The placement of Marx, together with Marxism, in a religious context may seem strange, at least to those people who still remember “opium for the people” and “a sigh of the oppressed creature”. There is a habit of associating the author and his teachings exclusively with the forms of scientific knowledge. However, it turns out that a more careful and consistent examination shows that despite the prevailing stereotype of the exclusively scientific identification of the Marxist doctrine, referring Marxism precisely to the religious context allows to understand its true place in history and culture. As the Russian philosopher of the Silver Age, S. N. Bulgakov, said, religion carries “the highest and last values that a person recognizes above himself and higher than himself, and that practical attitude, a human being is put in, in relation to these values”. But what are values? Values are the ultimate basis of choice and goal setting. Religion is the social form of the hierarchy of values existence. The article substantiates the thesis that the genesis of Marxism was the product of a complex collision in a general cultural process that embraced philosophy, science, and religion in their interrelation. The features of the interaction of these cultural phenomena in a certain social context explain the culturological features of religion, which are inherent in Marxism.
The paper analyzes K. Marx’s theoretical heritage from the modern standpoints, especially regarding his political and economic works. The author tries to answer the question – why his ideas were popular in the past and remain popular at present. The author discusses K. Marx’s scientific program and paradigm and shows that his scientific program fundamentally differs from those of other leading economists of the first half of the 19th century and his paradigm – from that of classical economics. Marxism created his own original paradigm which combined elements of classical economies and historical school. The paper also shows how K. Marx’s scientific program and some basic elements of his economic theory influence the works of scientists working within alternative schools. The author presents his critical notes to several elements of K. Marx’s theory, namely his historical concept, sociology, and especially, political economy. The author pays special attention to the terms used by K. Marx which allow making ambiguous conclusions and avoiding the critics. The author highlights the influence of Marx’s works on the choice of the subject and statement of problems made by researchers of neoclassical, Austrian, and institutional schools of economics. A major achievement of Marxism is that K. Marx states the problem of how modern bourgeois societies emerge, develop, and die as well as their institutional systems which define the economic dynamics and distribution of public wealth. The way how the Marxists explain economic processes (such as dynamics of prices, profits, and incomes, cyclical patterns of production development, and many others) as well as theories of historical dynamics, why states rise and fall, class structure of societies, and inefficiency of decentralized market economies have not been verified. However, at present K. Marx’s works are very attractive due to the ambiguity of his criticism of bourgeois society and, above all, an aphoristic nature and emotionality of his works. The reason for this is an integrated character of K. Marx’s political, economic, sociohistorical, and even ideological and psychological doctrine. As compared to Marx’s doctrine, modern science is comprised of specialized sectors and, therefore, it is less attractive and understandable.
The article analyzes the phenomenon of cryptocurrency. The authors reconstruct three versions of its creation: 1) it is a scam in the spirit of the Mavrodi pyramids, 2) it is new money that allows to earn adequately, 3) a conspiracy version. The authors sort out the myths about cryptocurrency. Namely, that money must necessarily be provided by gold or the economy of the country, and also be material (visible and perceived). Today, money is not provided with anything, and the "materiality" of money lies in their importance and efficiency. In this case, the authors characterize the efficiency with the help of four classical functions of money: money as a measure of value, a means of circulation, accumulation, and a means of payment. In addition to these functions, two more are singled out: money as a social institution and money as a tool for regulating economic relations. Cryptocurrency in its functions and structure is correlated with the sphere and functions of conventional money. The conventional money and cryptocurrency are two different systems of principles and conditions. In the first system, the state and elites are interested in manipulating conventional money and therefore created financial and other institutions that guard these manipulations. In the second one - financial institutions and consumer societies are still developing, but, in terms of their principles, they look like opponents of the first system. The authors suggest a hypothesis that the idea of creating cryptocurrency is to block manipulations with conventional money (their source is the state, economic and financial elites). With further improvement, as well as the disappearance of feverish demand, the cryptocurrency is likely to be able to more or less effectively perform the first four classical functions of money, and it wasn’t supposed to provide the other two functions (if we are talking about the existing system of management, economy and supporting social institutions). The paper considers different variants of the development of cryptocurrency and the possible interrelationships of crypto-communities with the state. The authors come to the conclusion that the victory of the state over the crypto-communities is not predetermined, both because of the crisis of modern civilization and its institutions, and the lack of control over these communities by the state.
