Russian public consciousness of the nineteenth century the Asian component was perceived negatively, but the European one - positively. A group of writers and poets, who in 1917 and 1918 called themselves “The Scythians”, under the influence of Nietzsche and Vladimir Solovyev and under the influence of tragic experience of the First World War, re-evaluated the two components of the Russian identity. The result of this re-evaluation was the birth of a Eurasian myth as an artistic reflection of the experience of the world war and the revolution. This myth was used as the basis for the creation of Eurasian ideology by a group of Russian emigrant scholars.

Masalova Yuliya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-3-12

The formation of human resources of a certain quality is a complex and time-consuming process. It is implemented both at the macro level (country, region, industry), and at the micro level (organization, people). The subject of the study is management relations (methodological approaches) arising in the process of shaping the quality of human resources. In the course of the research it was found out that the subject of management in the process of shaping a certain quality of human resources can be, both an individual himself/herself and the managerial staff of the organization, the country. Approaches to the formation of the quality of human resources differ at the individual, organizational and state levels, depending on the interests and needs of subjects and management objects. The object of management is the quality of human resources. It is a set of characteristics of human resources that meets the requirements that are formed in the external and internal environment of the system in the process of creating their competitive advantages. The subject of the study is management relations. Requirements for the quality of human resources are permanently changing. They are manifested at different levels: at the state level (for example, regarding the qualification level of employees and the level of productivity of their work), at the organizational level (for example, regarding the competencies of employees and the efficiency of their activities), at the individual level (as an attitude toward the process of formation and application of his/her human capital).

Korytchenkova N.I.,  Goldshmidt E.S.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-134-149

The authors highlight the fact that nowadays people with the rational forms of thinking comprise the most part of the population (people, whose left hemisphere is more developed than the right one) and in addition to this there is a considerable deformation in individual profiles of functional brain asymmetry (IPA). In the authors’ opinion, in order to form a versatile personality, to develop universal and flexible thinking it is required to harmonize mental operations from the point of view of brain functional asymmetry, that allows to think of the prospects for actualization of psychological potential of an individual. One of these prospects, according to the wave model development can be an unlimited increase of life expectancy. In the Kemerovo State University since the late 1990s the studies have singled out 9 major types of individual profile of functional asymmetry of the brain (IPA), which are formed as a combination of asymmetry of motor and sensory areas. To coordinate the psychophysiological potential (IPA) with the mental models the following mental semiotic models are used: Frege, Vasilyuk and Anuashvili models which are compared with the phrenological and Cabbalistic models of the psyche. The authors consider mental development as a successive advancing through specific phases with different asymmetry and intensity of both hemispheres interaction. The article suggests a potential method of human abilities development by using the methods of brain gym (educational kinesiology). The article demonstrates the results of the study of the IPA distribution at school among students and teachers, as well as the results of applying special methods of IPA correction among high school students.

Zaidman I.N.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-161-168

The author focuses on issues relevant to modern communication. It`s known that business relationships are largely dependent on effective communication between partners. Any communication takes place in oral or written form, i.e. it involves some perception of information. It`s reading, if partners are located far away or working with the documents and it`s listening at contact communication, when the speaker and the listener are either close, or use modern means of communication (Skype, Viber, WhatsApp). The success of communication depends on an adequate understanding that is not always the case. The sharp increase in the amount of information in the modern world requires skills to identify the main thing, to omit unnecessary points and discrete, dispersed perception, known as “clip thinking”, contributes to it. The paper characterizes the features of clip thinking in mapping and conceptual thinking and evaluates their effectiveness for different human activities. The author gives examples and analyzes the communicative interference and failure in different situations, explains their causes. Even people whose work involves communication show inadequate understanding of the perception of information: linguists and psychologists. The article argues that the above mentioned phenomenon is due to clip thinking of communicants and undeveloped skills of reading and listening, as well as uncritical in the evaluation of their own speech behavior. The study showed that in the perception of the main information the loss is not observed, i.e. the abilities of scanning and listening for gist are developed. It`s detailed listening that creates the biggest difficulty in the majority of cases, as well as learning reading and critical evaluation of information and its analysis. The author suggests the ways of increasing motivation of students to improve their speech activities, methods of communicative abilities`development.The paper equips the reader with some techniques and tasks necessary to teach detailed and critical reading and listening. The tasks are distributed according to the stages of speech activity: perception of the text, in the process of reading or listening and then at the stage of self-control. The author describes the proposed tasks and their possible complications. The earlier we develop the skills of adequate perception of the text and the ability to identify the shortcomings, the more successful the communication of a person as he grows older will be. This is especially important for managers, since their communication skills depend on the psychological climate in the team and the success in promoting business. The following research methods are used in the article: monitoring the speech activity, speech recording, analysis of contexts and design of training courses.

Nikiforova L.E.,  Zyryanova A.I.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-43-55

The article is devoted to the theoretical understanding of the social group "young people" in the context of public administration theory. The authors consider the approaches to the definition of youth in domestic and foreign legislation, sociology and public administration theory. They also study the impact of different factors on socio-demographic groups differentiation and the content of youth policy. The article analyzes different approaches to the youth policy development taking into consideration all parties concerned. The authors suggest their own understanding of the "youth" and "youth policy" concepts in the context of Russia innovative development. Referring to the new trends in public life and the formation of a generational paradigm, the authors refuse to set a lower age-related limit. The period of youth policy development and its implementation exceeds the duration of individual stages of a human life cycle ("childhood", "adolescence" and "youth"). It is also known, that at these bifurcation points the variety of development directions of a person, both positive and negative, sharply increases. Thus, special attention must be paid to the public management of transitional periods. The authors have developed principles of the youth policy formation on the basis of a matrix approach. The approach suggests that the solution of specific problems of youth need to be supplemented by the integration of the components of the youth policy into all policies, programs and projects at all hierarchical levels of government. The authors suggest interpreting of the youth policy as a priority activity aimed at preserving the life and health of youth, reproduction of the population, improving the quality of young people life and developing its potential for the benefit of society and future generations. The subjects of the policy are state authorities and local authorities, youth and other parties concerned.

Sarsembayeva E.Yu.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2017-4.2-150-160

The author considers the opportunity of management activities optimization, which has been the subject of numerous scientific studies during a long period time. Today this area is still of the utmost importance. The structure of management activities is complex and it is built on multilevel psychological, socio-psychological and other phenomena. This article presents the data of modern studies aimed to support its distinctive features in perception, information processing, cognitive, emotional-volitional sphere of the right- and leftlateral respondents. This article is devoted to the study of individual styles of management activities of the executive educational team (school principals, head teachers). The study (n=140) proves that an individual management style is predefined by the peculiarities of lateralization of prefrontal lobes hemispheres of the brain. The significant differences are defined between individual management style of school principals and head teachers with different lateral organization of the brain. The study uses psychological tests (n=6) and statistical methods of data processing. It is proved that superintendents with left lateral and right lateral organization of the brain use different management tools. For example, in the activities of the left hemisphere superintendents stronger organizational skills are expressed, the authoritarian management style is used more often and motivation for success is expressed greater than motivation to avoid failures. The right hemisphere superintendents express stronger communication skills at a lower intensity of managerial skills, the democratic style of management is used more frequently, this type of individuals often focuses on avoiding failure than on achieving success. The main methodological principle laid down in the program of the study is the system approach. This study is in the "mainstream" of theories of individual differences that are explained by the features of braking force of regulatory unit in expression of the general properties of the CNS. This article contains recommendations that provide an opportunity to optimize managerial activities of individuals engaged in educational supervision. These recommendations are aimed at expansion of the components of management style.