The Level of Human Capital as a Factor of Digital Economy Development in Russia
Stukalenko Elena,  Mosina Veronika
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2020-12.2.2-297-321

The article is devoted to the problem of the development of human capital in the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution 4.0 for the development of international trade of the Russian Federation. The authors consider the impact of human capital on improving the competitiveness of Russia in world markets in the digital economy. The development of the digital economy is directly related to the educational process. Great attention has to be paid to training personnel that will contribute to the development of infrastructure. Without quality staffing, development is impossible. The components of human capital were chosen as the object of study.

The article analyzes the dynamics of the level of development of human capital of the Russian Federation, relative to other countries. The authors describe the significance of investments in the components of human capital. The theoretical and methodological materials of this article are the legislative acts and normative documents of the Russian Federation, domestic and foreign publications and publications on the subject under study. HSE statistical compilations, data from the Federal State Statistics Service and the World Bank Data, information materials published in periodicals and posted on the Internet were used as a database.

The research results are based on the results of statistical analysis, which confirm the availability of an extensive review of the literature and a comparative analysis of international indicators and indices. Study period: 2000s –2018s.

The Conservative Modernisation in East Asia: Achievements and Limits
Krasilshchikov Victor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.2-231-263

The paper deals with social-cultural aspects of catching up modernisation in the newly industrialising countries (NICs) of East and South-East Asia in the 1960s-90s. The author treats this modernisation as a kind of conservative modernisation because it combined the local traditions and several elements of modernity, the “family-centred” attitudes of the East with the “self-centred” individualism of the West. In this connection, the author considers the role of Confucianism in East Asian modernisation and discusses the problem of compatibility of the Confucian doctrine with “the spirit of capitalism”. As it is known, Max Weber wrote about their incompatibility with each other but the practice of the last third of the XX Century disapproved the conception of Weber. This apparent paradox has been explained by the profound changes in capitalism since the times when Weber elaborated his conception. When the countries under scrutiny approached to their modernisation, they borrowed and implemented the model of managerial capitalism with the developmental state and economic bureaucracy. The state and its officialdom played the leading role in development of these countries, being much more important for modernisation than “the spirit of capitalism” with private initiatives. Meanwhile, the developmental state’s activity corresponded to some principles of the Confucian doctrine, so Confucianism that glorified the harmony and strong order appeared as well compatible with fast modernisation, particularly in Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. However, the Confucian heritage and the relics of communalism became the obstacles to transition towards a knowledge-based economy. A focus on learning instead of studying in education according to the old Confucian traditions restrains the students’ creativity and oppresses an endeavour to express individuality. Thus, the practice of conservative modernisation, which was very effective at the stage of imitative, catching up industrial development, succeeds in a blind alley because does not enable to begin implementing a knowledge-based, innovative model of development that presupposes a free creative activity of individuals. At the same time, liberalisation of economy, particularly after the Asian financial-economic crisis of 1997-1998, leads to deepening social differentiation and erodes the base of the previous developmental state. In the changing conditions, a set of the so-called “Asian values” has been used not for further modernisation but for justifying the conservative, authoritarian tendencies in politics and ideology. The main conclusion the author makes from his consideration concerns the debates about the global shift of the world economy’s core to the East (including China): in the nearest decades neither China nor East Asia as a whole will become the world economic hegemon. The West with the US domination will remain the global scientific-technological and, therefore, economic leader in the world.

