Plato’s Political Anthropology
Ivonina Olga,  Ivonin Yury
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.1.1-103-128
Annotation:

“The human nature” category was an important tool of Plato’s political axiology. The core of his political anthropology was an analysis of the normative state of the subject and the object of political activities, the study of political institutes as a result of their interaction as the subject and the object of politics. It is necessary to consider principles of hierarchy, etatism and publicity as a foundation of Plato’s political axiology. The dualism over the soteriological and distributive function of a state led to a contradiction of his philosophical and political anthropology. The implementation of the first function required taking into account the spiritual hierarchy, the apex of which Plato considered wisdom. At the same time, the organization of a just life meant limiting the significance of wisdom. As a result, in the Platonic project of an ideal state, wisdom gives way to submission, friendliness and rationality. Wisdom is fraught with a loss of political loyalty, and therefore in an ideal state is under control – in particular, the political status of a wise citizen is determined by the age requirement. Platonic etatism recognizes the instrumental significance of the individual for the good of the state. Distribution of the etatism principle on the policy-makers brings a philosopher to confession of the state power publicity. Anthropological property of statesmen is altruism, allowing them to carry out power in public service form unconnected with acquisition and accumulation of individual property. Public character of state determines civil solidarity, overcoming mutual envy and rivalry. The necessary etatism consequence is a project of autarchy. An autarchy allows to attain the virtue of moderation, which is considered by Plato as the limit of people’s anthropological perfection. In addition, an autarchy allows to avoid escalation of conflicts in international relations. A just society does not need war as an instrument of foreign policy. Thus, solidarity of citizens in the autarkic state is its main foreign-policy resource.