Fundamental goal-setting of the functioning of economic systems is manifested in the intention for the sustainable development in the environment which is represented by “chaos” and is filled with uncertainty and the fundamental goal-setting is limited to “fundamental stochasticity” and “fundamental instability”. This feature stimulates the development of theoretical and practical aspects of new control mechanisms which include robust control that is a control configured to dampen uncertainty in an application to open systems. The article considers the development of the concept of robust control of economic systems in the continuum of fundamental paradigms “subject-object”, “subject-subject” and “subject-polysubjective environment” which determine the evolutionary view of control. The research is aimed at revealing the changing environment of the functioning of economic entities and developing models of reflexive and robust control of their interaction. The model of market (polysubjective) environment used in the analysis takes into account the chaos and uncertainty and reflects the fundamental characteristics of the behavior of market participants: the existence of different pictures of subjective perception of the surrounding reality, the need for decision-making in the conditions of uncertainty, the emergence of reflexive processes that accompany the interaction of market actors. The methodology of introdu robust control into the polysubjective environment is based on the approach to structuring a reflexively active method, where the business situation, regarded as the carrier of uncertainty, and the elementary organizational structure, is the "subject-subject" interaction as its elementary organizational structure. The action in the context of "subject-subject" is determined by the generated model of reflexive control, which differs from the model of J. Soros, by the introduction of an interpreting function. It is shown that the result of interaction between economic entities is a random variable and to assess the admissibility of making a decision in the "point of agreement" it is necessary to seek compliance of the meeting result with the constraints imposed by the robust limit. The image of the process of generating control actions is represented by means of functions of reflexive governance acting within the limits of a robust limit.
The formation of human resources of a certain quality is a complex and time-consuming process. It is implemented both at the macro level (country, region, industry), and at the micro level (organization, people). The subject of the study is management relations (methodological approaches) arising in the process of shaping the quality of human resources. In the course of the research it was found out that the subject of management in the process of shaping a certain quality of human resources can be, both an individual himself/herself and the managerial staff of the organization, the country. Approaches to the formation of the quality of human resources differ at the individual, organizational and state levels, depending on the interests and needs of subjects and management objects. The object of management is the quality of human resources. It is a set of characteristics of human resources that meets the requirements that are formed in the external and internal environment of the system in the process of creating their competitive advantages. The subject of the study is management relations. Requirements for the quality of human resources are permanently changing. They are manifested at different levels: at the state level (for example, regarding the qualification level of employees and the level of productivity of their work), at the organizational level (for example, regarding the competencies of employees and the efficiency of their activities), at the individual level (as an attitude toward the process of formation and application of his/her human capital).
The object of this research is the regional labor market (on the example of the Zabaykalsky Krai). In the research process the authors applied methods of factor analysis, cluster analysis, system and comparative analysis, extrapolation using trend models, calculative and analytical methods. The results of the study are an analytical review of the basic concepts, elements, classifications and functions of the labor market, overview of the main models of labor market and their characteristics. The authors have identified regions with similar strategies of employers and workers behavior during making the supply and demand for labor and have determined two factors affecting the regional labor market. Equilibrium and cobweb models of the Zabaykalsky Krai labor market were developed and the level of equilibrium price and employment was determined. The authors made a set of recommendations for regional authorities to regulate the situation in the labor market of the region. The results of this research can be applied to: the activities of the municipal and state government to assess the situation in the regional labor market; departments of labor and employment as a basis for the analysis, monitoring and selection of the regional employment policy models; educational institutions in the specialists training who are engaged in vocational guidance work with young people; associations of employers and regional government to develop the model and train specialists with necessary qualifications and a sufficient level of skills.