The Issue of Bankruptcy and Deliberate Bankruptcy of Russian Organizations
Savelyeva Marina,  Vasilyeva Nina,  Alekseev Mikhail
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.2-281-302

The analysis of statistical data shows that in reality quite often in the bankruptcy of organizations there are signs of its premeditation. However, the subjects are brought to responsibility for this offense in isolated cases. According to most researchers, this situation is largely due to the imperfection of methods for identifying signs of deliberate bankruptcy of organizations. In turn, the methodological basis for identifying signs of deliberate bankruptcy of organizations, predicting the probability of bankruptcy and deliberate bankruptcy of organizations depend on the understanding of the nature of bankruptcy and deliberate bankruptcy of organizations. The concepts of bankruptcy and deliberate bankruptcy of organizations are enshrined in a number of legislative documents. In the economic aspect, the concept of bankruptcy of the organization in the Russian scientific and periodic literature is widely covered. The majority of researchers in their works consider the concepts of deliberate bankruptcy of the organization from the position of the legal aspect. The economic aspect of the concept of deliberate bankruptcy of the organization is mentioned in a few papers, which indicates underdevelopment of scientific research of the economic aspect of the phenomenon of intentional bankruptcies of organizations. The article puts forward and proves the hypothesis that on the basis of semantic analysis and definitions of the semantic core of the concepts “bankruptcy of the organization” and “deliberate bankruptcy of organizations”, it is possible to formulate the key characteristics of bankruptcy, deliberate bankruptcy of organizations, revealing the essence of these phenomena. According to the results of the semantic analysis and semantic core definition of the concept of “deliberate bankruptcy of the organization” the article suggests a definition of the concept of deliberate bankruptcy of the organization from the position of the subjects of demand for information in the market.

Land Relations in the Agrarian Sector of Russia
Kalugina Zemfira
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-330-350

The article deals with the history and current state of land relations in the agricultural sector of Russia, analyzes the land legislation of Russia, the problems and specifics of land ownership and land use in three sectors of the agricultural economy: agricultural organizations, peasant (farmer) economy, household farms. It is noted that in the process of economic reforms of the 1990s, the institutional framework and legal framework for all types of business activities in rural areas and the formation of a diversified agricultural economy were created. The author considers the institutional conditions of functioning, specialization and efficiency of agricultural production in all categories of farms. It is noted that the market transformation of the agricultural sector of Russia in the 1990s, aimed at adapting agricultural organizations to market conditions, was successful. This is evidenced by a significant reduction in loss-making farms. Peasant (farm) economy as an independent segment of the agricultural economy contrary to the expectations of the reformers did not become a leading sector of the agricultural economy. However, it has occupied a niche and produces about one tenth of the total production. The private sector remains a significant producer of agricultural products, although there is a decrease in its share. The paper considers land relations in historical retrospect. Legislative regulation of land relations is analyzed in the context of the “Land Code of the Russian Federation”. It provides for the rationality of the use and protection of land in the interests of the whole society, while ensuring the guarantees of each citizen for the free possession, use and disposal of land belonging to him. The author comes to the conclusion that the informal agrarian economy has become a form of survival of the rural population in the period of radical socio-economic reforms. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study was the fundamental research of agricultural problems of domestic and foreign authors. The study is based on the analysis of a wide range of statistical data, as well as materials of sample surveys characterizing the specifics of land relations in modern Russia.

Coordination as a Key Element in Managing a Complex System (On the Example of Public Sector)
Belousova Svetlana
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-371-394

The author considers complex systems and problems of their management highlighting the problems in the public sector. The purpose of the study is specification of its complexity as an independent object of management, which requires acceleration of the coordination role and improvement of coordination mechanisms in a complex system management. The paper considers different options of complex systems and elements of their complexity, and then, defines four main types of them: multiplicity complexity of affine components, their behavior and communication and also cognitive difficulties. The object of the research is the public sector having several perspectives of consideration, each of which forms certain specifics of functioning and the corresponding problems, approaches and elements of its management. The author puts forward a hypothesis of the need of an independent vector in administrative activities for the solution of problems of system complexity in the public sector which includes the following functions: modeling and design, coordination, estimation, intellectual analysis and “clever” regulation. In its turn, coordination (the most important complexity management component) represents a difficult mechanism of administrative actions which are implemented at three levels (macro-, meso- and micro-) and three types of interaction (horizontal, vertical and displaced interactions). The methodology of research is based on cross-disciplinary interaction of the economic theory and the system analysis which allows to increase integrity of consideration of the public sector, to unite knowledge for the purpose of formation of new ideas and concepts. The result of research is system representation of the phenomenon of the public sector as a complex system requiring a corresponding set of measures for managing its complexity. The results of the research can be used both in the theory and practice of management, as well as in the development of the public sector economy.

