Megaregions Siberia and Canada in the XX-th century: Historical Features of Cultural Variety Formation
Donskikh Oleg
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-251-271
Annotation:

This article discusses the demographic, ethnic and religious aspects of the life of megaregions of Canada and Siberia. Canada actively continues to attract migrants, while Siberia, on the contrary, after Perestroika, is experiencing a steady decline in population, and the more to the East, the more noticeable this process is. The important factor determining the ethnic diversity of both Siberia and Canada is the presence of indigenous peoples who inhabited these lands before the arrival of the Europeans. In the market economy, the processes of transformation of lifestyle and mentality of various ethnic groups are underway. The vectors of these processes are quite different - from assimilation with more numerous groups of the population and gradual dissolution in a market economy with the assimilation of the corresponding mentality to the formation of a new way of life with preservation of ethnic identity. A significant role in Canada is also played by new ethnic groups formed by migrants who have recently arrived from Asia. In both megaregions Christianity played a large role in spiritual life, and missions were formed for the conversion of the indigenous people. But if in Canada the Catholic Church was under severe pressure from Protestants, in Siberia Orthodoxy faced not only pagans, but also Muslims and Buddhists. However, during the Soviet era, Orthodoxy lost its significance and was forced to revive its influence, but traditional forms of religiosity has increased.

The Influence of Institutions on Socio-Demographic Processes. Comparative Study
Klistorin Vladimir
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.2.2-235-250
Annotation:

The paper continues the author's series of publications on the history of colonization and development of Siberia and analysis of its current socio-economic situation and development prospects. The author reveals the influence of institutions on the dynamics of demographic and socio-economic processes. Having compared the development of Siberia and Canada in the long-term retrospective, the author shows how formal governance institutions influence on the population migration and success of socio-economic development in these countries. The processes of development and colonization in Siberia and Canada observed in the early twentieth century were mostly determined by natural resource factors and their economic and geographical location. This is why these processes took place on a parallel track. Siberia was a leader in the speed of colonization, especially in agricultural development of the territory, since it had an overland route and fewer alternatives for migration. In the twentieth century the development models of these mega-regions varied, and this has affected all aspects of their life. The development of natural resources in Siberia in the time of the Soviet Union went through several stages, some of which were accompanied by a sharp drop in living standards and resulted in human losses. The periods of the forced industrial development were followed by periods of stagnation and out migration. The specifics of the Siberian institutional and governance patterns have repeatedly led to the centralization and monopolization of its economy. In the post-soviet time this resulted in a spot character of the development of natural resources and in the strengthened raw material specialization of Siberia. Such a model of development of Russia and organization of its budget have brought negative demographic consequences and stagnation of domestic market in this megaregion. These challenges are advisable to be considered in forming development programs for Siberia and its parts.