The author focuses on issues relevant to modern communication. It`s known that business relationships are largely dependent on effective communication between partners. Any communication takes place in oral or written form, i.e. it involves some perception of information. It`s reading, if partners are located far away or working with the documents and it`s listening at contact communication, when the speaker and the listener are either close, or use modern means of communication (Skype, Viber, WhatsApp). The success of communication depends on an adequate understanding that is not always the case. The sharp increase in the amount of information in the modern world requires skills to identify the main thing, to omit unnecessary points and discrete, dispersed perception, known as “clip thinking”, contributes to it. The paper characterizes the features of clip thinking in mapping and conceptual thinking and evaluates their effectiveness for different human activities. The author gives examples and analyzes the communicative interference and failure in different situations, explains their causes. Even people whose work involves communication show inadequate understanding of the perception of information: linguists and psychologists. The article argues that the above mentioned phenomenon is due to clip thinking of communicants and undeveloped skills of reading and listening, as well as uncritical in the evaluation of their own speech behavior. The study showed that in the perception of the main information the loss is not observed, i.e. the abilities of scanning and listening for gist are developed. It`s detailed listening that creates the biggest difficulty in the majority of cases, as well as learning reading and critical evaluation of information and its analysis. The author suggests the ways of increasing motivation of students to improve their speech activities, methods of communicative abilities`development.The paper equips the reader with some techniques and tasks necessary to teach detailed and critical reading and listening. The tasks are distributed according to the stages of speech activity: perception of the text, in the process of reading or listening and then at the stage of self-control. The author describes the proposed tasks and their possible complications. The earlier we develop the skills of adequate perception of the text and the ability to identify the shortcomings, the more successful the communication of a person as he grows older will be. This is especially important for managers, since their communication skills depend on the psychological climate in the team and the success in promoting business. The following research methods are used in the article: monitoring the speech activity, speech recording, analysis of contexts and design of training courses.
The article presents a systematic consideration of the “labor” phenomenon which implies studying of internal features of the system, including its internal elements, functions and interrelations. According to this approach the author examines structural components of the labor system, including labor supply, labor potential and labor capital. The paper suggests the quantitative and qualitative assessment of human resources, scantiness of which demands applying an integrated approach to the analysis of labor efficiency, and one of its options “decent work”. After consideration of implementation of the concept “decent work”, the author revealed some vital issues such as theoretical validity of structural indicators of “decent work”, and practical application of the offered parameters in administrative practice as well. Despite an urgent need of such activities, the human resources management practice shows inefficiency of the state policy in the sphere of employment. The author highlights the need of transformation of the object of management in this field towards the labor potential and the labor capital.
The article considers the problem of incentives of customer-oriented behavior of Bank employees. Since the subject of customer-oriented behavior is an employee who has his/her own interests, the motives that govern his/her employment, the relevance of the customer-oriented behavior stimulation is an obvious issue for the modern banking institutions. Basing on the conducted research of the experience of customer-oriented stimulation, the author identified certain features and also the shortcomings of the remuneration systems of Bank employees. Using these data, the author developed and suggested an approach that includes, firstly, a comprehensive methodology for the evaluation of customer-oriented behavior of Bank employees in the form of a "matrix of a customer-oriented employee ", and, secondly, on the basis of the remuneration system for each category of Bank employees, allowing to stimulate, i.e. to form, maintain and develop desired customer focus. The suggested methodology received the approval which allows to make conclusions about the efficiency of this approach and the appropriateness of its application in the banking sector. The authors also make recommendations for the Bank managers on encouragement of their staff in customer-oriented behavior. In the research the authors used methods of analysis, comparison, induction and deduction.
NO CATEGORY - NO PROBLEM (About some innovations in the draft of the new Budget Code of the Russian Federation)Goryushkina E.A., Lavrovsky B.L.
The profile federal regional department (Russian Federation Ministry for Nationalities Issues and Regional Policy) since its establishment has been in a difficult situation in the matter of its activity object. This is proved indirectly by its numerous (five times!) renaming. Difficulties finally reached such a level that it was decided in October 2001 to abolish it. In 2004, the ministry was re-created, but in September 2014 it was abolished again. Between the articles 41 and 47 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation of January 1, 2000, there was a contradiction in the matter of the content of "own revenues" category. The developers had to eliminate the contradiction, but in such a way that, as far as possible, the volume of the region's own revenues should be increased in accordance with the political line. And indeed, in the amended article 47 of the Budget Code of January1, 2005, "incomes received by budgets in the form of gratuitous income, with the exception of subventions" were also attributed to the budget's own revenues. The greatness of the idea is that a significant increase in the region's own revenues is achieved by simply changing the definition. But this decision was not radical enough, and the concept of "own revenues" is completely excluded from the draft of the new edition of the Code. It is a tendency, though!