The Formation of the Chinese Banking System and Its Current State
Yingying Liu
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-395-409

The article deals with the formation of the Chinese banking system and its current state. The subject of the research is the Chinese banking system and its current state. The methodology of the research includes monographic, vertical and horizontal analysis. As a result of the research the genesis of the formation of the Chinese banking system was considered, the departments of the People’s Bank of China were designated and its functions were studied. The regulation of the People’s Bank of China is carried out by the law called “On the People’s Bank of China” and adopted on March 18, 1995. The latest changes were adopted on 12/27/2003. The list and the main stages of the development of joint-stock Chinese commercial banks were presented. The main requirements for foreign banks and the share of Chinese banks in the capital of foreign financial institutions were considered. The guidance of the People’s Bank of China is fulfilled by the manager and his deputies, who are appointed or removed from their post by the chairman of the PRC. Today, the People’s Bank of China performs two main functions: regulating the financial sector and conducting the monetary policy. The basis of the banking sector are large commercial banks. In 2003, the Standing Committee of the All-China Assembly of People’s Representatives adopted a row of amendments to the law, according to which the People’s Bank of China received a number of additional powers to ensure the overall financial stability and to conduct the country's monetary policy. Foreign currency transactions dominate in the activity of the People’s Bank of China. Chinese commercial banks are divided into two types: four banks with the state capital (“Big Four”) and joint-stock banks. The four largest banks with the state capital are: the Bank of China, the Agricultural Bank of China, the Commercial and Industrial Bank of China, and the Construction Bank of China. The aggregate amount of their assets was 53% of the total assets of the Chinese banking system in 2005. The country rating is determined by international agencies. The rating of China in the long term, both in the national and in the foreign currency is “A”.

In Novosibirsk Academgorodok (1965-1973)
Khanin Grigory
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-452-475

The author focuses his attention on life and research activities in 1965-1973. He characterizes lecturing in Novosibirsk State University. The author draws special attention to a student research group and the conflict with the administration of the Institute of Economics and Novosibirsk State University because of a “wall newspaper” prepared by the student research group at the end of the 1960-s, which became the reason for his leaving the University. The author describes the content of a doctorate thesis (a dissertation for the degree of a candidate of sciences) on the problems of planning in the Soviet economy and also he shows its innovative character. The paper presents the discussion of the dissertation at the Novosibirsk State University and the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC) and also gives the reasons for rejecting the dissertation by HAC. The author explains his motivation for turning to studying stock exchanges and presents the essence of his doctoral thesis on stock exchanges. The paper also examines the research climate at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences at that period. The author outlines the content of work at the Systems Research Institute and describes the team of the Foreign Economic Relations Laboratory of the Systems Research Institute as well as the interaction with the State Committee on Foreign Economic Relations. Much attention is paid to the work of the Institute of Economics of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, its leadership and team. The author also describes social atmosphere in the USSR and Academgorodok at that period, explains the reaction of the former government to 1968 events in Czechoslovakia and tightening of the political regime in the USSR after these events. The author touches upon the life conditions in Academgorodok at that period and describes his friendship with some researchers.

