The article considers the specifics of medical culture: medical culture as a part of the general culture of a society and professional culture. The present research defines the essence of the social process of medicalization. The paper highlights the idea that medicine in the ancient period (considered on the example of the practices of Ancient Greece) medicalizes culture in general and can be considered as historical and cultural prerequisites that laid the foundation for transfessionalism of a modern doctor. Nowadays, medical industry becomes the space of transfer, where knowledge of the computer and other information technologies, as well as knowledge of managing, teaching, social work, philosophy, etc., are necessary for a professional in this field. The center of transfessional activity is the doctor’s focusing on a patient's personality, and not just on the disease and its symptoms. A doctor has to become a competent guide for a patient, and not a custodian of unique, inaccessible knowledge. Transfessional transformations define the modern basic principles of healing, originated in Ancient Greece. They still remain strong in the modern medicalized world. Today the Ancient Greek medical culture resonates as prolongation of medical transfessionalism.
The topics of numerous discussions nowadays are economic, social, cultural, psychological, ethical, existential problems of medical treatment. Modern society realized that it is almost impossible to solve a range of problems of the domain of medicine and medical care alone through scientific and technological achievements. Consequently such questions have to be answered: how should medical help and care be provided? Why does clinical practice provide “high-tech” medical care? And why does it fail to provide the “humane” care, which patients need so much? How can a patient resist such negative aspects of illness experience, as objectification and technologization, being in contact with medical discourse? Russian Orthodoxy has accumulated a rich and unique experience in caring for ill people. The study of this experience and its practical application are nowadays in the focus of attention of many foreign experts. Unfortunately, in our country, this problem remains somewhat undervalued among researchers, and the specificity of medical care according to orthodox tradition is forgotten in most of modern hospitals. In the humanistic model of medicine, the healing process is considered as scientifically grounded and individualizing care for patients, including the sensual-emotional and moral-existential sphere of intersubjective relations between the patient and medical specialists. It is not only about the “healing” of the patient at the biological level, but also about the internal “healing” of each patient, relief from suffering, which is grounded on the uniqueness of his/her own situation. The ideal of the humanistic model of medicine reflects the attitude: “medicine must treat the patient, not the disease.” At the same time, the interpretation of this aim differs significantly within the framework of Western and Eastern Christian cultures, in this case Russian Orthodoxy. The individualization of medical care in the Russian Orthodox tradition is not connected with the recognition of the patient as a sovereign individuality, as is the case in Western Christian cultures, but in the spiritual unity of the sufferer and caregiver, determining the harmonious relationship of a person as a part with the Wholeness. The spiritual unity of the sufferer and the caregiver, unfolding as mutual love, creates the potential for joint and conciliar overcoming of suffering through spiritual perfection. Orthodox “technologies” of spiritual healing of patients are characterized by the lack of rationalization, unification, and, as a result, commercialization.
A Candid Conversation with the Feisty Radical Organizer. Playboy Interview with Saul Alinsky. Part II
This is а translation of the interview with Saul Alinsky published in Playboy in 1972 and reprinted by the New England Review May 27, 2018. American professional social organizer, he unilaterally created the new field of social engineering and the new profession of radical-organizer. His two books became handbooks for several generations of organizers. Magazine Playboy sent Eric Norden to interview him. “I accompanied him from the East Coast to the West and into Canada, snatching tape sessions on planes, in cars and at airport…”