Lack of Free Time of Citizens as an Incentive for Entrepreneurship in Services
Razomasova Elena,  Romanova Natalya
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.2-303-316

Free time is an important economic resource for a resident of a big city. The availability and rational use of free time is determined by the conditions of a particular urban environment. The problem of time is connected with the theme of quality and standard of living of the modern citizen. This problem allows us to identify promising areas of development of the service sector. The article presents the results of a sociological survey – a study of socio-economic aspects of the situation of personal time deficit. 82 people took part in the survey, among them 50 % (41 people) are constantly experiencing a lack of personal time, 38 % (31 people) have such a situation regularly. It is established that respondents with middle and high income are people with high professional employment. They are forced to systematically resort to paid services to achieve an individual level of comfort. The use of such services is the way to receive personal time for rest and hobbies. An affordable price is a decisive factor in the choice of specific services for the majority of respondents. The article defines the actual level of demand for services at the present time. The authors have identified the types of household chores that citizens are willing to give up. The results of the survey of consumers of the market of services in Novosibirsk show a steady interest of respondents to entrepreneurship. The authors identified the most popular segments of the urban service sector - cooking healthy food, minor repairs of equipment, repair of premises, improvement of housing. The value of consumer services is the ability to form a stable level of comfort. Comfort is an important category of life in urban agglomeration. The desire for comfort cannot be accidental. Small business allows you to effectively and efficiently combine work and achieve most of the personal goals of the person. The development of the consumer services sector in a large city is a strategic priority.

The Issue of Bankruptcy and Deliberate Bankruptcy of Russian Organizations
Savelyeva Marina,  Vasilyeva Nina,  Alekseev Mikhail
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.2-281-302

The analysis of statistical data shows that in reality quite often in the bankruptcy of organizations there are signs of its premeditation. However, the subjects are brought to responsibility for this offense in isolated cases. According to most researchers, this situation is largely due to the imperfection of methods for identifying signs of deliberate bankruptcy of organizations. In turn, the methodological basis for identifying signs of deliberate bankruptcy of organizations, predicting the probability of bankruptcy and deliberate bankruptcy of organizations depend on the understanding of the nature of bankruptcy and deliberate bankruptcy of organizations. The concepts of bankruptcy and deliberate bankruptcy of organizations are enshrined in a number of legislative documents. In the economic aspect, the concept of bankruptcy of the organization in the Russian scientific and periodic literature is widely covered. The majority of researchers in their works consider the concepts of deliberate bankruptcy of the organization from the position of the legal aspect. The economic aspect of the concept of deliberate bankruptcy of the organization is mentioned in a few papers, which indicates underdevelopment of scientific research of the economic aspect of the phenomenon of intentional bankruptcies of organizations. The article puts forward and proves the hypothesis that on the basis of semantic analysis and definitions of the semantic core of the concepts “bankruptcy of the organization” and “deliberate bankruptcy of organizations”, it is possible to formulate the key characteristics of bankruptcy, deliberate bankruptcy of organizations, revealing the essence of these phenomena. According to the results of the semantic analysis and semantic core definition of the concept of “deliberate bankruptcy of the organization” the article suggests a definition of the concept of deliberate bankruptcy of the organization from the position of the subjects of demand for information in the market.

The Conservative Modernisation in East Asia: Achievements and Limits
Krasilshchikov Victor
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.2-231-263

The paper deals with social-cultural aspects of catching up modernisation in the newly industrialising countries (NICs) of East and South-East Asia in the 1960s-90s. The author treats this modernisation as a kind of conservative modernisation because it combined the local traditions and several elements of modernity, the “family-centred” attitudes of the East with the “self-centred” individualism of the West. In this connection, the author considers the role of Confucianism in East Asian modernisation and discusses the problem of compatibility of the Confucian doctrine with “the spirit of capitalism”. As it is known, Max Weber wrote about their incompatibility with each other but the practice of the last third of the XX Century disapproved the conception of Weber. This apparent paradox has been explained by the profound changes in capitalism since the times when Weber elaborated his conception. When the countries under scrutiny approached to their modernisation, they borrowed and implemented the model of managerial capitalism with the developmental state and economic bureaucracy. The state and its officialdom played the leading role in development of these countries, being much more important for modernisation than “the spirit of capitalism” with private initiatives. Meanwhile, the developmental state’s activity corresponded to some principles of the Confucian doctrine, so Confucianism that glorified the harmony and strong order appeared as well compatible with fast modernisation, particularly in Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. However, the Confucian heritage and the relics of communalism became the obstacles to transition towards a knowledge-based economy. A focus on learning instead of studying in education according to the old Confucian traditions restrains the students’ creativity and oppresses an endeavour to express individuality. Thus, the practice of conservative modernisation, which was very effective at the stage of imitative, catching up industrial development, succeeds in a blind alley because does not enable to begin implementing a knowledge-based, innovative model of development that presupposes a free creative activity of individuals. At the same time, liberalisation of economy, particularly after the Asian financial-economic crisis of 1997-1998, leads to deepening social differentiation and erodes the base of the previous developmental state. In the changing conditions, a set of the so-called “Asian values” has been used not for further modernisation but for justifying the conservative, authoritarian tendencies in politics and ideology. The main conclusion the author makes from his consideration concerns the debates about the global shift of the world economy’s core to the East (including China): in the nearest decades neither China nor East Asia as a whole will become the world economic hegemon. The West with the US domination will remain the global scientific-technological and, therefore, economic leader in the world.

Poverty in Russia and in the World
Klistorin Vladimir
DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2019-11.3.2-264-280

The paper considers a concept of poverty in socio-economic, historical and institutional aspects, individual and social causes of poverty, and key factors determining the level of poverty. The author shows that poverty is a social problem, and its level is an indicator of the quality of institutions and government policy. Poverty assessment is not only an economic and statistical problem, but also a political one. Specifically, the methodology for determining the poverty level based on the assessment of the minimum subsistence level has considerable potential for manipulation. Based on the research of a few authors, it is shown that the most important factor of property stratification is inflation, and the hypothesis that the current income differentiation observed in Russia is largely due to inflation and extremely low rates of economic growth in the post-Soviet period. The author discusses the specifics of poverty in Russia and concludes that it is poorly dependent on the level of education and skills of workers and – to a greater extent than in other countries - on their place of work, economic sector, region, size of settlements, etc. It is shown that the government policy on incomes of certain categories of the population could result in an increase in inequality both regionally and between different social groups. The methods and tools of the government policy for overcoming poverty briefly considered in the paper are limited, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, they could have possible negative consequences of income equalization policy. At the same time, the author agrees with the opinion that more equal distribution of income makes society not only fairer, but also more efficient due to higher regional, social and professional mobility and greater efficiency of market institutions. In conclusion, the author discusses the strategy how to modernize the Russian economy and achieve the national goal on reducing poverty by half.