The Influence of Institutions on Socio-Demographic Processes. Comparative Study
Klistorin Vladimir
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-235-250

The paper continues the author's series of publications on the history of colonization and development of Siberia and analysis of its current socio-economic situation and development prospects. The author reveals the influence of institutions on the dynamics of demographic and socio-economic processes. Having compared the development of Siberia and Canada in the long-term retrospective, the author shows how formal governance institutions influence on the population migration and success of socio-economic development in these countries. The processes of development and colonization in Siberia and Canada observed in the early twentieth century were mostly determined by natural resource factors and their economic and geographical location. This is why these processes took place on a parallel track. Siberia was a leader in the speed of colonization, especially in agricultural development of the territory, since it had an overland route and fewer alternatives for migration. In the twentieth century the development models of these mega-regions varied, and this has affected all aspects of their life. The development of natural resources in Siberia in the time of the Soviet Union went through several stages, some of which were accompanied by a sharp drop in living standards and resulted in human losses. The periods of the forced industrial development were followed by periods of stagnation and out migration. The specifics of the Siberian institutional and governance patterns have repeatedly led to the centralization and monopolization of its economy. In the post-soviet time this resulted in a spot character of the development of natural resources and in the strengthened raw material specialization of Siberia. Such a model of development of Russia and organization of its budget have brought negative demographic consequences and stagnation of domestic market in this megaregion. These challenges are advisable to be considered in forming development programs for Siberia and its parts.

Moral Economy: Identification and Comparison of the Theoretical Approaches
Zhernov Evgeny
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.1-190-208

The purpose of the study is to identify and compare the revealed theoretical approaches to the moral economy in order to substantiate the fundamental foundations of the integrative anthroposocial approach. Closely interrelated moral anthropic origin and moral social order are given as such foundations. The subject of the study is the existing approaches to the moral economy. The study is a theoretical analysis of the approaches to the moral economy, united by the author in two aggregated schools– anthropic-moral and socio-economic. The research methodology is the integrated approach for a comprehensive examination of the subject; general scientific principles of complementarity, diversity and unity. The results of the study, which constitute the scientific novelty: 1) it is revealed that there are the corresponding concepts of a moral person – Homo moralis – in all approaches reviewed, and it allows to establish the moral anthropic origin as the first foundation of the moral economy; 2) in the analyzed approaches, the main forms of sociality are revealed and characterized, functioning as “village community”, “religious community”, “Orthodox labour brotherhood”, “social institution”, which allow to define moral social order as the second foundation of the moral economy. The theoretical and practical significance of the study is that by identifying and comparing the existing approaches to the moral economy, its anthroposocial nature is defined 1) as the effective economic activity of a new person of high moral character; 2) as a set of intersubject economic relations based on the ideas of moral humanism. As a result, it becomes possible to compare existing approaches to the moral economy, when there is a person in its centre who respects humanistic morality in interpersonal relations of the economy of the society.

The Marx’s Theory of Industrial Circles and the Innovative Models of Extended Reproduction in the USA
Ryzhenkov A.V.
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2018-4.2-71-93

K. Marx fragmentarily presented the theory of industrial cycles in “Capital”, which investigated the formation and development of capitalism up to the maturing of free competition. A brief review of this theory shows that J. Schumpeter’s criticism is superficial. K. Marx did not deduce the mathematical laws of crises. The present paper partially fills this gap for the state-monopoly capitalism on the basis of the laws of surplus value and monopoly profit. Two models are considered, the transition from the first TM-2 to the second TM-2m is an ascent from the abstract to the concrete.Whereas TM-2 endogenously reproduces cycles in the positive growth rate of net output, TM-2m endogenously generates industrial cycles with decreases in net output in crises. This is achieved by converting a key parameter of the automation function into a new discrete variable, depending on the excess accumulation of capital. In addition, proportional control over the rate of capital accumulation has been introduced.TM-2m allows comparing impacts of economic policies on industrial cycles and on long-term trends in the US economy depending on a target rate of capital accumulation chosen by the State and financial capital in distinct scenarios.In 2018, the crisis will start, opening the next industrial cycle ending in 2025 according to scenario 1 or in 2026 according to scenario 2. The state monopoly-capitalism is entering a new period of over-production when sound economic policy becomes even more critical.