The article deals with debatable questions about the relationship between economic growth and financial development. Both foreign and Russian authors have opposite points of view on the relationship between economic growth and financial development. The article states that financial development for developing countries is a factor of economic growth. The authors give a review of the literature proving the influence of financial development and its mechanism – the financial market – on economic growth. To illustrate this conclusion, they analyze the research aimed at studying the theoretical aspects of assessing the ratio of the level of financial market development and economic growth. The authors also investigate the formation of a methodological framework for assessing the impact of the level of financial market development on economic growth; identify the methods to quantitatively measure the level of financial market development and economic growth. The article analyzes the recommendations to develop measures to enhance the significance of financial market for economic growth of the country.